Alexander Fleming is alongside the likes of Edward Jenner, Robert Koch, Christian Barnard and Louis Pasteur in medical history. Alexander Fleming discovered what was to be one of the most powerful of all antibiotics - penicillin. This drug was to change the way disease was treated and cement Fleming's name in medical history.
János Kádár was a hard-line Hungarian communist leader who supported Soviet intervention in Hungary in the 1956 Hungarian Uprising. Kádár was everything that Imre Nagy was not and the end result of the Uprising was that Nagy was imprisoned and eventually executed while János Kádár was, with the full support of Moscow, made the head of government in Hungary.
U-boats were German submarines that caused havoc in World War Two during the Battle of the Atlantic. U-boats were so damaging that Winston Churchill commented that it was the only time in World War Two that he thought Britain would have to contemplate surrendering. The Treaty of Versailles had forbidden Germany from having any submarines.
The structure of the United Nations is based around its charter. The United Nations Charter consists of 111 articles. These articles explain how the United Nations works. The charter established six parts of the United Nations: General Assembly Security Council Economic and Social Council Trusteeship Council International Court of Justice Secretariat The General Assembly has the brief to discuss and decide on issues of international peace and security.
George Blake was a spy for the Soviet Union during the 1950's. Blake was caught when a Polish spy who had defected to the West blew his cover to the CIA. There was great anger over what Blake had done and he received a prison sentence of 42 years, the longest ever handed out at the time except for a prisoner actually sentenced to a full life term.
The Cuban Missile Crisis was one of the few times that the 'rules' of the Cold War were nearly forgotten. Berlin, Korea, Hungary and Suez - the 'rules' had been followed. But in Cuba this broke down and the Cuban Missile Crisis was the only time when 'hot war' could have broken out. In the 1950's Cuba was lead by a right-wing dictator called Fulgencio Batista.
The building of the Berlin Wall, and all the Berlin Wall symbolised, seemed to sum up what the Cold War represented to many - basically, a clash between good and evil. The Berlin Wall was to attract the attention of a young American president - J F Kennedy - who was to visit the Wall and who was to find his place in History with the part he played in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Balfour Declaration was made in November 1917. The Balfour Declaration led the Jewish community in Britain and America into believing that Great Britain would support the creation of a Jewish state in the Middle East. On November 2nd 1917, Arthur James Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary of the time, wrote to Lord Rothschild.
Sir Henry McMahon wrote to Sharif Hussein on October 24th 1915. It was this letter that convinced Palestinians that Britain would support their right to their own homeland (Palestine) once the Ottoman Empire had been defeated. Hence why the Arabs gave their military support to the British in the Middle East during World War One.
The Six-Day War took place in June 1967. The Six-Day War was fought between June 5th and June 10th. The Israelis defended the war as a preventative military effort to counter what the Israelis saw as an impending attack by Arab nations that surrounded Israel. The Six-Day War was initiated by General Moshe Dayan, the Israeli's Defence Minister.
From 1945 to the 1970's, the United Nations looked to be a strong successor to the failed League of Nations. Success of sorts in Korea and the Congo had boosted its international image. However, many of the problems from the Cold War it could not stem. The effective occupation of Eastern Europe by Russia made a mockery of the promises made at Yalta and other war meetings.
Moshe Dayan became one of Israel's most famous men. Moshe Dayan found fame as a military leader associated with victories that were seemingly impossible within the Middle East conflicts. Dayan developed the aura of a military 'superman'. Dayan was born in 1915. Unlike people like David Ben-Gurion, who was born in Poland, and Golda Meir, who was born in Russia, Dayan was actually born in the region.
Menachem Begin was born in 1913 and died in 1992. Though seen as a hard-liner, Menachem Begin, along with Egypt's Anwar Sadat, started a peace initiative between Israel and Egypt that could have transformed the Middle East. It led to the talks at Camp David, America, in 1978 for which both men received world-wide praise.
Sun Yat-sen, along with Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek, was one of the most important figures in China from 1900 to 1976. Sun Yat-sen in 1912 Sun Yat-sen was born in 1867 and died in 1925. Sun was a nationalist revolutionary who believed that the only way for China to move forward in the early 1900's was for the country to become a republic and adopt western ways in industry, agriculture etc.
The Yom Kippur War of 1973, the most recent 'full' war in Middle East history, is so-called because it began on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), the holiest day of prayer and fasting in the Jewish calendar. The Yom Kippur War is also known as the October War. At the time of Yom Kippur, Israel was led by Golda Meir and Egypt by Anwar Sadat.
April 2 nd : Argentinean forces invade the Falkland Islands. April 3 rd : Argentinean forces occupy South Georgia. April 4 th : 'HMS Conqueror' sailed from Faslane. April 5 th : 'HMS Invincible' and 'HMS Hermes' sailed from Portsmouth. April 9 th : 'Canberra' sailed from Southampton with 3 Para, 40, 42 and 45 Royal Marine Commandos on board.
Rocket development in Great Britain before 1939 was actually far greater than might have been expected given the conservatism that could be found in all sections of the military. The Americans sent over teams to learn about British rocket technology, such was its reputation. By late-1940, a 3-inch rocket was brought into service.
Headway in rocket development came in Japan. Fearing American bombers after the attack on Pearl Harbour in December 1941, Japanese scientists at the Naval Technical Research Unit produced solid-fuel rockets that could be used as surface-to-air missiles. Their size varied from 10lb to 55lb and they were called 'Funryu'.
Jinnah, along with Ghandi and Nehru, played a fundamental role in India's history in the Twentieth Century. Jinnah was born in 1876 and died in 1948. Jinnah is considered to be the founding father of Pakistan. His followers called him Quaid -e-Azam which translates as Great Leader. Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress but resented the fact that it was dominated by Hindus.
HMS Ardent, a Type 21 frigate, was lost in San Carlos Bay on May 22 nd , 1982. HMS Ardent was part of the Task Force trying to remove the Argentine forces from the Falkland Islands and she was in San Carlos Bay to protect the men from the Royal Marines and the Parachute Regiment who had already landed there.
The Cultural Revolution had a massive impact on China from 1965 to 1968. The Cultural Revolution is the name given to Mao's attempt to reassert his beliefs in China. Mao had been less than a dynamic leader from the late 1950's on, and feared others in the party might be taking on a leading role that weakened his power within the party and the country.