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I caught a snippet from the president's remarks. He was talking about the wheel and how it is older than the wall.
Is there historical fact to back such a statement? Or the other way around?
No, wheels are not older than walls.
Walls (as in city walls, designed to protect a group of people) have been discovered at Jericho, and dated to c 8000 BCE. The earliest walls of any kind that we have found so far are at Göbekli Tepe, and these have been dated to the 9th millennium BCE.
The earliest wheel that we have found was discovered in the city of Ur, and was dated c 3100 BCE, although it seems the Ljubljana Marshes Wheel is of approximately the same date, so we can't as yet make any specific attribution about where the wheel was first invented. In any event, the evidence shows that the invention of the wheel occurred much later than the first walls.
Edit - additional information from comments
According to the best evidence currently available, potter's wheels appear to have been developed slightly earlier than wheeled vehicles. And, to be fair to President Trump, it is by no means clear what type of wheel he was referring to. It is interesting that the earliest surviving potters wheels are also made from baked clay [Roger, Peter & Moorey, Stuart: Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence, Eisenbrauns, 1999, p146] - which has helped ensure their survival. Had they been made from organic materials, like wood, which are less likely to survive in archaeological contexts, our current understanding might have been very different.
Personally, I would not be at all surprised if future discoveries indicate that the invention of the potter's wheel and the invention of wheeled vehicles were, in fact, broadly contemporaneous. And, of course, their invention would still be nowhere near as old as walls.
It could be argued the wheel predates the wall but only technically.
The dung beetle wheels their fodder for transport. Any caveman watching a rock rolling down a hill could see a working demonstration of a wheel. The complexity of the wheel was not conceiving of the circle or even the construction. The complexity of the wheel which made it so useful for transport was figuring out how to connect a stable, stationary platform to that moving cylinder. That is what makes the wheel useful and it's what took until 3500 B.C. to first invent. 3900 BC to first use that wheel for transportation. the Wheel found in Mesopotamia in 3500 B.C. was believed to be a potter's wheel.
3500 BC post dates the forming of cities by several thousand years.
The tricky thing about the wheel is not conceiving of a cylinder rolling on its edge. It's figuring out how to connect a stable, stationary platform to that cylinder
The 2019 fall equinox𠅊lso called the autumn equinox—takes place on Monday, September 23, 2019. |The fall equinox is not on the same day each year, though it always falls between September 21 and September 24. It marks the first day of fall in the Northern Hemisphere. (The reverse is true in the Southern Hemisphere, where the September equinox signals the first day of spring.) People have celebrated the fall equinox for centuries. In the Northern Hemisphere, the September equinox coincides with the fall harvest, and many ancient harvest celebrations take place on or around the fall equinox.
While an experienced wheelbuilder can build a wheel in well under an hour, a beginner should expect to spend several hours on the task. It is best not to try to do this all at one sitting, because you are likely to get frustrated at the slowness of the truing and tensioning process. Better to put the job aside, even overnight, than to get careless and ruin a good wheel-in-progress.
This article focuses on building a rear wheel, because that is the more complicated one. For front wheels, disregard that which does not apply. This will be a 36 spoke, cross 3 wheel.
If you're doing a 32 spoke wheel, just substitute ൨" wherever I write ൬", ൘" where I write ൚" and Ŝ" where I write ŝ."
Use a similar substitution for other spoke numbers.
Is a wheel older than a wall? - History
Welcome to the On-Line Redline Guide!
A collaborative effort by collectors to provide the most complete
and accurate information on redline Hot Wheels anywhere on the web.
ALL NEW! A guide to the "Other Redlines" - Topper Johnny Lightnings. All 47 castings!
Notice: All CIPSA information has been moved to a new website! CIPSACars.Com
What is a Redline?
A "Redline" Hot Wheels car is one that was manufactured within the first ten years of production, 1968 to 1977.
The term "redline" derives from the fact that, during that period, the cars were manufactured with a red stripe on the tire.
Although there were a number of different wheels types and sizes, almost ALL cars made during the redline era have red striped wheels.
(The exceptions being the Rail Dragsters from 1971, the two motorcycles from 1975 and some of the military vehicles)
However, simply having a red striped wheel does NOT guarantee that a car is a true redline.
In 1978, the red stripe was abandoned and cars made after 1977 are commonly known as "Basic Wheel" or "Blackwalls".
In 1993, the red striped wheels returned to the product line on the "Vintage" reproductions of the original red lines and have been used intermittently since then.
So, the red striped wheel alone, is not a conclusive way to confirm a true redline.
During the red line years, the cars were sold worldwide but were only manufactured in two places, the US or Hong Kong.
If the chassis of the car identifies the "country of origin" as anything other than US or Hong Kong, then it is NOT a true redline.
Therefore, if the car HAS red striped wheels AND was made in the US or Hong Kong, then it is a true Redline!
Once you know that you have a redline, use this guide to learn more about it.
"How old is my Hot Wheels car?"
Almost every Hot Wheels car made has a "year" engraved into the base.
This date is the year in which Mattel filed the COPYRIGHT for the name of the car and the design of the car.
The date is NOT the year it was made.
Typically, the cars were copyrighted in the year prior to first release for sale, but many castings have been in production for over 30 years.
Thus, the date has no relevance to the age of the car other than the car can be no older than the copyright date.
Below are photos which summarize the production from each of the ten years of the Red Line Era.
Click on the photo or the year to get details on each casting.
Or use one of these quick links!
Does Point Seven Five Equal Three Quarters?
Inch-based designations sometimes express the width in a decimal (26 x 1.75) and sometimes as a common fraction (26 x 1 3/4). This is the most common cause of mismatches. Although these size designations are mathematically equal, they refer to different size tires, which are NOT interchangeable. It is dangerous to generalize when talking about tire sizing, but I would confidently state the following:
Brown's Law Of Tire Sizing:
If two tires are marked with sizes that are mathematically equal,
but one is expressed as a decimal and the other as a fraction,
these two tires will not be interchangeable. (well, there are three exceptions, noted in the tables below. )
Quality control for the vault industry is overseen by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc. (UL), in Northbrook, Illinois. Until 1991, the United States government also regulated the vault industry. The government set minimum standards for the thickness of vault walls, but advances in concrete technology made thickness an arbitrary measure of strength. Thin panels of new materials were far stronger than the thicker, poured concrete walls. Now the effectiveness of the vault is measured by how well it performs against a mock break-in. Manufacturers strive to make products that repel attacks for a certain number of minutes. A UL Class 1 vault is guaranteed to withstand a break-in attempt for 30 minutes, a Class 2 for 60 minutes, and a Class 3 for 120 minutes. UL's workers attack sample vault walls and doors with equipment that is likely a burglar could carry into a bank and use. This usually includes torches and demolition hammers. If the UL worker can make a hole of at least 6 × 16 in (15.24 × 40.64 cm) in less than the set time, that particular part has failed the test. Manufacturers also do their own testing designing a new product to make sure it is likely to succeed in UL trials.
We offer the hassle free fitment to make things EASY
Our Wheel Fitment Specialists or Tire Fitment Specialist can get you into those aftermarket wheels or tires fast. Our staff strives on giving the best service to our customers and have 20 years experience in wheel and tire fitment. We are the absolute authority on getting you fitted with the best choice of rims or tires for your Car, Truck or SUV. We offer online fitment that is quick and painless and will show you exactly which rims or tires will fit your vehicle.
Fast Shipping plus Low already Discounted Prices
Discounted Wheel Warehouse offers Fast Shipping on all its products. Whether your looking for some good quality cheap tires or just a set of car rims. We can get them to you quickly with our Fast shipping. Our price is already heavily discounted. No need to look elsewhere Discounted Wheel Warehouse will already have the best price for any wheels or wheel and tire package your looking for.
Home of the Wheel and Tire Package
Discounted wheel Warehouse is the home of the Wheel and Tire Package. We have been offering rims combined with tires also known as the "Wheel and Tire Package" since our existence. The best way to buy wheels and tire for your Car, Truck or SUV is a Wheel and Tire Package. We correctly fit the wheels using plus sizing, then correctly fit the plus sized tires for your vehicle. Our highly trained staff mounts and Road-Force Balances the wheels and tires for you into a wheel and tire package. All the customer has to do is dismount their stock/oem wheels and mount the wheels and tires right out of the box, it's super easy.
Full Range of rims and tires for every Car, Truck or SUV
We carry rims in the following sizes: 15 inch, 16 inch, 17 inch, 18 inch, 19 inch, 20 inch, 22 inch, 24 inch, 26 inch, 28 inch, 30 inch and a whopping 32 inch beast of a wheel. We have custom wheels, black wheels, off road wheels, staggered fitment wheels and 3 piece wheels. Our Tires range from 13 inch all the way to 32 inch. We have name brand high quality tires like Michelin, BFGoodrich all the way to Yokohama. We also carry a vast amount of Value low cost tires also known as cheap tires. We have brands like Fullrun and Lexani for our high quality discount tires.
Useful Links for Custom Wheel Purchasing
Package Deal - This link has information about what comes with a wheel and tire package.
LOW or HIGH ? - This link is information on how to determine if you have a FWD offset or a RWD offset on your Vehicle.
Lip Sizes - Explains the difference in wheel lip sizes and what to expect when your wheel arrives.
Wheel Fitment - This link explains Plus Sizing and how we are able to properly fit your rims and tires for your vehicle.
Offset and Bolt Patterns - Reference to help aid in determining Bolt patterns and offsets for all vehicles.
Order Status - View information on the status of your order.
Discounted Wheel Warehouse your best place to buy:
Aftermarket Rims and Tires for your Car, Truck or Suv, Wheel and Tire Packages
The inclined plane
An inclined plane consists of a sloping surface it is used for raising heavy bodies. The plane offers a mechanical advantage in that the force required to move an object up the incline is less than the weight being raised (discounting friction). The steeper the slope, or incline, the more nearly the required force approaches the actual weight. Expressed mathematically, the force F required to move a block D up an inclined plane without friction is equal to its weight W times the sine of the angle the inclined plane makes with the horizontal (θ). The equation is F = W sin θ.
The principle of the inclined plane is used widely—for example, in ramps and switchback roads, where a small force acting for a distance along a slope can do a large amount of work.
Under the vehicle
If you can find where a car was usually parked, see if that part of the garage floor or driveway is marked from old puddles of gasoline, oil, coolant, or transmission fluid. Clear water that drips from under the car on a hot day is probably just water condensed from the air conditioner.
Feel the tailpipe for residue. If it’s black and greasy, it means burnt oil. Tailpipe smudge should be dry and dark gray. While some rust is normal, heavy rust might be OK but could mean a new exhaust system might be needed.
If the vehicle is high enough to slide under, you may be able to do some basic checks underneath. (If not, make sure your mechanic checks it.) Spread an old blanket on the ground and look under the engine with a flashlight. If you see oil drips, oily leaks, or green or red fluid on the engine or the pavement beneath the car, it’s not a good sign.
On a front-wheel-drive car, examine the constant-velocity-joint boots inboard of the front wheels. They are round, black, rubber bellows at the ends of the axle shafts. If the boots are split and leaking grease, assume that the car has bad CV joints, another costly repair.
Structural components with kinks and large dents in the floor pan or fuel tank all indicate a past accident. Welding on the frame suggests a damaged section might have been replaced or cut out to perform repair work. Fresh undercoating may hide recent structural repairs.
With an abundance of misleading information saturating the fitness industry, trainees are often led astray and consequently spin their wheels performing useless – even dangerous – exercises. To eliminate confusion and help you achieve your ultimate fitness based goals, below I’ve outlined 8 common exercises that aren’t worth your time. Best of all, I’ve also included an appropriate alternative for each exercise that you can immediately implement within your own training program.
1. Wall Sits
Apart from select athletes (i.e. skiers) or a rehabilitation setting, wall sits are a waste of time and effort. A sub-maximal isometric exercise held for time, they provide little to no aesthetic, performance, or health related benefits. While they’re often touted as a great drill for improving muscular strength and endurance, they have minimal carryover to standard activities of daily living and are better off removed from the training program.
Alternative Exercise: Goblet Box Squats
2. Mountain Climbers
Generally used for cardio and abdominal work, mountain climbers seem to do more harm than good. Not only do they place a great deal of stress on the wrist and shoulder joints but, as fatigue sets in, they tend to promote poor postural habits. Whether your goal is to lean out or perform better, there are numerous other exercises to help you achieve your goals in a safer and more efficient manner.
Alternative Exercise: Single Leg Plank
3. Feet Elevated Bench Press
If you want to Bench Press then plant your feet firmly on the ground and Bench Press. Benching with your feet in the air is not only dangerous but it’s completely and utterly useless. While some professionals claim “it’s better for the core,” the reality is that it’s just plain stupid. When Benching focus on Benching there’s plenty of time to train your core afterwards in a safer environment.
Alternative Exercise: Alternating Dumbbell Bench Press
4. Smith Machine Squats
The Smith Machine is far from my favorite piece of equipment. Given that the bar follows a fixed path, our muscles don’t have to work as hard to stabilize our body throughout the range of motion. As a result, strength adaptations gained from Smith Machine Squats are hardly applicable to sporting events and standard activities of daily living
Alternative Exercise: Barbell Back Squat
5. Abductor/Adductor Machine
During our daily lives, individual muscles rarely work in isolation and instead function as a unit to produce efficient movement. Unfortunately, the abductor/adductor machine only trains the muscles in isolation and consequently provides little to no real world benefits. To effectively train the abductors and adductors we’re better off performing a variety single-leg and split-stance exercises designed to improve tri-planar stability.
Alternative Exercise: Dumbbell Reverse Lunge
Commonly touted as a great "core" exercise, V-Ups are not only a waste of time but also potentially dangerous. Like most crunch/sit-up variations, V-Ups force the spine through repetitive flexion and extension while sustaining low magnitude compressive forces which, according to back expert, Dr. Stuart McGill, may result in disc herniation. For a strong and stable core, stick to ab exercises which force you to resist movement rather than create it.
Alternative Exercise: Ab Wheel Rollout
Arguably my least favorite exercise ever created, Superman's are a complete waste of time. Its intentions are good in that it aims to develop the muscles of the low back, glutes, and hamstrings, but the small range of motion (ROM) and inability to use progressively heavier loads renders it utterly useless. Furthermore, the technique is so often butchered that it may actually exacerbate pain in the lower back and hinder subsequent performance.
Alternative Exercise: Reverse Hyperextension
8. Bosu Ball Squats
Unstable surface training (such as bosu ball squats) is frequently misunderstood and touted as the most “functional” type of exercise. Interestingly, though, research has consistently proven unstable surface training to be less functional than stable surface training as it has little-to-no carryover to real life circumstances. If you truly want to improve performance then get off the bosu ball and start squatting heavy.