The corvus was an unusual naval weapon used by the Romans during the First Punic War to help make up for the Carthaginian prowess at sea. The corvus was a boarding bridge, probably 36 feet long and 4 feet wide, with a parapet on each side. This was attached to a pole on it's own ship, and could be pulled up at an angle. Underneath the far end was a heavy spike. The idea was the ship with the corvus moved close to the enemy, and then released it. The spike would dig into the enemy vessel and pin it in place, while the Roman soldiers would charge onto the enemy ship. This allowed the Romans to take advantage of their superior infantry. The corvus was first used at the battle of Mylea, where it helped bring about the first major Roman naval victory of the war. Long considered implausible, modern reconstructions have proved that the corvus was indeed possible with the technology of the time.

House crow

The house crow (Corvus splendens), also known as the Indian, greynecked, Ceylon or Colombo crow, [2] is a common bird of the crow family that is of Asian origin but now found in many parts of the world, where they arrived assisted by shipping. It is between the jackdaw and the carrion crow in size (40 cm (16 in) in length) but is slimmer than either. The forehead, crown, throat and upper breast are a richly glossed black, whilst the neck and breast are a lighter grey-brown in colour. The wings, tail and legs are black. There are regional variations in the thickness of the bill and the depth of colour in areas of the plumage.

About Corvus Energy

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Corvus - History

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Crow, (genus Corvus), any of various glossy black birds found in most parts of the world, with the exception of southern South America. Crows are generally smaller and not as thick-billed as ravens, which belong to the same genus. A large majority of the 40 or so Corvus species are known as crows, and the name has been applied to other, unrelated birds. Large crows measure about 0.5 metre (20 inches) long, with wingspans that can reach 1 metre (39 inches).

Crows feed chiefly on the ground, where they walk about purposefully. They are omnivores that enjoy meat and may even attack and kill young, weak animals. This habit makes them unpopular with farmers, as does the bird’s propensity to raid grain crops. Berries, insects, the eggs of other birds, and carrion are also eaten. Crows will make off with shreds of roadkill and store tidbits in trees, caching the meat like a leopard does for later consumption. Sometimes they bury seeds or store them in crevices in bark. They occasionally steal food from other animals, sometimes cooperating with other crows to raid food from otters, vultures, and water birds.

Crows live in large, close-knit families, and, like social mammals, they not only hunt and forage together but also defend territories and care for the young together. Most species, however, do not nest in colonies. Each mating pair has its own nest of sticks and twigs, usually high up in a tree. There are laid five or six greenish-to-olive eggs, with darker speckles. Young crows may spend up to six years with their parents before breeding on their own. As winter approaches, northern crows gather into large night-roosting groups. These flocks can include tens of thousands of birds and occasionally hundreds of thousands. Possible reasons for this seasonal gregariousness are warmth, protection against predators such as owls, or information exchange. A crow may live 13 years in the wild and more than 20 years in captivity.

Highly intelligent, crows can be masterful mimics. They have been trained to count aloud up to seven, and some crows have learned more than 100 words and up to 50 complete sentences others have been known to mimic their owners’ voices in order to call dogs and taunt horses. They also exhibit great curiosity, fueling a reputation as inventive pranksters and calculating thieves. They fly off with people’s mail, pull clothespins off lines, and make off with unattended objects such as car keys. Two species—the New Caledonian crow (C. moneduloides) and the ‘alalā, or Hawaiian crow (C. hawaiiensis)—use stick-type foraging tools to obtain food from small holes and crevices. Such sophisticated tool use is only practiced by a handful of animal species.

Some common crows are the American crow (C. brachyrhynchos) of North America and the carrion crow (C. corone) of Europe and most of Asia. A subspecies of the carrion crow with gray on the back of the neck and breast is called the hooded crow (C. corone cornix). Sometimes considered a separate species, it is found between western Europe and eastern Asia and in the northern British Isles. Other crows include the house crow (C. splendens) of the Indian subcontinent (introduced in eastern Africa) the pied crow (C. albus), with white nape and breast, of tropical Africa and the fish crow (C. ossifragus) of southeastern and central North America. Other members of the genus Corvus not called crows are the raven, jackdaw, and rook.

Crow Tribe

This article contains interesting facts, pictures and information about the life of the Crow Native American Indian Tribe of the Great Plains.

Facts about the Crow Native Indian Tribe
This article contains fast, fun facts and interesting information about the Crow Native American Indian tribe. Find answers to questions like where did the Crow tribe live, what clothes did they wear, what did they eat and who were the names of their most famous leaders? Discover what happened to the Crow tribe with facts about their wars and history.

Where did the Crow tribe live?
The Crow are people of the Great Plains Native American cultural group. The location of their tribal homelands are shown on the map. The geography of the region in which they lived dictated the lifestyle and culture of the Crow tribe.

Map showing location of the
Great Plains Native American Cultural Group

Clothes worn by Crow men
The clothes worn by the Crow men consisted of breechcloths in the summer and fringed buckskin tunics or shirts and leggings in the winter. Warm buffalo robes or cloaks were also worn to protect against inclement weather. The sun-bleached buffalo-robe clothing of the Crow tribe were the whitest, finest cloaks of all the Native Indian tribes.

Headdresses worn by Crow men
Some men of the Crow tribe, the "Bird People", wore a full bird as part of their headdress, usually for special ceremonies and rituals. This costume was probably part of the inspiration for the bird headdress worn by Johnny Depp as the Native Indian Tonto in the 2013 movie 'The Lone Ranger'. The normal type of headdress worn by the Crow were caps with straight-up eagle feathers. Elaborate feathered war bonnet with feathers trailing to the floor were also worn on special occasions.

The Long Hair of the Crow men
The men of the Crow tribe grew their hair for all their lives and it was so long that it swept the ground behind him. Every morning the men of the Crow tribe would oil their hair with bear's grease. The hair of Chief Long-hair measured ten feet, seven inches in length. For practical purposes for fighting and hunting his long hair would be pulled into a bun. According to the custom of the tribe in the time of mourning a warrior would cut off a number of locks of his long hair, as a sign of respect for the dead. This was a great honor as his hair was highly valued as his greatest ornament, which he had cultivated for the greater part of his life.

Crow Clothing
The women of the Crow tribe were responsible for making the clothes worn by the people. Most items were sewn from soft, tanned skins of deer (buckskin) and buffalo. Clothes were often decorated with paint, porcupine quills or beadwork. Crow clothing for both men and women were adorned with paintings and decked ornaments, especially necklaces and earrings.

What clothes did the Crow women wear?
The type of clothes worn by the women of the Crow tribe were knee-length dresses and leggings. The women also wore the buffalo robes to keep warm and dry. Crow women wore their hair in two, thick braids decorated with beads. The clothing for both men and women of the tribe were painted with signs and symbols and decked with ornaments, especially necklaces and earrings.

What did the Crow tribe live in?
The Crow tribe lived in tent-like homes called Tepees . The tepees were constructed using long wooden poles that were covered with animal skins such as buffalo hides which, like their clothes, were made from white, sun-bleached buffalo skins. The tepee tent was pyramid shaped, with flaps and openings. The tepee was rounded at the base and tapered to a narrow open smoke hole at the top. Most tepees were approximately 12 - 16 feet in diameter at the base. A hearth was built in the center of the tepee for heating and cooking. However, the Crow tribe were known to erect huge tepees for their ceremonies, meetings and rituals. The tepee suited the nomadic lifestyle of the Crow tribe as it was quick to erect and easy to dismantle. The Crow tribe used Pictograms on their clothes and tepees to convey a story through pictures and symbols that represented physical objects, people and events.

What food did the Crow tribe eat?
The food that the Crow tribe ate included the meat from all the game that was available in their vicinity: Buffalo, deer, elk, bear and wild turkey. The mainstay of their diet was supplemented with roots and wild vegetables such as spinach, prairie turnips and flavored with wild herbs. Wild berries and fruits were also added to the food available to the Crow. When animals for food was scarce the tribe ate pemmican, a form of dried buffalo meat.

What weapons did the Crow use?
The weapons used by the Crow tribe included bows and arrows, stone ball clubs, jaw bone clubs, hatchet axe, spears, lances and knives. War Shields were used on horseback as a means of defence. The rifle was added to their weapons with the advent of the white traders and settlers.

What were the rituals and ceremonies of the Crow tribe?
The rituals and ceremonies of the Crow tribe and many other Great Plains Native Indians, included the Sweat Lodge ceremony, the Vision Quest and the Sun Dance Ceremony. The sacred, ceremonial pipe (called a Calumet), was ritually filled with tobacco was passed among participants at all sacred ceremonies of the Crow. The Calumet, was often used to seal a peace treaty, hence the term 'Peace Pipe', but it was also used to offer prayers in religious ceremonies and in war councils.

Who were the most famous leaders and chiefs of the Crow tribe?
The most famous leaders and chiefs of the Crow tribe included Chief Long Hair, Chief Sore Belly, Chief Grizzly Bear, Chief Plenty Coups, Chief Medicine Crow, Iron Bull, Long Horse and Chief Bear Wolf. The greatest enemies of the Crow tribe were the Sioux and the Blackfoot tribes, and they became closely allied to the whites and acted as scouts for the US army. Due to their alliance with the whites they were put on a large reservation which, although progressively reduced in size, extends to nearly 6000 miles.

Crow History Timeline
The following history timeline details facts, dates and famous landmarks and battles fought by the Crow Nation.


Here is the taxonomy of crows, according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS):

Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Bilateria Infrakingdom: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Infraphylum: Gnathostomata Class: Aves Superclass: Tetrapoda Order: Passeriformes Family: Corvidae Genus: Corvus Species: There are more than 30, including:

  • Corvus brachyrhynchos (American crow)
  • Corvus caurinus (Northwestern crow)
  • Corvus corax (common raven)
  • Corvus corone (carrion crow)
  • Corvus coronoides (Australian raven)
  • Corvus cryptoleucus (Chihuahuan raven)
  • Corvus florensis (Flores crow)
  • Corvus frugilegus (rook)
  • Corvus hawaiiensis ('Alala, Hawaiian crow)
  • Corvus imparatus (Mexican crow)
  • Corvus mellori (little raven)
  • Corvus ossifragus (fish crow)

“Jump, Jim Crow”

Thomas Dartmouth Rice, a white man, was born in New York City in 1808. He devoted himself to the theater in his twenties, and in the early 1830s, he began performing the act that would make him famous: he painted his face black and did a song and dance he claimed were inspired by a slave he saw. The act was called “Jump, Jim Crow” (or “Jumping Jim Crow”).

“He would put on not only blackface makeup, but shabby dress that imitated in his mind—and white people’s minds of the time—the dress and aspect and demeanor of the southern enslaved black person,” says Eric Lott, author of Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class and professor of English and American Studies at the City University of New York Graduate Center.

Rice’s routine was a hit in New York City, one of many of places in the North where working-class whites could see blackface minstrelsy, which was quickly becoming a dominant form of theater and a leading source for popular music in America. Rice took his act on tour, even going as far as England and as his popularity grew, his stage name seeped into the culture.

“‘Jumping Jim Crow’ and just ‘Jim Crow’ generally sort of became shorthand—or one shorthand, anyway—for describing African Americans in this country,” says Lott.

“So much so,” he says, “that by the time of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which was twenty years later in 1852,” one character refers to another as Jim Crow. (In a strange full-circle, Rice later played Uncle Tom in blackface stage adaptations of the novel, which often reversed the book’s abolitionist message.)

Regardless of whether the term “Jim Crow” existed before Rice took it to the stage, his act helped popularize it as a derogatory term for African Americans. To call someone “Jim Crow” wasn’t just to point out his or her skin color: it was to reduce that person to the kind of caricature that Rice performed on stage.

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Corvus - History

Who Was Jim Crow? Was He a Real Person?

The name Jim Crow is used to refer to a set of local and state laws that once advocated racial segregation in all public facilities under the mandate of "separate but equal." The laws applied, not only to African-Americans, but also to other non-white ethnic groups in mostly Southern states in the United States.
Was Jim Crow a real person?

No. Jim Crow was actually a fictional character, a caricature of a clumsy, dimwitted Black slave. This derogatory character was created by a white actor named Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice. The character was reportedly inspired by an elderly Black man he once saw singing a tune called “Jump Jim Crow” in Louisville, Kentucky.

During his performances, Rice would wear blackface and perform race jokes and songs in a stereotypical slave dialect. Due to Rice's fame, by 1838 the term "Jim Crow" had become a pejorative way of referring to African Americans and the segregation laws they had to follow. Eventually, the laws and the very era they lived in was referred to "Jim Crow".

Sadly, Jim Crow’s legacy would continue to endure in some Southern states all the way up until the 1970's.

During the Jim Crow period there were separate hospitals for blacks and whites, separate prisons, separate public and private schools, separate churches, separate cemeteries, separate public restrooms, and separate public accommodations. In most instances, the black facilities were grossly inferior-older, smaller, less-well-kept, and less conveniently located. In other cases, there were no black facilities-no Colored public restroom, no public beach, and no place to sit or eat.

The segregation laws written on this wall are a sample of the thousands of laws that existed during the Jim Crow period. This list was compiled by the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site Interpretive Staff.