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Japanese Beads from the Kofun Period

Japanese Beads from the Kofun Period


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Kanai Higashiura


Kofun period man dressed in armor, in situ Lying face down, head resting on the top of his helmet. The shocking condition is clearly revealed of a man dressed in armor as he collapsed when struck by a pyroclastic flow.

Helmet under the Kofun period man’s head This visorless keeled helmet (shōkakutsuki kabuto) is made of five belt-shaped strips of iron fastened with iron rivets. Flaps to protect the cheeks and neck also survived nearly as they were at the time.


A second armor cuirass (top) set of deer antler armor plates (bottom) These were found 1 m west from the man dressed in armor. The lamellae (plates) of this cuirass were much fewer in number than the one worn by the man, and were laced with leather thong rather than braided cord. Found within the cuirass were 50 lamellae made of deer antler, thought to have been a chest protector. This is the first such discovery in Japan.

Kofun period man’s helmet and cuirass (reconstruction sketch) The cuirass was made by lacing 1,800 lamellae together with braided cord.

Deposits of pyroclastic material and pumice There were two large-scale eruptions at Mt. Haruna approximately 1,500 years ago. The initial eruption brought enormous damage to the Kanai Higashiura site. Adapted from Hakkutsu sareta Nihon rettō 2018 [Excavations in the Japanese Archipelago, 2018] (Bunkachō [Agency for Cultural Affairs], ed., Kyodo News, 2018).

Extent of pyroclastic material deposits (north at top) Flow is seen to have been towards the east–northeast. Adapted from Hakkutsu sareta Nihon rettō 2018 [Excavations in the Japanese Archipelago, 2018] (Bunkachō [Agency for Cultural Affairs], ed., Kyodo News, 2018).

Distant view of the site (from the northeast) The Kanai Higashiura site lies about 8.5 km northeast from the Futatsudake peak of Mt. Haruna which erupted. It is a strategic area for transport, with access to the Shinano region going upstream on the Agatsuma river. Adapted from Hakkutsu sareta Nihon rettō 2018 [Excavations in the Japanese Archipelago, 2018] (Bunkachō [Agency for Cultural Affairs], ed., Kyodo News, 2018).

Closing in on images of Kofun period people
The actual facial features were reconstructed based on morphological characteristics of the skulls. The man dressed in armor had a countenance with a high and narrow forehead, high orbital ridges, and a narrow nose, characteristics held by Kofun period people of the Kinki and northern Kyushu regions (the so-called immigrant features from the southern Korean peninsula). The woman with the necklace had a level chin and broad nose, and generally solid features, characteristics shared among Kofun age people of the Kantō and Tōhoku regions of indigenous derivation.
In addition, from the traces of muscular development remaining on the arm and leg bones, it is surmised that the man engaged in the activities of horse riding and archery on a regular basis. A high possibility of the woman’s having experienced childbirth was also seen from an analysis of her pelvis.

Adult female skull
Reconstructed face of the woman

Adult male skull
Reconstructed face of the man

(Photos of the facial reconstructions and Kofun period man’s articles: Courtesy of Gunma Prefectural Museum of History)

Adapted from Hakkutsu sareta Nihon rettō 2018 [Excavations in the Japanese Archipelago, 2018] (Bunkachō [Agency for Cultural Affairs], ed., Kyodo News, 2018).

① Ceremonial feature Pots, jars, dishes, etc., were placed within a circular enclosure. In addition to 900 pieces of pottery, ritual paraphernalia such as mortar-shaped and other beads, imitative stone articles, and iron implements were found in great numbers. At some points as many as 20 layers of dishes were stacked up.

Adapted from Hakkutsu sareta Nihon rettō 2018 [Excavations in the Japanese Archipelago, 2018] (Bunkachō [Agency for Cultural Affairs], ed., Kyodo News, 2018).

② Man dressed in armor A man in his forties, 164 cm tall, face down with elbows bent and on both knees.

③ Woman wearing a necklace Centering on a jasper bead, 12 cylindrical beads and approximately 70 small glass beads were recovered from the necklace, plus 21 mortar-shaped beads from the vicinity of the waist.

④ Small child Found collapsed, face down and with the head toward the southeast.

⑤ Infant (no photo) A cranium was discerned that was judged to have been several months old.


What’s up with Susano’o?

Some have speculated that Susano’o’s obnoxious behavior is a memory of ancient rite whereby people summoned kami by howling and weeping. This might be true, but I think it’s easier to just say gods are self-absorbed and you have to really work at getting their attention. In the Rock Cave Myth, the other kami campout and basically through a party with a stripper just to get Amaterasu’s attention. If you’ve ever visited a Shintō shrine, you’ve probably walked up to the main hall, bowed, and then clapped twice to call the kami over to you. Shrine festivals usually included temporarily enshrining the kami in 御神輿 o-mikoshi a portable shrine which is picked up and carried around town while being shaken nonstop to the sound of chanting parishioners – just to make sure the kami stays present for the whole day.

A lot has been written about Susano’o. In the ancient records, he is depicted as hero god who slays a mythical snake and saves a sexy damsel in distress, but in the Kojiki, he is depicted as a whiny and obnoxious man-baby who throws a bizarre temper tantrum including animal torture and throwing shit all over his sister’s house. In my retelling of the myth, I call him the kami of winds and seas – a common attribution. The great 20 th century historian Tsuda Sōkichi thought that Susano’o could be interpreted as a purely political actor in these myths and that he represented a faction of the Yamato Court that rebelled or went rogue, which is why he is portrayed as selfish and destructive[iii].

However, there are scholars who think that the angry 須佐之男命 Susano’o in the Kojiki and the heroic 素戔嗚尊等 Susano’o in the Nihon Shoki are two completely different deities who were assumed by the ancients to be the same (remember, orthography[iv] wasn’t standardized at the time, at least not as it is today). Some have even made the case that Susano’o isn’t a native Japanese kami, but a god imported from the Korean peninsula original worshiped by immigrants from the Kingdom of Silla. There’s no consensus as to Susano’o’s origins, and I’ve based my retelling only of the version in the Kojiki, so I’m not going to get into his character too deeply. Regardless of where he came from, scholar Emilia Gadeleva has suggested that Amaterasu and Susano’o came to form “a pair consisting of a sun-deity and a water-deity” whose worship was critical to the cultivation of rice.

For the purposes of my retelling of this myth, we only see Susano’o briefly. He’s a major player, and one day, I’ll get to him, I’m sure. In the Kojiki, his life unfolds in four parts: 1) as a petulant child who cries incessantly which brings disorder to the world 2) as a teenager or young man who is rebellious and terrifying (especially to Amaterasu) 3) a mature man who slays a serpent, gets married, and builds a home 4) as a father, he is the Lord of the Underworld[v] and protective father who harasses his daughter’s suitor[vi]. Today we only see stages one and two, which, let’s be honest, don’t paint him in a very good light.

I’d like to say one more thing about Susano’o before we move on. After bringing devastation to the world by his “weeping and howling,” he tells Izanagi that he wants to go to the Land of his Deceased Mother[vii]. This is strange since his mother died before his birth (which kinda makes her not his mother, technically, right?), but Gadeleva insists that “the land” is his destination, not his mother. And that land is the underworld, which will become his realm later in his life. If this is true, then including Susano’o’s troubled early years is a kind of foreshadowing of his ultimate destiny. But yeah, for the time being he’s just an annoying brat.

Lastly, in support of the theory that Amaterasu and Susano’o were worshipped as a pair of agricultural deities (sun and rain), there is a hint in their actions that is not so obvious upon your first reading. Both Amaterasu and Susano’o accidentally cause great disasters to the Central Land of Reeds. The brother’s incessant crying (storms and rains) made the trees wither and the rivers run dry[viii]. The sister’s retreat into the Heavenly Rock Cave plunged the world in darkness and brought the evil kami out of the shadows. If you don’t believe me that there are parallels between these two deities (I was skeptical myself at first, too), just check this out:


Sending the dead to a burial mound (Shinsaku Sugiyama)

1. Rituals from death through to burial

The Kofun period (4th through 6th centuries) in Japan is a period noted for its singular devotion to mourning the dead. Today, there remain burial mounds ("kofun" from which the period gets its name) as seen in the large keyhole-shaped tombs on top of large mounds.

It appears that burial in these mounds did not occur several days after death, as is the current practice with regard to burial. There is an account in the Nihon Shoki of an emperor not being buried in a burial mound until several years after his death. The rituals that took place in the intervening period were called "mogari". Atsumu Wada has suggested that this length of time was not the result of requiring several years before a burial mound could be completed, but that rather it arose because it took this long to decide who would hold the funeral rites, which is to say, who would be the emperor's successor (Note 1).

More importantly, however, we need to understand that the Japanese of the Kofun period held a number of rituals between death and burial that were based on a solicitous attitude toward funerals. Even today, there are cases in which someone who has been declared dead by a doctor has come back to life. It's quite possible, therefore, that in the ancient period there were many instances in which someone who appeared dead came back to life. When it was believed that a person had died, the people of this period held a ritual called "tama-furi" ("tama-yobi") in which they prayed for the revival of the deceased. Following this, when it became clear that this prayer would not be answered, they moved on to the "tama-shizume" ritual in which they prayed for the repose of the dead.

Relics excavated from the Ishigami No.2 burial mound in Chiba Prefecture attest to the existence of such rituals during the Kofun period. They include a stone pillow made from talc, which was an imitation of a pillow made of wood or other organic matter, "rikka" - pairs of "magatama" beads tied together and attached on a rod, and stone knives that were replicas of knives in their sheaths. The Ishigami No.2 burial mound is a round burial mound with a diameter of approximately 30 meters, and at the apex remains were found of a wooden coffin measuring around six meters in length. In two places inside the coffin there were two stone pillows, and a total of 18 "rikka", stone knives and other items. Assuming that the head was laid on the stone pillow, two skeletons would have been buried lying in the center of the coffin with their legs together and their respective heads facing in opposite directions.

Yutaka Numazawa, who conducted a survey of these remains, observed that there were marks made from mouse bites on one of the two sets of "rikka" made up of nine items and one set of stone knives (Note 2). However, just under half of each of the two sets of "rikka" scattered around each of the two stone pillows in the center of the wooden coffin were mixed with one another. The bite marks tell us that the same combinations of "rikka" were not used before they were buried with the deceased. Mice have the habit of chewing on hard objects to grind down their teeth to prevent their teeth from becoming too long, which stops them from being able to eat. If the two sets of "rikka" as they were found in the coffin had been used simultaneously in the same combinations before they were buried, it would have been unnatural to find those that had been bitten by mice and those that had not. What is more, the presence or absence of bite marks depended on whether the "rikka" are of a certain shape or not. The following is a rational explanation for the reason behind the occurrence of such a phenomenon.

Photo 1: Stone pillow made of talc (northern end) excavated from the No.2 Ishigami burial mound and "rikka" with bite marks made by mice (When in use, the "rikka" stood in holes around the rim of the stone pillow) Photo 2: Stone pillow made of talc (southern end) excavated from the No.2 Ishigami burial mound and "rikka" without bite marks made by mice (When in use, the "rikka" stood in holes around the rim of the stone pillow)

A wooden coffin measuring approximately six meters in length was prepared for the burial of two people. However, they did not die at the same time as each other. When the first to die was believed to have died, the "tama-furi" ritual was held in which "rikka" were placed on the stone pillow to pray for the revival of the deceased (Photo 1). When it was confirmed that the person had died, the "rikka" were removed. Next, the mourners moved on to the "tama-shizume" ritual in which stone knives were used to pray for the repose of the dead, and when that was over the stone knives were also removed. Following the completion of these rituals for the first to die the second of the two died, and the same rituals were held using a different stone pillow and different "rikka" and knives (Photo 2).

Photo 3: "Rikka" with bite marks made by mice (two on right) and "rikka" without bite marks (two on left) excavated from the Ishigami No.2 burial mound (Arrows indicate location of bite marks) Photo 4: Stone knives excavated from the Ishigami No.2 burial mound (northern side) (Some feature bite marks made by mice, while others do not)

Because the "rikka" and stone knives that were used for the rituals for the first to die were probably taken away and stored in a separate place, they were not bitten by mice. Rituals were held twice before burial took place, once with a set of items that did not have bite marks and once with another set. However, because the stone pillows lay under the heads the entire time, they were both bitten by mice.

Lastly, when the time arrived to bury both people, the "rikka" and stone knives that had been put away were brought out again and were casually divided more or less evenly in two and placed around the two stone pillows inside the wooden coffin. Consequently, it was coincidental that two sets of "rikka" (Photo 3) and two sets of stone knives (Photo 4), with some items in each set with bite marks and some without, were discovered.

2.Decoration of space where the dead repose

By the 6th century, it had become the general custom for the area inside a burial mound where the dead were buried to be a stone chamber deep inside the mound accessed by way of a corridor leading from the mound entrance. This type of stone chamber is known in Japanese as a "yokoana-shiki sekishitsu". There are examples in Kyushu where carvings and colors have been used inside a stone chamber to decorate the space where the dead repose.

Inside a "yokoana-shiki" stone chamber of this type inside the No.1 Sengonko burial mound in Kumamoto Prefecture, stone slabs surround the area where the human remains were laid. Carved into these slabs and colored red are concentric circles and triangles and quivers (long narrow cases for holding arrows). (Photo 5) Such decorations show an intention to protect the dead.

Another "yokoana-shiki" stone chamber in the Ozuka burial mound in Fukuoka Prefecture features a picture with a similar pattern. In the upper part of the chamber there are inlaid circles colored yellow to represent stars, thought to portray the world in which the dead live. It could be said that it is the oldest representation in Japan of a constellation made from a mass of circles on a ceiling. On the walls to the right and left of the entrance there are drawings of a total of five horses ridden by people colored red and black (Photo 6). Although there is one theory that these horses are the vehicles that take the spirits of the dead to the next world, it is more natural to view these horses as having been animals adored by the people buried here while they were alive.

However, in the case of the drawing of the sun, moon and birds resting on a boat (Photo 7) on the back wall of a "yokoana-shiki" stone chamber in the Mezurashizuka burial mound in Fukuoka Prefecture, the predominant view is that it represents a scene of transporting spirits from this world to the next.

Photo 5: Full-size replica of the "yokoana-shiki" stone chamber inside No.1 Sengonko burial mound Photo 6: Full-size replica of the "yokoana-shiki" stone chamber inside the Ozuka burial mound.
Photo 7: Life-size model of the back wall of the "yokoana-shiki" stone chamber at the Mezurashizuka burial mound

3.Farewelling the dead

When the dead were buried, mourners performed a ritual in which they paid a final farewell to the dead.

In Kanto during the 6th century, it was customary for members of the funeral procession heading toward the place of burial to arrange rows of haniwa (clay figurines) at the foot of the burial mound to commemorate the life of the deceased. Especially distinctive among the human haniwa from various parts of Kanto illustrating different regional characteristics are coarsely produced male and female figures seen primarily in the northern part of Chiba Prefecture (Photo 8).

If the two double circles carved into the chest on the male haniwa (left, Photo 8) were representations of breasts, the puzzle remains of a woman having been dressed in male clothing.

Photo 8: Male haniwa (left site of excavation unknown) and female haniwa (right purported to have been excavated in Nagareyama City) Photo 9: Raised platter mounted with bowls excavated from the Ogetayama burial mound

Offerings of food were also made to the dead. There is the example of Sue ware (Photo 9) excavated from the Ogetayama burial mound in Ehime Prefecture, which is a unique item formed from seven bowls with lids on top of a raised platter. According to Yukio Kobayashi, this is not something that would have been used everyday, but rather it was made especially for a ritual in which food would have been placed in the bowls (Note 3).

In the Setouchi region, jars and raised bowls with small, haniwa-like human and animal figures attached to the outer surfaces were placed in front of the stone chamber. This illustrates the regional nature of a new ritual held by people from another land. Sharing a final meal with the dead began much earlier before this, and is a custom that continues today.

Note 1: Atsumu Wada, Basic Study of Mogari, "Anthology - Terminal Period Kofun", 1973, Hanawa Shobo
Note 2: Yutaka Numazawa, Issues Concerning the No.2 Ishigami Burial Mound, "Higashi-terayama Ishigami Iseki", 1977, Chiba Prefecture Cultural Center
Note 3: Yukio Kobayashi, Yomotsu hegui, "Studies of Kofun Culture",1976, Heibonsha


Japanese Beads from the Kofun Period - History

The aim of the following post is to briefly discuss another global distribution from Late Antiquity, this time of Indo-Pacific beads. Indo-Pacific beads were made in southern India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia from the third century BC onwards, and by c. 400 to 700 AD they have an impressive distribution stretching from northern and eastern Africa across to China, Korea and Japan, with recent research demonstrating that they were exported to Europe at this time too.

Distribution of Indo-Pacific beads and Jatim beads during Late Antiquity, c.AD 400 to c.700, showing both findspots (dots) and production sites (stars) thought to be active during finds of the fifth to seventh centuries Indo-Pacific beads are shown in orange and Jatim beads in red, with the latter included here for interest due to the fact that an example has been recovered from the Byzantine Red Sea port of Berenike alongside a sizeable quantity of Indo-Pacific. For a larger version of this map, click here. Note, the map is based on the sources listed in fn. 1 and is not exhaustive rather, it is intended to offer an impression of the wide distribution of these beads across Eurasia and Africa in this era based on published discussions. Likewise, findspots of Jatim beads are very general for some territories and are only be plotted at a country/region level in these cases. Image: C. R. Green.

Previous posts on this site have discussed fifth- to seventh-century AD global distributions of Early Byzantine and Late Sasanian objects stretching across Eurasia and Africa. The following piece looks at an additional global distribution from Late Antiquity, this time of tiny glass beads produced in southern India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, which are recognizable both morphologically/typologically and by chemical analysis due to their use of Southern Asian high aluminous soda glass. These Indo-Pacific monochrome drawn beads were first produced in the third century BC and continued to be made through until the early twenty-first century in India, but they seem to have reached their widest pre-modern distribution from the late fourth century through to the seventh century.(1) For example, over 150,000 of these beads were discovered during excavations of the Yongningsi Temple site in the Northern Wei capital of Luoyang, China, founded by the Empress Wu in AD 516 and destroyed by lightning in 534.(2) Similarly, thousands of these beads have been recovered from fifth- to seventh-century Silla and Kofun tombs in Korea and Japan, and significant numbers have also been found on a number of sites in Africa—indeed, 51% of the beads discovered from the Late Roman/Early Byzantine Red Sea port of Berenike, Egypt, are Indo-Pacific beads, with finds from this site also including a probably sixth-century Jatim bead made on the Indonesian island of Java, and such beads are also found as far afield as sixth- to seventh-century Zanzibar (Tanzania) and the Late Garamantian kingdom in the Fazzan area of the Libyan Sahara.(3)

In this light, recent work by Constantin Pion and Bernard Gratuze is of particular interest as it extends this Late Antique distribution of Indo-Pacific beads even further, into the far west of Eurasia. They have demonstrated that thousands of these tiny beads were imported into continental Europe during the fifth and sixth centuries, being found on 44 sites stretching from Spain across to Serbia, with one cemetery in France (Saint-Laurent-des-Hommes, Dordogne) containing as many as 3,037 of these Indo-Pacific beads.(4) Pion and Gratuze date the graves containing these beads primarily to the period from the mid-fifth to later sixth centuries and note that these are the smallest of the glass beads that appear in early medieval European cemeteries, being predominantly c. 2.5mm or smaller in diameter and green in colour. In 75% of the graves where the deposition context is clear, these tiny imported beads were used within necklaces, whilst in 25% of graves they were used to decorate the embroidery of textiles, notably headresses of silk, and it is possible that they arrived in Europe already attached to such textiles as well as on their own (the latter witnessed by the discovery of uniform strings of these beads at the Byzantine Red Sea port of Berenike). Even more interestingly, these Indo-Pacific beads are found in graves of 'varying degrees of richness' and 'do not appear to be the prerogative of a privileged few', which is a conclusion of considerable interest when considering the wider significance of these very long-distance imports to early medieval Europe.(5)

Indo-Pacific beads discovered in the Roman/Early Byzantine cemetery at Qau, Egypt, similar to those discovered in fifth- to sixth-century Europe, from bead assemblage UC74134 (image: Petrie Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

As to the context of these imports from India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, it should be remembered that they do not stand alone as Red Sea and Indian Ocean products traded through to western Europe in the fifth to seventh centuries AD. Perhaps the most obvious of these other imports were the garnets used in the polychrome gold jewellery of this period that is found widely distributed across Europe, notable examples including the garnet cloisonné items discovered in the late fifth-century burial of Childeric (at Tournai, Belgium) and the probably mid- to late sixth-century shoulder clasps from the early seventh-century Sutton Hoo ship-burial (Suffolk, England) these garnets have been shown via archaeometric data to have had their origins in India and Sri Lanka.(6) Likewise, the cowrie shells that were popular all across early medieval northwestern Europe and Anglo-Saxon England as amulets and elements within necklaces are believed to have their origins either in the Red Sea or the Indian Ocean, whilst recent studies of the large number of ivory rings now known from both sixth- to seventh-century England and the continent confirm that they came from the tusks of African savannah elephants, probably obtained via the Red Sea from the east coast of Africa. Indeed, not only were both imported cowrie shells and ivory rings found in significant quantities right across northwestern Europe and England, but they were also not simply confined to high-status graves during the sixth- and seventh centuries, instead being used more widely as such, they offer an important parallel to and confirmation of the situation outlined above with regard to the use of Indo-Pacific beads in Europe.(7) Finally, it is likely that a number of other gemstones in use in Europe during this period, such as sapphires and perhaps amethysts, were definitely or possibly ultimately obtained from India/Sri Lanka, as were most certainly the spices such as pepper that are recorded in impressive quantities in Europe during this period and after: for example, the mid-seventh-century Merovingian king Chlothar III granted an annual rent of 30 pounds of pepper (grown in India) to the monastery of Corbie in northern France, along with sizeable amounts of other spices including cinnamon (from Sri Lanka) and cloves (from Indonesia).(8)

Lastly, in addition to such Indo-Pacific beads, the map included at the start of this post also shows the distribution of Jatim beads made in East Java, Indonesia, and these deserve a brief concluding comment too. Such beads were produced from the end of the fourth century AD through until perhaps the seventh century, and have a fairly extensive distribution in Southeast Asia and across to Korea and Japan, where—like Indo-Pacific beads—they are found in Silla Kingdom and Kofun period tombs. Although no examples of these beads are (yet) known from sites in Europe, at least some definitely made their way to the fifth-/sixth-century Byzantine Empire, as an example was found at the Byzantine Red Sea port of Berenike, Egypt, in 1999. This is, in itself, fascinating and worthy of note. However, what is particularly interesting about these beads is that they also help illustrate trade in the opposite direction too, as recent compositional analysis indicates that both Early Byzantine and Sasanian Persian glass was used to produce some of these beads in East Java!(9)

The distribution of possible Red Sea and Indian Ocean imports in fifth- to seventh-century Britain click here for a larger version of this map. Finds of garnet are indicated by diamonds, cowries by dots, ivory rings by open squares, and amethysts by stars (image: C. R. Green).

The stunning gold, garnet and millefiori glass shoulder-clasps from the Sutton Hoo ship-burial, using garnets imported from India or Sri Lanka although they were deposited in the early seventh-century, Noël Adams has concluded that they were probably made in the mid- to late sixth century, see N. Adams, 'Rethinking the Sutton Hoo shoulder clasps and armour', in C. Entwistle & N. Adams (eds.), Intelligible Beauty: Recent Research on Byzantine Jewellery (London, 2010), pp. 83� (image: British Museum).

A probable elephant ivory ring from an early Anglo-Saxon bag, found at Ruskington, Lincolnshire such rings from early Anglo-Saxon burials have been to shown to be cut from the base of tusk of an African savannah elephant (image: C. R. Green).

A cowrie shell from the Red Sea or Indian Ocean found in an Anglo-Saxon grave in Lincolnshire (image: PAS).

The fifth- or sixth-century AD Escrick Ring, found in Yorkshire, set with a central cabochon sapphire gem from Sri Lanka (image: Yorkshire Museums Trust, CC BY-SA 4.0).

Notes

1. The distribution map of Indo-Pacific and Jatim beads and production sites in the fifth to seventh centuries AD included here is based on a number of sources including C. Pion & B. Gratuze, 'Indo-Pacific glass beads from the Indian subcontinent in Early Merovingian graves (5th𔃄th century AD)', Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), 51󈞬 A. K. Carter, 'The Production and Exchange of Glass and Stone Beads in Southeast Asia from 500 BCE to the early second millennium CE: an assessment of the work of Peter Francis in light of recent research', Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), 16󈞉 S. A. Abraham, 'Glass beads and glass production in early South India: contextualizing Indo-Pacific bead manufacture', Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), 4󈝻 J. W. Lankton, L. Dussubieux & T. Rehren, 'A Study of Mid-first Millennium CE Southeast Asian Specialized Glass Beadmaking Traditions', in E. Bacus, I. Glover & P. Sharrock (eds.), Interpreting Southeast Asia’s Past: Monument, Image and Text (Singapore, 2008), pp. 335󈞤 K-W. Wang, Cultural and Socio-Economic Interaction Reflected by Glass Beads in Early Iron Age Taiwan (University of Sheffield PhD Thesis, 2016) J. Then-Obluska, 'Cross-cultural bead encounters at the Red Sea port site of Berenike, Egypt: preliminary assessment (seasons 2009�)', Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24 (2015), 735󈞹 M. Wood, 'Glass beads from pre-European contact sub-Saharan Africa: Peter Francis's work revisited and updated', Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), 65󈞼 M. Wood et al, 'Zanzibar and Indian Ocean trade in the first millennium CE: the glass bead evidence', Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 9 (2017), 879� V. Leitch et al, 'Early Saharan trade: the inorganic evidence', in D. J. Mattingly et al (eds.), Trade in the Ancient Sahara and Beyond (Cambridge, 2017), pp. 287� A. K. Carter, S. A. Abraham & G. O. Kelly (eds.), Asia's Maritime Bead Trade, special issue of Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), pp. 1� P. Frances, Asia's Maritime Bead Trade: 300 B.C. to the Present (Honolulu, 2002) A. K. Carter, 'Beads, exchange networks and emerging complexity: a case study from Cambodia and Thailand (500 BCE–CE 500)', Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 25 (2015), 733󈞥A. Jiayao, 'Glass beads found at the Yongningsi Temple', Journal of Glass Studies, 42 (2000), 81𔃂 J. W. Lankton, I-S. Lee & J. D. Allen, 'Javanese (Jatim) beads in late fifth to early sixth-century Korean (Silla) tombs', in Annales du 16e Congrès de l'Association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre (Nottingham, 2005), pp. 327󈞊 T. Power, The Red Sea from Byzantium to the Caliphate: AD 500� (Oxford, 2012), pp. 38, 41, 45 S. Lee & D. P. Leidy, Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom (New York, 2013), pp. 115𔃇 I. Nakai & J. Shirataki, 'Chemical Composition of Glass Beads Excavated from Kofun (ca. AD 2nd to 7th c.) in Western Japan by Portable XRF Showing Glass Trade among Asian Countries', in F. Gan et al (eds.), Recent Advances In The Scientific Research On Ancient Glass And Glaze (Hackensack, 2016), pp. 73󈟊 and K. Oga & T. Tomomi, 'Ancient Japan and the Indian Ocean interaction sphere: chemical compositions, chronologies and trade routes of imported glass beads in the Yayoi-Kofun periods (3rd century BCE – 7th century CE', Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology, 9 (2013), 35󈞭. Unfortunately, no cemeteries in England were examined as part of Pion & Gratuze's research into early medieval European Indo-European beads however, it seems more than credible that these beads were also imported to early Anglo-Saxon England too given both that other exotic imports of the period are indeed found on both sides of the English Channel and that some of the beads recorded from fifth- to sixth-century graves in eastern England appear to be similar to Pion & Gratuze's continental examples. Consequently, one such English site that contains potential Indo-Pacific beads is plotted here to reflect this my thanks are due to Dr Sue Brunning, the curator of the European Early Medieval Collections at the British Museum, and to Dr Rose Broadley, archaeological glass specialist and Kent Historic Environment Record officer, for sharing photographs and thoughts on some of these beads from early Anglo-Saxon Kent.
2. A. Jiayao, 'Glass beads found at the Yongningsi Temple', Journal of Glass Studies, 42 (2000), 81𔃂.
3. For Korea and Japan, see S. Lee & D. P. Leidy, Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom (New York, 2013), pp. 115𔃇 I. Nakai & J. Shirataki, 'Chemical Composition of Glass Beads Excavated from Kofun (ca. AD 2nd to 7th c.) in Western Japan by Portable XRF Showing Glass Trade among Asian Countries', in F. Gan et al (eds.), Recent Advances In The Scientific Research On Ancient Glass And Glaze (Hackensack, 2016), pp. 73󈟊 and K. Oga & T. Tomomi, 'Ancient Japan and the Indian Ocean interaction sphere: chemical compositions, chronologies and trade routes of iimported glass beads in the Yayoi-Kofun periods (3rd century BCE – 7th century CE', Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology, 9 (2013), 35󈞭. On Berenike, Egypt, see for example T. Power, The Red Sea from Byzantium to the Caliphate: AD 500� (Oxford, 2012), pp. 38, 41, 45 J. Then-Obluska, 'Cross-cultural bead encounters at the Red Sea port site of Berenike, Egypt: preliminary assessment (seasons 2009�)', Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24 (2015), 735󈞹 J. W. Lankton, I-S. Lee & J. D. Allen, 'Javanese (Jatim) beads in late fifth to early sixth-century Korean (Silla) tombs', in Annales du 16e Congrès de l'Association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre (Nottingham, 2005), pp. 327󈞊. On Indo-Pacific beads from the earliest layers at the Unguja Ukuu site, Zanzibar Island, Tanzania, see for example M. Wood, 'Glass beads from pre-European contact sub-Saharan Africa: Peter Francis's work revisited and updated', Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), 65󈞼 M. Wood et al, 'Zanzibar and Indian Ocean trade in the first millennium CE: the glass bead evidence', Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 9 (2017), 879�, and M. Wood, 'Glass beads from pre-European contact sub-Saharan Africa: Peter Francis's work revisited and updated', Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), 65󈞼. For the Garamantian kingdom, see V. Leitch et al, 'Early Saharan trade: the inorganic evidence', in D. J. Mattingly et al (eds.), Trade in the Ancient Sahara and Beyond (Cambridge, 2017), pp. 287�.
4. C. Pion & B. Gratuze, 'Indo-Pacific glass beads from the Indian subcontinent in Early Merovingian graves (5th𔃄th century AD)', Archaeological Research in Asia, 6 (2016), 51󈞬.
5. Pion & Gratuze, 'Indo-Pacific glass beads from the Indian subcontinent in Early Merovingian graves', p. 59.
6. For the origins of the garnets in use in Europe from the fifth to seventh centuries AD, see T. Calligaro et al, 'Contribution à l'étude des grenats mérovingiens (Basilique de Saint-Denis et autres collections du musée d'Archéologie nationale, diverses collections publiques et objets de fouilles récentes): nouvelles analyses gemmologiques et géochimiques effectuées au Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France', Antiquités Nationales, 38 (2006󈝳), 111󈞘 for a distribution map and discussion of garnet finds from Britain, see H. Hamerow, 'The circulation of garnets in the North Sea Zone, AD 400�', in A. Hilgner, S. Greiff & D. Quast (eds.), Gemstones in the First Millennium AD (Mainz, 2017), pp. 71󈟂 for the date of the Sutton Hoo shoulder clasps, see N. Adams, 'Rethinking the Sutton Hoo shoulder clasps and armour', in C. Entwistle & N. Adams (eds.), Intelligible Beauty: Recent Research on Byzantine Jewellery (London, 2010), pp. 83�.
7. For the continent, see J. Drauschke, '"Byzantine" and "oriental" imports in the Merovingian Empire from the second half of the fifth to the beginning of the eighth century', in A. Harris (ed.), Incipient Globalisation? Long-Distance Contacts in the Sixth Century (Oxford, 2007), pp. 53󈞵, especially pp. 67 and 72 C. Hills, 'From Isiodore to isotopes: ivory rings in early medieval graves', in H. Hamerow & A. MacGregor (eds.), Image and Power in the Archaeology of Early Medieval Britain (Oxford, 2001), pp. 131󈞚 and J. Drauschke, 'Byzantine Jewellery? Amethyst beads in East and West during the early Byzantine period', in C. Entwistle & N. Adams (eds.), 'Intelligible Beauty': Recent Research on Byzantine Jewellery (London, 2010), pp. 50󈞨. For Britain, see J. W. Huggett, 'Imported grave goods and the early Anglo-Saxon economy', Medieval Archaeology, 32 (1988), pp. 63󈟌 H. Geake, The Use of Grave-Goods in Conversion-Period England, c.600–c.850 (Oxford, 1997) and C. Hills, 'From Isiodore to isotopes: ivory rings in early medieval graves', in H. Hamerow & A. MacGregor (eds.), Image and Power in the Archaeology of Early Medieval Britain (Oxford, 2001), pp. 131󈞚. For recent work on the ivory rings confirming that they were indeed made of elephant ivory, not walrus ivory, see Hills, 'From Isiodore to isotopes: ivory rings in early medieval graves', and, for example, G. Edwards & J. Watson, Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 31/91: Mineral Preserved Organic Material from Empingham Anglo-Saxon Cemetery, Rutland (London, 1991), p. 2, which notes that seven ivory rings from Empingham Anglo-Saxon cemetery, Rutland, could be shown to be elephant ivory cut from the base of a tusk.
8. D. W. Rollason, Early Medieval Europe 300-1050: The Birth of Western Society (London, 2012), p. 160 I. Wood, The Merovingian Kingdoms 450� (London, 1994), pp. 215󈝼.
9. J. W. Lankton, L. Dussubieux & T. Rehren, 'A study of mid-first millennium CE Southeast Asian specialized glass beadmaking traditions', in E. Bacus, I. Glover & P. Sharrock (eds.), Interpreting Southeast Asia’s Past: Monument, Image and Text (Singapore, 2008), pp. 335󈞤 J. W. Lankton, I-S. Lee & J. D. Allen, 'Javanese (Jatim) beads in late fifth to early sixth-century Korean (Silla) tombs', in Annales du 16e Congrès de l'Association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre (Nottingham, 2005), pp. 327󈞊 T. Power, The Red Sea from Byzantium to the Caliphate: AD 500� (Oxford, 2012), pp. 39󈞔 J. Then-Obluska, 'Cross-cultural bead encounters at the Red Sea port site of Berenike, Egypt: preliminary assessment (seasons 2009�)', Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24 (2015), 735󈞹 at p. 751.

The content of this post and page, including any original illustrations unless otherwise stated, is Copyright © Caitlin R. Green, 2018, All Rights Reserved, and should not be used without permission.


Ancient Rome, Japan and the Interconnected World

by Gene Howington, Guest Blogger

In the 5th Century CE, the world was a much more isolated place than it is today but it was still interconnected. Most people lived and died within 30 miles of where they were born. Yet even then, the world was an interconnected place where the far reaches could touch one another. Travel was restricted to by foot, horseback or boat. Regular communication depended upon trade routes or carrier pigeons. However, distance and geographical isolation did not prevent distant parts of the world from knowing about each other. The impact of foreign countries within a given country in the ancient world, both near and far, raises some interesting questions about interconnectedness, influence and the impact of telecommunications and air travel on the modern world. For context, let’s consider this recent archaeological find announced by the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.

On Friday, they announced that they found three glass beads in a tomb near Kyoto that can be traced to ancient Roman manufacturing techniques. The tomb itself dates back to the Yamato period of Japanese history, an era marked by inter-provincial warfare when the Imperial capitol was located in Nara. The definition of the Yamato period (named for the clan that became the Imperial dynasty during that time) is somewhat disputed. Conventionally assigned to the period 250–710 (including both the Kofun period (c 150-538) and the Asuka period (538-710)), the actual start of Yamato rule is disputed and the Kofun period is considered an archaeological period while the Asuka period is considered an historical period. This distinction is unpopular with modern Japanese historians, but the period does contain demarcations in Japanese culture. The Kufun period marks a time when Chinese and Korean culture are impacting Japanese culture and the dominate religious influences were the domestic Shinto religion and the Chinese imports Confucianism and Taoism. The Asuka period marks both the rise to Imperial supremacy by the Yamato clan and the introduction of Buddhism to Japanese culture which was to have a long and profound effect. The tomb the beads were found in dates from the late Kofun period which is named for the style of burial mounds commonly used by nobles and dignitaries of the time.

To provide context, at the height of the Roman Empire under Trajan and Hadrian in the 1st and 2nd Century CE, the Empire stretched from modern day England south across the Mediterranean and in to what is now Iraq. The glass making techniques of the beads utilized natron – a natural salt best known for being part of the Egyptian embalming process for creating mummies. Although the process had been used by the Romans since at least the peak of their Empire, the beads found in the Kofun near Kyoto date from a tomb created as the Roman Empire of the late 400’s and early 500’s was in decline and rapidly losing territory. While it may come as a surprise to some, this is not the first evidence of radically distant and disparate contact between East and West that pre-dates Marco Polo‘s famous trade mission of the 13th Century CE.

In 1954, in Helgö on Ekerö Island in Lake Mälaren in Sweden, archaeologists were excavating a Viking ruin dated to the 8th or 9th Century CE when they found a small bronze buddha subsequently dated to the 6th Century CE and of suspected Indian origin. Some suspect the buddha came along for the ride with Vikings travelling the “Amber route”, one of the vast Viking trade networks which utilized rivers to transport amber, silk and others goods to the north through the Russian rivers and stepps although others think it was taken from treasure obtained raiding Ireland although how the Irish would have came to be in possession of such a statue remains a mystery. In 2010, archaeologists and genetics researchers examining a Roman graveyard near Vagnari in Southern Italy found a 2,000 year-old skeleton with mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) that showed a body buried there had East Asian lineage.

If the interconnectedness of the ancient world is to be believed on the evidence (and I think it should), what does that say about the modern world where cultures can influence each other via telecommunications at the push of a button and easy air travel – discounting the hassles of airport security – is readily available? Is “globalization” inevitable as cultures meet, merge, and share ideas or will geographical isolation still shape individual pockets of relatively homogeneous culture? Will geographically closer cultures tend to have dominant influence such as the relationship between ancient Japan and China or modern Mexico and America or will technology make geography increasingly irrelevant? Are we moving toward a universal human culture or not? If so, are we moving toward a universal set of laws or not? Is this a good thing? A bad thing? Something in between?


Ōmaruyama Kofun

Ōmaruyama Kofun is the 4th period, the Kofun century in the form of a keyhole burial mound, located in the city of coffee, Yamanashi Prefecture in the Chubu region in Japan. The site was designated a national historic site of Japan in 2013.

1. Overview. (Обзор)
The site is located on the southeastern edge of the pool of coffee on the ridge of mount 310 meters, which extends on the left Bank of the Isawa river. The area has a high concentration of the Kofun period remains, and is directly above Chōshizuka Kofun - Maruyamazuka Kofun to Kofun Ōmaruyama was discovered in 1920, and was found to have a total length of 105 meters, with a round part with a diameter of 48 meters, aligned along the axis East-West, taking advantage of the natural terrain. The site was excavated in 1970 and again in 1976, during which the burial chamber was opened and found that it is a kind of two-connected structure with a length of 2.2 meters and a width of 0.8 meters. The interior of the sarcophagus was painted red, and contained the remains of adult men and women, along with a large number of grave goods. This includes almost intact set of armor made from iron plates, iron and bladed weapons, agricultural tools, three bronze mirrors, beads and jewelry. Many of the excavated artefacts are now kept in the National Museum in Tokyo.

  • Takeda Shrine Yōgaiyama Castle Yumura Onsen Yamanashi Science Museum Ōmaruyama Kofun The biggest festival in Kōfu is the Shingen - ko Festival 信玄公祭り, Shingen - ko

Kofun Period wand Today Coronavirus Outbreak Breaking News.

Chōshizuka kofun tsuketari Maruyamazuka kofun, Kōfu Maruyamazuka kofun.​JPG 35°35′33″N Ōmaruyama kofun, Kōfu Omaruyama kofun enkei 2.jpg​. Category:History of Yamanashi Prefecture pedia. Katsunuma clan residence ruins Kinsei ruins Kōfu Domain Battle of Kōshū ​Katsunuma. O. Ōmaruyama Kofun. S. Shinpu Castle. T. Tsutsujigasaki Castle. U. Kohu, Japan Geotagged Places of Interest. Ōmaruyama Kofun is a 4th century Kofun period keyhole shaped tumulus located in what is now part of the city of Kōfu, Yamanashi in the Chubu region of Japan. Bougou Visually. Category:Ōmaruyama Kofun. File usage on other s. The following other s use this file: Usage on en. Ōmaruyama Kofun. Usage on.

Yamanashi Visually.

日本語: 大丸山古墳 〔おおまるやまこふん〕。山梨県甲府市にある古墳。 English: Ōmaruyama Kofun in Kofu, Yamanashi prefecture, Japan. OpenStreetMap for pedia article. Period, with continuous settlement through the Jōmon, Yayoi and Kofun periods. Castle Yumura Onsen Yamanashi Science Museum Ōmaruyama Kofun. File:Omaruyama kofun media Commons. Chōshizuka Kofun, Maruyamazuka Kofun. Source: pedia article Source: pedia article. Ōmaruyama Kofun pedia. Category:Ōmaruyama Kofun media Commons.


Relation between Lost ten tribes , Hata clan and Japan

Structurally, however, the poem follows the standard 7-5 pattern of Japanese poetry (with one hypometric line), and in modern times it is generally written that way,
in contexts where line breaks are used. The text of the poem in hiragana (with archaic &#12432 and &#12433 but without voiced consonant marks) is:


Research by Komatsu Hideo has revealed that the last syllable of each line of the Man'y&#333-gana original (&#27490&#21152&#37027&#20037&#22825&#20043&#38920, when put together, reveals a hidden sentence , toka [=toga] nakute shisu (&#21646&#28961&#12367&#12390&#27515&#12377, which means "die without wrong-doing". It is thought that this might be eulogy in praise of K&#363kai, further supporting the notion that the Iroha was written after K&#363kai's death.[1]

&#12392&#12363&#12394&#12367&#12390&#12375&#12377&#65288to ka na ku te shi su) in reds

However there is &#12356&#12385&#12424&#12425&#12420&#12354&#12433&#65288i chi yo ra ya a ye ) in blue
it means wonderful God

&#12356&#12433&#12377(i ye su) means Jesus in Japanese

subject is Jesus "die without wrong-doing".

Margaret Gangte

Japanese Hebrew Roots: An overview

All of these studies got confused because they do not understand the origin of human races, the origin of Abraham, Hebrew migration pattern across the globe. Above all, these studies attempt to connect Mongoloid race like Japanese or the Singlung people of Indo- Burma region with Jews of European race and Edomites of Middle East. The problem comes when the DNA do not match. By the way, does anybody know the DNA of Abraham or Yakub (Jacob) to conduct such DNA studies today?

Today, studies conducted by Hebrew Ysralites themselves confirmed Mongoloid Asians to be a mix of Shemites (origin of Abraham ) and Hamites. Besides, science has recently established the migration of human race from Africa to various parts of the world. This confirms Hebrew migration from Africa region ( now called Middle East) to the east mainly. The eastern route is through the silk route. Today, Hebrews are located in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Indo- Burma region, China, Korea, Thai, Philippines and Japan.

There is no land route to migrate from Middle- East and Africa region to the west. Therefore, it is confirmed that Hebrews did not migrate to Europe. Hebrews migrated to America but that migration occurred in very ancient time during King Daud/ Shlomo's reign. Hebrew settlers in America came to be called Native Americans in modern history after the discovery of America by Columbus. Hebrews were the first settlers of the entire America. They built pyramids and carry the memory of the worship of YHWH. Some of the tribes have ancient song about YHWH. Another group of Hebrews entered America not more than 300 years ago. These are the black slaves carried by ship from African western coast to plantation farms of European colonial rulers. Today, many Black Hebrew Ysraelites in America are waking up and returning to the covenant of YHWH. Europe and America also have Spanish or Arabic speaking Hebrews who migrated from Iraq/ Iran to Portugal/ Spain and to Europe/ America.

It is often argued that Hebrews may have now extinct. Such argument is scientifically and culturally not true unless there is a record of extinction known from some sources like the way we come to know about the extinction of Harappan culture before the advent of Aryans in India. On the contrary, record in the Holy Scripture predicts the migration of Hebrews to all four corners of the world and evidences are getting revealed about the existence of real Hebrews in all corners of the world. The prophecy predicts Hebrew population to be like sands of the seashore but only a third part will return to YHWH.

Margaret Gangte

All of these studies got confused because they do not understand the origin of human races, the origin of Abraham, Hebrew migration pattern across the globe. Above all, these studies attempt to connect Mongoloid race like Japanese or the Singlung people of Indo- Burma region with Jews of European race and Edomites of Middle East. The problem comes when the DNA do not match. By the way, does anybody know the DNA of Abraham or Yakub (Jacob) to conduct such DNA studies today?

Today, studies conducted by Hebrew Ysralites themselves confirmed Mongoloid Asians to be a mix of Shemites (origin of Abraham ) and Hamites. Besides, science has recently established the migration of human race from Africa to various parts of the world. This confirms Hebrew migration from Africa region ( now called Middle East) to the east mainly. The eastern route is through the silk route. Today, Hebrews are located in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Indo- Burma region, China, Korea, Thai, Philippines and Japan.

There is no land route to migrate from Middle- East and Africa region to the west. Therefore, it is confirmed that Hebrews did not migrate to Europe. Hebrews migrated to America but that migration occurred in very ancient time during King Daud/ Shlomo's reign. Hebrew settlers in America came to be called Native Americans in modern history after the discovery of America by Columbus. Hebrews were the first settlers of the entire America. They built pyramids and carry the memory of the worship of YHWH. Some of the tribes have ancient song about YHWH. Another group of Hebrews entered America not more than 300 years ago. These are the black slaves carried by ship from African western coast to plantation farms of European colonial rulers. Today, many Black Hebrew Ysraelites in America are waking up and returning to the covenant of YHWH. Europe and America also have Spanish or Arabic speaking Hebrews who migrated from Iraq/ Iran to Portugal/ Spain and to Europe/ America.

It is often argued that Hebrews may have now extinct. Such argument is scientifically and culturally not true unless there is a record of extinction known from some sources like the way we come to know about the extinction of Harappan culture before the advent of Aryans in India. On the contrary, record in the Holy Scripture predicts the migration of Hebrews to all four corners of the world and evidences are getting revealed about the existence of real Hebrews in all corners of the world. The prophecy predicts Hebrew population to be like sands of the seashore but only a third part will return to YHWH.

BenSt

All of these studies got confused because they do not understand the origin of human races, the origin of Abraham, Hebrew migration pattern across the globe. Above all, these studies attempt to connect Mongoloid race like Japanese or the Singlung people of Indo- Burma region with Jews of European race and Edomites of Middle East. The problem comes when the DNA do not match. By the way, does anybody know the DNA of Abraham or Yakub (Jacob) to conduct such DNA studies today?

Today, studies conducted by Hebrew Ysralites themselves confirmed Mongoloid Asians to be a mix of Shemites (origin of Abraham ) and Hamites. Besides, science has recently established the migration of human race from Africa to various parts of the world. This confirms Hebrew migration from Africa region ( now called Middle East) to the east mainly. The eastern route is through the silk route. Today, Hebrews are located in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Indo- Burma region, China, Korea, Thai, Philippines and Japan.

There is no land route to migrate from Middle- East and Africa region to the west. Therefore, it is confirmed that Hebrews did not migrate to Europe. Hebrews migrated to America but that migration occurred in very ancient time during King Daud/ Shlomo's reign. Hebrew settlers in America came to be called Native Americans in modern history after the discovery of America by Columbus. Hebrews were the first settlers of the entire America. They built pyramids and carry the memory of the worship of YHWH. Some of the tribes have ancient song about YHWH. Another group of Hebrews entered America not more than 300 years ago. These are the black slaves carried by ship from African western coast to plantation farms of European colonial rulers. Today, many Black Hebrew Ysraelites in America are waking up and returning to the covenant of YHWH. Europe and America also have Spanish or Arabic speaking Hebrews who migrated from Iraq/ Iran to Portugal/ Spain and to Europe/ America.

It is often argued that Hebrews may have now extinct. Such argument is scientifically and culturally not true unless there is a record of extinction known from some sources like the way we come to know about the extinction of Harappan culture before the advent of Aryans in India. On the contrary, record in the Holy Scripture predicts the migration of Hebrews to all four corners of the world and evidences are getting revealed about the existence of real Hebrews in all corners of the world. The prophecy predicts Hebrew population to be like sands of the seashore but only a third part will return to YHWH.

Margaret Gangte

Hebrews were dark skin people from Shem (second son of Noah). Black race comes from Ham (first son of Noah). White race comes from Japeth(third son of Noah). Racial origin shows that White race claiming to be descendant of a coloured race has no scientific and historical basis.

Regarding lost tribes of Ysraelites, verification with the Hebrew holy scriptures and confirmation about the ancient tradition are the only rational ways to establish the Hebrew origin.

Lost tribes of Ysrael are not lost physically. Ysraelites are lost because they have disconnected their relationship with YHWH. This is the true meaning of lost regarding dispersed Ysraelites who live in four corners of the world.

Once a person knows he/she belongs to a lost tribe of Ysrael, all that the person need to do is read the Hebrew Holy Scriptures and return to the worship of YHWH following the commandments. statutes and ordinances written in the Holy book. Leave the rest of the things to happen as it is ordained to happen.

BenSt

Hebrews were dark skin people from Shem (second son of Noah). Black race comes from Ham (first son of Noah). White race comes from Japeth(third son of Noah). Racial origin shows that White race claiming to be descendant of a coloured race has no scientific and historical basis.

Regarding lost tribes of Ysraelites, verification with the Hebrew holy scriptures and confirmation about the ancient tradition are the only rational ways to establish the Hebrew origin.

Lost tribes of Ysrael are not lost physically. Ysraelites are lost because they have disconnected their relationship with YHWH. This is the true meaning of lost regarding dispersed Ysraelites who live in four corners of the world.

Once a person knows he/she belongs to a lost tribe of Ysrael, all that the person need to do is read the Hebrew Holy Scriptures and return to the worship of YHWH following the commandments. statutes and ordinances written in the Holy book. Leave the rest of the things to happen as it is ordained to happen.

Margaret Gangte

Many of the traditional ceremonies in Japan seem to indicate that the Lost Tribes of Ysrael came to ancient Japan. Here are excerpts of traditions picked up from a study conducted by mosaic.com on Japanese Hebrew origin. I offer my explanation according to my understanding of Hebrew traditions from the Holy Scriptures. Here are some highlights:

1. Festivals and Traditions
In Nagano prefecture, Japan, there is a large Shinto shrine named &#8220Suwa-Taisha&#8221 (Shinto is the national traditional religion peculiar to Japan.) At Suwa-Taisha, the traditional festival called &#8220Ontohsai&#8221 is held on April 15 every year. Japanese used the lunar calendar and it was March-April. Hebrews follow lunar calendar and observed New Moon days for starting the month and starting the year. The date of the Japanese festival in Spring is similar to the date of the Feast of Passover which occurs in Spring. This festival however illustrates the story of Yitzhak( Isaac) and Abraham in chapter 22 of Genesis.

At this festival, animal sacrifices are also offered. 75 deer are sacrificed, but among them it is believed that there is a deer with its ear split. The deer is considered to be the one the creator prepared. Ancient Hebrews made sin offerings with blood of Red Heifer similar to the deer offering in Japan.According to Samaritan priest, 75 rams are offered on Passover feast days.This may have a connection with the 75 deer which were offered at Suwa-Taisha Shrine in Japan.

In a Japanese island of the Inland Sea of Seto, the men selected as the carriers of the &#8220omikoshi&#8221( The Ark) stay together at a house for one week before they would carry the &#8220omikoshi.&#8221 This is to prevent profaning themselves.Furthermore on the day before they carry &#8220omikoshi,&#8221 the men bathe in seawater to sanctify themselves. This is similar to an ancient Ysraelite custom:&#8220So the priests and the Levites sanctified themselves to bring up the ark of the Covenant with Yahweh&#8217&#8217

Waving the Sheaf of Harvest Is also the custom of Japan. Hebrews wave a sheaf of their first fruits of grain seven weeks before Shavuot(Pentecost, Wayikra 23:10-11), They also wave a sheaf of plants at Sukkot (the Feast of Booths, Wayikra 23:40). This has been a tradition since the time of Moshe.

Ancient Ysraelite priests also waved a plant branch when he sanctifies someone. Daud(David) said,&#8220Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean&#8221 [Tehilim 51:7(9)]. This is also traditional Japanese custom.When a Japanese priest sanctifies someone or something, he waves a tree branch. Or he waves a &#8220harainusa,&#8221 which is made of a stick and white papers and looks like a plant. Today&#8217s &#8220harainusa&#8221 is simplified and made of white papers that are folded in a zig-zag pattern like small lightning bolts, but in old days it was a plant branch or cereals. Waving of the sheaf of the harvest during Sukkot is the same as waiving of harainusa by the Japanese priest ! Here lies the home for the Japanese.&#8221

2. Japanese Tora and Hebrew Torah
In Japan, there is the legend of &#8220Tengu&#8221 who lives on mountain and has the figure of a &#8220yamabushi&#8221. He has a pronounced nose and supernatural capabilities. A &#8220ninja&#8221, who was an agent or spy in the old days,while working for his lord, goes to &#8220Tengu&#8221 at the mountain to get from him supernatural abilities. &#8220Tengu&#8221 gives him a &#8220tora-no-maki&#8221 (a scroll of the&#8220torah&#8221 after giving him additional powers. This &#8220scroll of the Tora&#8221 is regarded as a very important book which is helpful for any crisis. Japanese use this word sometimes in their current lives. Japanese Tora is the Hebrew Torah.

Japanese &#8220Omikoshi&#8221 resembles the Ark of the Covenant. Buddhist Temples have idols which are carved in the shape of Buddha and other gods.However in Japanese Shinto shrines, there are no idols.

3. Ancient Japan and Yahweh
According to Teshima, among all the Shinto shrines in Japan,the most numerous are Yahata (or Hachiman) shrines, which used to be called Yahada shrines in old days.The Yahada was the one which Hata clan believed in. Teshima thought as did Saeki that Hata clan were Hebrews, and Yahada was originally a Hebrew word &#8220Yahudah&#8221 (hdwhy) meaningfulness. That is, Yahada is the same as Yahudah ( Judea). The Japanese ancient book of history, Kojiki, clearly says that the one worship by Yahada is a foreign belief.

The Gion festival. of Japan always starts with a voice of&#8220En yalah yah&#8221. Even Japanese person does not know what it means. But to Hebrew speaking persons, this sounds like a Hebrew expression &#8220eni ahalel yah&#8221 meaning &#8220I praise Yahweh.&#8221

Rabbi Tokayer noted that the name &#8220Gion&#8221 reminds him of&#8220Zion&#8221 which is another name for Yerushaliem. In fact, Kyoto used to be called&#8220Heian-kyo,&#8221 which means &#8220city of peace.&#8221 , Yahrushalom (Yerushaliem) in Hebrew also means &#8220city of peace&#8221.&#8220Heian-kyo&#8221 might be Japanese for &#8220 Yerushaliem..

4. Japanese Mythologies and Hebrew History
Japanese mythologies resound the story of ancient Hebrew origin. It is possible to think that the myths of Kojiki and Nihon-shoki, the Japanese chronicles written in the 8th century, were originally based on Torah stories but later added with various pagan elements. Even it might be possible to think that the Japanese mythology was originally a kind of genealogy which showed that the Japanese are descendants of Yakub, Yusuf and Ephraim.

Except for details, the outline of the Japanese mythology greatly resembles the records of the Torah. It is possible to think that the myths of Kojiki and Nihon-shoki, the Japanese chronicles written in the 8th century, were originally based on Hebrew stories but later added with various pagan elements. Even it might be possible to think that the Japanese mythology was originally a kind of genealogy which showed that the Japanese are descendants-of Yakub, Yusuf and Ephraim.

Ten Tribes of Ysrael in Afghanistan, India, Kashmir,Myanmar, and China did not have priestly king as the Japanese emperor. How did Japan begin to have such emperor system of single family line from generation to generation?. A researcher thought that it was due to that the royal line of Ysraelites came to Japan. The last line of King of Ysrael was from Ephraim.

5. Hexagon Symbol of King Solomon Seal in Japanese Shinto (Pagan Symbol)
Ise-jingu in Mie-pref., Japan, is the Shinto shrine built for the Imperial House of Japan. On both sides of the approaches to the shrine,there are street lamps made of stone. On each of the lamps near the top, the mark same as the Jewish Star of David is carved.

The crest used on the inside shrine (Izawa-no-miya) atIse-jingu is also the same design as the Star of David.. This Hexagon star was used in the seal of King Solomon. Ephraim was heavily adopting idolatry and this explains the presence of this hexagon in Japanese Shinto. In Kyoto pref., therein a shrine called &#8220Manai-jinja&#8221 which was the original Ise-jingu shrine. The crest of &#8220Manai-jinja&#8221 is also the same design as the Hexagon Star.

6. Customs and Traditions
Customs and traditions of Japan share commonalities with ancient Hebrew in many areas traced from Talmudic traditions by Mosaic.com.

7. Is the Hata Clan ancient Ysraelites Diaspora?
Some research indicate Hata Clan OR Japanese nation to be Manasseh. As the above study has shown, Japanese are descendants of Ephraim who was the younger son of Yusuf (Hebrew Pharaoh of Egypt) and blessed by Yakub,the grandfather instead of the elder grandson Manasseh. The prophecy predicted Ephraim to be a great nation in the world. But Ephraim is not mentioned in Revelation among the 12 tribes. Some scholars believed the disappearance of Ephraim in the end due to heavy idolatry while some believe Ephraim and Dan to have merged under the banner of Yusuf. Yahweh promised to take back all of Ysrael, but in his scheme, law-breakers will not receive the award as deemed fit. This is revealed to Y&#8217hochanan (John) in Revelation


Kanzashi (簪)

The term "kanzashi" means Japanese traditional accessories used by women in doing up their hair.

Summary
Kanzashi is a hair ornamentation used by Japanese women. Various kinds of kanzashi were produced and especially used during the latter part of the Edo period.

In producing Kanzashi, a variety of materials were used including, without limitation, lacquered woods (boxwood, paulownia, ho, cherry), gold/silver plated metals (brass was generally used in the modern times thanks to its durability), tortoise shell and silk. Plastic (there are many kinds of plastic) is also used these days. Coral, agate, jade and crystal were also used for the ornamental part of Kanzashi. Although rare, Kanzashi were also made from crane bone for good luck. Existing Kanzashi produced during the early days of the Edo period are now scarce valuable collectors items since they are regarded as very precious in terms of both product quality and their materials they're made of. Above all, Kanzashi made from bakelite that were produced in the early days of the Meiji period are highly valued antiques now.

There are a variety of ways to wear Kanzashi. In the case of geisha (Japanese female entertainers at a drinking party), for example, guests who are versed in geisha parties called 'tsu' or 'suijin' can judge the status of the geisha in question from the quality of kanzashi and the way she wears them.

Among women belonging to Karyukai (world of geisha), the way they do their hair up in Japanese style or the position of Kanzashi are pre-determined based on their status or position. Maiko (apprentice geisha) wear hanging Kanzashi, which is more splendid than the ones for geigi (geisha), her senior. In the event she is promoted,. however, her hair-style and Kanzashi change into the those suitable for her status.

History

The origin of kanzashi in Japan dates back to the Jomon period. In the ancient period of Japan, people believed that magically signified power resided in a thin stick and the devil could be exorcised by inserting it into hair. Artifacts bundles of these sticks, which could be the origin of the comb, are in existence.

During the Nara period, hair ornamentation was introduced from China together with various cultures. Although being introduced into Japan, it declined later because long flowing hairstyle called kokufu-yoshiki (native Japanese style) prevailed during the Heian period. At that time, therefore, the term 'kanzashi' referred to hair ornamentation in general and referred to comb decorations and kogai (ornamental hairpin) also.

Kanzashi came into use as hair ornamentation during the Azuchi-Momoyama period when women's hairstyle gradually changed from long and straight hairstyle called 'tarekami' to various kinds of 'nihongami' (Japanese coiffure). Kanzashi were used for various purposes during the Edo period and the idea has been passed down that kanzashi was also used for self-defense.

With hairstyles becoming complicated during the middle of the Edo period, Kanzashi, along with combs and kogai, became the necessities of women while it disappeared from men's customs of clothing except for the purpose of court function.

Metallic kanzashi called 'jifa' were used both by men and women in the Ryukyu Kingdom and its material was designated based on a person's status.

Kanzashi was most popular during the middle of the Edo period and ornament artisans using their refined techniques specializing in hair ornaments produced various kinds of kanzashi, such as hirate-kanzashi (kanzashi of flattened metal), tama-kanzashi (kanzashi with balls), hana-kanzashi (flower kanzashi) and birabira-kanzashi (kanzashi with hanging ornaments).

Due to the increasing popularity of western hairstyles, the use of kanzashi slightly declined during modern times and it was mainly used by a bride during a wedding with Shinto rites, geisha and geigi when they did their hair up in nihongami. These days, kanzashi are again attracting the attention of young Japanese women who want to add the elegant beauty of kanzashi to their ordinary western style clothing.

Word origin

A Chinese character '簪' (kanzashi) refers to hair ornaments used in China. The character resembling 牙 that is included in the Chinese character 簪 is 旡 (san) to be precise and it is a hieroglyph representing kanzashi inserted into hair. As kanzashi made of bamboo were mainly used, it is said that the Chinese character 簪 came to be in use by adding take-kanmuri (top character of bamboo) and '曰' (a mark representing the word and deed of human beings) to 旡.

In China where both men and women commonly wore their hair long, kanzashi were important practical items for men to attach a court cap, which represented their status or type of job, to their hair. Court nobles used those made of ivory and ordinary people used those made of wood. Hair ornaments used by women were called 'sai' (釵) (hair ornaments with a forked stick) or 'den' (鈿) (a piece of handy work made of flattened metal attached to the forehead), not kanzashi (簪). Although the character '釵 ' was often used for women's 'kanzashi,' it is believed that its use ceased during the Tenpo era.

Meanwhile, in the Japanese language 'kanzashi' was derived from 'kamisashi' (hair insert) and its origin is believed to be flowering plants by which people of ancient times decorated their heads when they invited the deities. However, some people assert that the phrase 花を挿す (hana wo sasu) (put a flower) changed into 花挿し (kazashi). We can gather the images of 'kanzashi' of that time from the scene where Hikaru Genji attacked shiragiku (with a white chrysanthemum) on his court cap, which was described in 'Koyo no ga' (An Autumn Excursion) of the "The tale of Genji." This practice survives at present as 'Aoi no Kanzashi' in the Aoi-matsuri festival.

Types of kanzashi

Various types of kanzashi were produced according to the change of times and hairstyles.

Kanzashi were produced based not only upon seasonal flowers or events, but also complicated traditional rules. A typical example is tsumami-kanzashi (flower kanzashi) of 12 months which maiko or hangyoku (a child geisha) wears each month. Details are covered in the next section.

Metal such as silver, tin, and brass (platinum was also used during the Meiji period), hard-to find items such as glass and tortoise shell, scented wood such as agalloch and sandalwood as well as crystal for summer season-products (few are existing today because such products were too fragile for practical use) were used as the materials for a main body. Ordinary people used products made of the hooves of oxen or horses instead of wood or tortoise shell, but plastic is mainly used for such products at present. Tortoise shell with no spots was the most valuable one and it was specifically called shiro or shiroko.

As for materials used for the ornamental part, precious metal, precious stone, quasi precious stone, amber and coral were used and celluloid was also sometimes used.

Hirate-kanzashi: flat circular-shaped ornament with one or two sticks. An ear pick was attached at the back. Products made of silver or other silver-plated metal, which were commonly used by the women of samurai family, were specifically called ginhira. In the past, such products were produced by carving them out from flattened metal. While women of samurai families carved their family crest on it, carving the family crest of their beloved person prevailed among geisha during the late Edo period. In addition to products made of wood or tortoise shell, those made of plastic or other materials are being produced at present.

Tama-kanzashi: Kanzashi with an ear pick and a ball and the most popular types. An ear pick was initially attached for practical use, but later just for design. Various materials were used for ornamental balls. Coral, agate, jade, tortoise shell, ivory, glass (from the end of Edo period), and celluloid (from the Taisho period) were used. There were two types, namely the one with one stick and the one with two sticks.

Chiri-kan: A kind of metallic kanzashi which geisha used as maesashi (front insert). The characteristic of this type of product is that its head sways slowly because it is supported by a spring. Its name derived from the fact that a sound "chiri chiri" was made when the ornaments touched each other. Long and thin plate-like hanging ornaments are attached at the bottom.

Birakan: Metallic kanzashi which was also called 'ogi' or 'himegata.'
There are two types, namely one with a fan-like top and one of circular shape, and a family crest is carved on it. Long and thin plate-like hanging ornaments are dangling around the flat part of the head. Its shape looks like hirate-kanzashi, but long and thin plate-like hanging ornaments are attached instead of an ear pick. Contemporary maiko uses it as maesashi (she no longer uses it after becoming geigi). In this case, she wears birakan on the right temple and tsumami-kanzashi (tweezing kanzashi) on the left temple.

Matsuba-kanzashi (pine needle shape kanzashi): Simple kanzashi made of tortoise shell, etc. with a shape similar to pine needles. They are included in a set of kanzashi for tayu (the highest ranking yujo) in the Kanto region (Yoshiwara).

Yoshicho: Long and thin kanzashi that looks like an ear pick. Metal or tortoise shell were mainly used as materials for this type of kanzashi. Plastic is mainly used at present. The reason why the shape of its tip is an ear pick is because it was originally produced for such practical use. Kanzashi with an ear pick already existed in the Kofun period (tumulus period). A document exists that says kanzashi with an ear pick was received well by people during the Kyoho era of Edo period. However, in view of the fact instructions prohibiting extravagance were often issued during the Edo period ('Jochu irui jikidan no sadame,' which targeted samurai and chonin or town people, was issued during the third year of the Kanbun era), it may be said that these types of products were produced in order to evade the crackdown on luxury goods. It seems that married women wore a piece of yoshicho somewhere near the left temple. While geisha were not allowed to wear two pieces or more, yujo (prostitute) wore many yoshicho in their hair. Products with carvings on the surface or those with ornaments can be categorized into kiccho if they were produced for maesashi (birabira kanzashi if hanging ornaments are attached) and they can be categorized into kanzashi with ornaments if they were produced for ushirozashi (back insert) (because hanging ornaments are not attached to kanzashi for ushirozashi in case of Japanese coiffure). An ear pick was originally for practical use, but later used just for design. It is believed that round shape products were used in the Kanto region and square shape products were used in the Kansai region.

Birabira-kanzashi: Kanzashi for unmarried women invented during the Edo period (Kansei era). It is luxurious kanzashi from which several chains with ornaments of butterfly or birds dangle. These product were used by daughters of rich merchants, but were not used by married or engaged women. A record exists that says that products with seven or nine chains with glass ornaments dangling were popular among young daughters of wealthy family in Kyoto and Osaka from the second to third year of Tenpo era. This type of product was inserted into the hair somewhere near the left temple.

Tsumami-kanzashi: Firstly, patchwork representing a flower is prepared by folding and pasting on small pieces of cloth with bamboo tweezers. Tsumami-kanzashi was produced by bundling patchworks together. It was also called 'Hana-kanzashi' (flower kanzashi) because most of products were designed to look like flowers. Pure silk was used in principle and in the past craftsmen dyed cloth by themselves. Few old products are still in existence since they were cloth products. The above reminds us about the life of flowers. At present, this type of products are used by maiko as well as for the ornamentation of a festival for children of three, five and seven years of age.

Contemporary kanzashi: With western hairstyle became popular, kanzashi also changed into western-type products. All products with two sticks with a shape similar to the plectrum of a shamisen are produced as western-style products. Various materials are used such as metal with cut glass and lacquered plastic. Many kanzashi on sale because of the Japanese kimono boom are products with one stick and the technique to bundle hair using such products is also becoming popular. However, the above is a way to use the western stick and the reason why such technique became applicable to Japanese women is because their hair quality has changed and the number of women with firm black hair has decreased due to hair dyeing and permanents. Because of strength, metallic products are mainly used for the above purpose. Many of products are devised to fit western dress though the design itself is Japanese style. In addition to newly devised products such as those with artificial flowers like a rose or western orchid and those with plastic jewelry parts (imitation jewels made of plastic or glass), traditional products such as those with beads are also popular.

Kanoko-dome: Short kanzashi used for fixing tegara (cloth used for holding or decorating mage or chignon), tie-dyed crepe with a pattern of minute rings is often used). Unlike ordinary kanzashi, its stick is attached vertically to the ornamental part. This type of product is used by maiko or geiko and they are high-priced art objects since they are fine works of silver or platinum with jade, amber or cloisonne ware attached. These products are basically used as the gift from patrons, rather than products that maiko might purchase for herself, and are regarded as the barometer to measure maiko's popularity or the quality of her guests. This type of product is used for young maiko's hairstyle called 'wareshinobu,' with two projections of their body supporting the mage. They are attached to the center of 'wareshinobu' mage.

Ichi-dome: Very short kanzashi used for fixing a hairpiece called 'hashi no ke.'

Kusudama: Kanzashi with kusudama (lucky ball)-like round-shaped ornament of silk-made petals attached. This type of product is used by teenage girls.

Tatesashi (vertical insert): Kanzashi which is vertically inserted into bin (sideburns). The holding pin is long. Uchiwa-kanzashi, which is designed after uchiwa (round fan), is well-known as seasonal kanzashi for summer.

Ryoten kanzashi: Kanzashi with a pair of ornaments attached on both sides of the body. Its ornament was mainly family crest or flower and such products were used mainly by girls or young women of relatively rich families.

Silver hollyhock kanzashi: Kanzashi popular in Edo from the seventh to eighth year of Tenpo era. It was a product made of flattened silver with two small leaves of hollyhock engraved and used not only by young women, but also by yujo thanks to its simple but pretty design.

Musashino kanzashi: Novelty kanzashi popular only for a short period from the 11th to 12th year of the Tenpo era. Its body was made of bamboo and bird feathers were used as the ornament. This type of product was used by young women as well as young yujo. Due to the fact that these products were made of only bamboo and bird feathers, however, people felt they were too simple and as a result, the products didn't become as popular as the silver kanzashi, which were widely used, and were used only for fun on the occasion of small events. Though the origin of the name 'Musashino' is unclear, it is presumed that bird feathers were compared to Japanese pampas grass.

Silver Edo kanzashi: Short silver kanzashi, about four sun (about 12 cm), which was widely used in Edo (Tokyo) from the latter half of the mid-Edo period to the Meiji period. Initially it's length was slightly longer, five to six sun (about 15 cm to 18 cm), but short length products became the mainstream from the late stage of the Edo period. Most of these types of products were tama-kanzashi with coral, a ball of gold dust stone or a gourd attached as an ornament. Also, products designed to look like kacho-fugetsu (beauties of nature), daily utensils such as a rice bag and uchiwa, vegetables and small animals were produced by the same technique with hirate-kanzashi, also called kazari kanzashi (decoration kanzashi). Some products had no ornaments. Although their bodies were commonly made of solid silver, gold plated products of the kamigata style (Kansai-area style) appeared during the late Edo period. Also, splendid products made of silver for the lower half and copper with gold-encrustation for the visible part, were produced. Although products made of a base metal such as brass and iron are also called silver kanzashi, such products were not so common as silver products. During the late Edo period, brass kanzashi, which was widely used up to then, became unpopular considered as unrefined products, and even women of poor families didn't wear such products as they lived in Edo. Brass kanzashi were mainly used by poor young women who had recently come to work in Edo. By contrast, iron kanzashi, especially refined products of top craftsmen, were appreciated by geisha because of their mild gloss compared with silver products.

Kogai: Originally, a small knife-like object that was inserted into the hilt of Japanese sword was called kogai. One side of kogai is a handle (which looks like an ear pick) and the other side gradually tapers off to a point. It was used not only by women, but also by men in order to bundle hair. Mage was tied by putting hair around it and the side which originally tapered off became a stick of same width with the other side. Eventually, it changed from a tool to tie mage to hair ornamentation to be inserted into finished mage. Products used for hair ornaments consists of two pieces connected by inrotsugi placed in the center and users can easily insert it into mage (this type of product is also called nakasashi because it is connected inside mage). Products for a bride undergoing Shinto wedding rites are luxurious with ornaments attached to both ends of the kogai.

Kushi: As its name shows, it is a comb-shape kanzashi. It can be inserted into tightly-done hair. Although it is usually distinguished from kanzashi, the word 簪 (kanzashi) or 髪飾り (hair ornamentation) was often used for a gift catalogue because 'kushi' (櫛) (comb) can be translated into 'kushi' (苦死) (painful death). Most of these types of products were made of tortoise shell or wood with glue or lacquer. Some products used pearl or makie (Japanese lacquer sprinkled with gold powder) as ornaments. Most of their bodies (backbone) were wide so that ornaments could be attached there. The difference between the western comb and the Japanese one is that the latter have no comb teeth from one side of a comb to the other. This is because this type of product was invented for the unique hairstyle called Japanese coiffure and they were used as maesashi by inserting them into the middle of forehead and at top of the head. As the cross section of a bundle of bangs at the above-mentioned part of the head is almost circular, there is no place to insert the comb except at this part and no teeth are needed other than those situated in the middle section of comb. Other than Japanese traditional combs, Spanish combs (comb made of tortoise shell with splendid ornaments attached) were popular in karyukai (world of geisha) during the Meiji period.

Tsumami kanzashi

Tsumami kanzashi (flower kanzashi) is a unique one worn by maiko in Kyoto and hangyoku in Tokyo.

Colorful flowers made of habutae (type of silk) or mizubiki-saiku (string works) are used for this product. Flower kanzashi worn by maiko are designated for each month and it represents the changing seasons and reflects the entertainment career and the taste of maiko in question.

Maiko whose career is less than a year wear kanzashi to which small flowers and 'bura' (a hanging ornaments) are attached and from the second year onward, she wears kanzashi with no bura. The size of flowers become bigger according to maiko's age.

January: 'Shochikubai' (pine, bamboo, and plum trees) or 'kangiku.'
During New Year period (until January 15th at hanamachi or entertainment district in Kyoto), maiko attach 'inaho' (rice ears) on the right side and geigi on the left side of mage. They sometimes also attach tsuru (crane) and Kame (tortoise) (a symbol of longevity).

February: 'Plum tree flowers' as well as 'kusudama' and 'kazaguruma' (pinwheels) are attached to setsubun festival costume.
(daffodils are also used from time to time)

March: 'Rape blossom' as well as 'daffodil,' 'peach blossoms,' and 'peony.'
April: 'Cherry blossoms' and 'gorocho'
May: 'Fuji' (Japanese wisteria) and 'iris.'
June: 'Willow' (flowers of fringed pinks are attached) and 'hydrangeas.'
July: 'Uchiwa' and 'Omatsuri' (festival), which is attached during the period of the Gion-matsuri Festival (July 10 to around 24)
August: 'Susuki' (Japanese pampas grass) and 'asagao' (morning glory).
September: 'Balloon flower' and 'bush clover.'
October: 'chrysanthemum'
November: 'Colored autumn leaves' and 'ginkgo.'
December: 'Maneki' (wooden signboard on which kabuki actor's name is written) (decoration of rice cake flower is sometimes attached)
Maiko customarily visit dressing rooms on the occasion of a kaomise performance (traditional kabuki performance in Kyoto) and asks her favorite actor to sign the 'maneki' of her kanzashi.

Names of kanzashi based on the position of insertion

Maesashi: kanzashi which is inserted into the both sides of the bangs (around both temples). Bira-kanzashi: Small kanzashi, such as small flower kanzashi, is used, but those who actually wear them are girls or maiko. Often seen in girls' hairstyle such as wareshinobu or ofukumage.

Tatesashi: Kanzashi which is vertically inserted into binmado (upper part of bin or sideburns).

Magesashi: Kanzashi which is inserted into the base of mage at the front. It is the most common position for inserting kanzashi and hirate-kanzashi, tama-kanzashi, hime-kanzashi and/or kazari-kanzashi are used for this purpose. Magesashi is seen in most types of Japanese coiffure. When kogai is inserted here, it is called nakasashi.

Ichidome: Used for attaching 'hashi no ke' (long and thin hairpiece) to mage.

Nezashi: Kanzashi inserted into the base of mage's back. Kogai and hirate-kanzashi were used for nezashi, but are seldom seen at present. Nezashi was seen in Japanese coiffure called ichogaeshi and sakikogai.

Kanzashi appeared in traditional customs or literature

The terms 'kazashi' and 'kanzashi' which frequently appear in "The Tale of Genji" written during the Heian period refer either 'kazashi' (flowers worn in one's hair at shrine rituals) or 'kamizashi' (appearance of hair) and the term 'kamisashi,' hair ornamentation, refers to a comb which was inserted over a person's forehead during the ceremony of kamiage. Therefore, these shouldn't be confused with kanzashi. Chinese '簪' was a tool to fix a court cap by inserting it from the base of cap's arch and it was a product for men.

As seen in Du Fu's poem saying 'as my grey hair is short, it seems to be impossible to use kanzashi even though I bundle it,' the original meaning of the Chinese character '簪' was a tool which male officials used in order to fix their court caps. Gold 'kanzashi' of the empress Yang Guifei which appears in Chokonka written by Bai Letian was '釵' (sai). As can be expected from the letter 叉, it had two holding pins and when facing her death, Yang Guifei promised her eternal love for the emperor, who remained alive, by snapping her memorable hair ornament.

During the Edo period, women usually undid their hair in the bedroom of shogun or daimyo (feudal lord). It was not an ancient tradition, but a measure to prevent assassination. As kanzashi could be used as a weapon, it was prohibited to enter a bedroom while wearing it.

Kanzashi which was used in Ryukyu's old martial arts was called jifa. In Ryukyu, both men and women used to wear kanzashi and it was the sole weapon which women could use. In many cases, women stabbed a thug with a jifa when they were attacked and she escaped while the thug was wincing. However, it was also used for assassination since it was difficult for other person to notice jifa. During the early Edo period, women of a Samurai family in Edo core kanzashi made of solid metal in place of brass kanzashi, which was commonly used in Kamigata (Kansai region), with the aim of using it as a weapon for self-defense.
An old senryu (comic haiku) says 'kanzashi becomes a formidable item when it is held in the reverse grip.'

There continued an era of peace during the late Edo period. Naturally, society became a commerce-centered one and merchants became wealthy while ordinary people also were able to obtain various favorite goods. Under such circumstances, the number of women who wore combs or kanzashi also increased. In order to distinguish themselves from ordinary women, probably, dayu, the highest ranking yujo, wore three combs and 20 tortoise shell hair ornamentation including kanzashi and kogai.
These splendid hair ornaments were gifts from patrons and expressed figuratively as 'the value of the part from the neck up is equivalent to that of a house.'
Tortoise shell with no spots was the most valuable one and it was specifically called shiro or shiroko. In the mean time, a set of hair ornaments for dayu at Yoshiwara in Edo (Tokyo) consisted of three combs, two tama-kanzashi, two matsuba, one kogai (a bar-shaped ornamental hairpin) and twelve kiccho (other than these items, braided cord ornament to be attached to the back of mage were also included). At Shimabara in Kyoto, a set consisted of three combs, one kogai (a bar-shaped ornamental hairpin), six to twelve hirate-kanzashi, two birabira-kanzashi with long hanging ornaments, one flower kanzashi and katsuyama (a large-size tsumami-kanzashi) (other than these items, kanoko that were attached around mage were included). Some sumo wrestlers in Edo wore two combs, like yujo, aiming to draw public attention.


Ancient Rome, Japan and the Interconnected World

by Gene Howington, Guest Blogger

In the 5th Century CE, the world was a much more isolated place than it is today but it was still interconnected. Most people lived and died within 30 miles of where they were born. Yet even then, the world was an interconnected place where the far reaches could touch one another. Travel was restricted to by foot, horseback or boat. Regular communication depended upon trade routes or carrier pigeons. However, distance and geographical isolation did not prevent distant parts of the world from knowing about each other. The impact of foreign countries within a given country in the ancient world, both near and far, raises some interesting questions about interconnectedness, influence and the impact of telecommunications and air travel on the modern world. For context, let’s consider this recent archaeological find announced by the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.

On Friday, they announced that they found three glass beads in a tomb near Kyoto that can be traced to ancient Roman manufacturing techniques. The tomb itself dates back to the Yamato period of Japanese history, an era marked by inter-provincial warfare when the Imperial capitol was located in Nara. The definition of the Yamato period (named for the clan that became the Imperial dynasty during that time) is somewhat disputed. Conventionally assigned to the period 250–710 (including both the Kofun period (c 150-538) and the Asuka period (538-710)), the actual start of Yamato rule is disputed and the Kofun period is considered an archaeological period while the Asuka period is considered an historical period. This distinction is unpopular with modern Japanese historians, but the period does contain demarcations in Japanese culture. The Kufun period marks a time when Chinese and Korean culture are impacting Japanese culture and the dominate religious influences were the domestic Shinto religion and the Chinese imports Confucianism and Taoism. The Asuka period marks both the rise to Imperial supremacy by the Yamato clan and the introduction of Buddhism to Japanese culture which was to have a long and profound effect. The tomb the beads were found in dates from the late Kofun period which is named for the style of burial mounds commonly used by nobles and dignitaries of the time.

To provide context, at the height of the Roman Empire under Trajan and Hadrian in the 1st and 2nd Century CE, the Empire stretched from modern day England south across the Mediterranean and in to what is now Iraq. The glass making techniques of the beads utilized natron – a natural salt best known for being part of the Egyptian embalming process for creating mummies. Although the process had been used by the Romans since at least the peak of their Empire, the beads found in the Kofun near Kyoto date from a tomb created as the Roman Empire of the late 400’s and early 500’s was in decline and rapidly losing territory. While it may come as a surprise to some, this is not the first evidence of radically distant and disparate contact between East and West that pre-dates Marco Polo‘s famous trade mission of the 13th Century CE.

In 1954, in Helgö on Ekerö Island in Lake Mälaren in Sweden, archaeologists were excavating a Viking ruin dated to the 8th or 9th Century CE when they found a small bronze buddha subsequently dated to the 6th Century CE and of suspected Indian origin. Some suspect the buddha came along for the ride with Vikings travelling the “Amber route”, one of the vast Viking trade networks which utilized rivers to transport amber, silk and others goods to the north through the Russian rivers and stepps although others think it was taken from treasure obtained raiding Ireland although how the Irish would have came to be in possession of such a statue remains a mystery. In 2010, archaeologists and genetics researchers examining a Roman graveyard near Vagnari in Southern Italy found a 2,000 year-old skeleton with mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) that showed a body buried there had East Asian lineage.

If the interconnectedness of the ancient world is to be believed on the evidence (and I think it should), what does that say about the modern world where cultures can influence each other via telecommunications at the push of a button and easy air travel – discounting the hassles of airport security – is readily available? Is “globalization” inevitable as cultures meet, merge, and share ideas or will geographical isolation still shape individual pockets of relatively homogeneous culture? Will geographically closer cultures tend to have dominant influence such as the relationship between ancient Japan and China or modern Mexico and America or will technology make geography increasingly irrelevant? Are we moving toward a universal human culture or not? If so, are we moving toward a universal set of laws or not? Is this a good thing? A bad thing? Something in between?


Watch the video: Japanese History: The Kofun Period Japanese History: The Textbook Ep. 3 (May 2022).