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Zenas Leonard

Zenas Leonard

Zenas Leonard was born in Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, on 19th March, 1809. When he was 21 years old he moved to Pittsburgh where he worked for his uncle before settling in St. Louis. For a while Leonard worked as a clerk for the fur company, Gannt and Blackwell.

In 1831 Leonard became a mountain men and took part in the Battle of Pierre's Hole in July 1832. The following year he worked in the Rocky Mountains and in 1833 was recruited by Joseph Walker. Leonard was with Walker when he crossed the states of Utah and Nevada and surmounted the Sierra Nevada mountains.

In 1834 Leonard trapped beavers in Crow country in the Yellowstone. The following year he established a store and trading post at Fort Osage.

Leonard's book, Adventures of Zenas Leonard Fur Trader, was written in about 1838.

Zenas Leonard died on 14th July, 1857.

We continued to travel in a western direction - found game plenty - met with no difficulty in getting along; and on the 27th of August we arrived at the junction of the Laramies river with the river Platte - about 12 or 1300 miles from the United States, and two or three hundred from the top of the Rocky Mountains. Here we stopped for the purpose of reconnoitering. Several scouting parties were sent out in search of beaver signs, who returned in a few days and reported that they had found beaver signs and Captain Gant then gave orders to make preparations for trapping. Accordingly the company was divided into parties of from 15 to 20 men in each party, with their respective captains placed over them - and directed by Captain Gant in what direction to go. Captain Washburn ascended the Timber Fork; Captain Stephens the Laramies; Captain Gant the Sweet Water - all of which empty into the river Platte near the same place. Each of these companies were directed to ascend these rivers until they found beaver sufficiently plenty for trapping, or till the snow and cold weather compelled them to stop; at which event they were to return to the mouth of the Laramies river, to pass the winter together. While at this place, engaged in secreting our merchandize, which we did by digging a hole in the ground, sufficiently large to contain them, and covering them over so that the Indians might not discover them. Four men (three whites and one Indian) came to our tent. This astonished us not a little, for a white man was the last of living beings that we expected to visit us in this vast wilderness - where nothing was heard from dark to day light but the fierce and terrifying growls of wild beasts, and the more shrill cries of the merciless savages. The principal of these men was a Mr. Fitzpatrick, who had been engaged in trapping along the Columbia river, on the west side of the Rocky mountains, & was then on his way to St. Louis. He was an old hand at the business and we expected to obtain some useful information from him, but we were disappointed. The selfishness of man is often disgraceful to human nature; and I never saw more striking evidence of this fact, than was presented in the conduct of this man Fitzpatrick. Notwithstanding we had treated him with great friendship and hospitality, merely because we were to engage in the same business with him, which he knew we never could exhaust or even impair - he refused to give us any information whatever, and appeared disposed to treat us as intruders. On the 3d of September, Captain Blackwell, with two others, joined Fitzpatrick, and started back to the state of Missouri, for an additional supply of merchandise, and were to return in the summer of 1832.

Our horses were nearly all dead, as being fully satisfied that the few that were yet living must die soon, we concluded to have a feast in our best style; for which purpose we made preparation by sending out four of our best hunters, to get a choice piece of meat for the occasion. These men killed ten buffalo, from which they selected one of the fattest humps they could find and brought in, and after roasting it handsomely before the fire, we all seated ourselves upon the ground, encircling, what we there called a splendid repast to dine upon. Feasting sumptuously, cracking a few jokes, taking a few rounds with our rifles, and wishing heartily for some liquor, having none at that place we spent the day.

Here we were in this valley, surrounded on either side by insurmountable barriers of snow, with all our merchandize and nothing to pack it upon, but two mules - all the rest of our horses being dead. For ourselves we had plenty to eat, and were growing fat and uneasy; - but how we were to extricate ourselves from this perilous situation, was a question of deep and absorbing interest to each individual.

The channel of the river where it passes through these mountains is quite narrow in places and the banks very steep. In such places the beaver build their dams from bank to bank; and when they become old the beaver leave them, and they break and overflow the ground, which then produces a kind of flag grass. In the fall of the year, the Buffalo collect in such places to eat this grass, and when the snow falls too deep they retreat to the plains; and it was in these trails that we ascended the mountain.


Fitzpatrick, Thomas "Broken Hand"

Thomas Fitzpatrick was a prominent trapper and explorer who helped blaze the trails that allowed settlers to cross the difficult Rocky Mountains. He was also a seasoned guide who helped lead some of the most important mapping and military expeditions of the 1830s and 1840s.

Thomas "Broken Hand" Fitzpatrick was not your ordinary mountain man. Like his peers—the famous mountain men Jim Bridger (1804–1881 see entry), Jedediah Smith (1799–1831), Kit Carson (1809–1868 see entry), and a few others—Fitzpatrick was a veteran trapper, an able explorer, and a seasoned and brave Indian fighter. Along with these men, Fitzpatrick blazed the way for the settlement of the vast lands west of the Mississippi River and helped guide important expeditions across the torturous Rocky Mountains. Unlike the others, however, Fitzpatrick was an educated and ambitious man who late in life established a distinguished reputation as a government agent to the Plains Indians. Fitzpatrick was largely responsible for the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851, a short-lived but important peace treaty between the United States and the many tribes living in the West.

Little is known about Fitzpatrick's early life. He was born in County Cavan, Ireland, into a Catholic family of eight children, and must have received some formal education, for he later proved to be a skilled writer. By the age of seventeen he had come to the United States and seems to have spent several years doing various jobs in the Midwest. By 1823 found himself on the verge of a great adventure, for he had signed on to join one of William Henry Ashley's fur trading expeditions that was leaving St. Louis and venturing into the nearly uncharted American interior.


The Winter the Horses Starved

In the winter of 1831-32, 21 fur trappers survived—in fact thrived—on the Laramie Plains, but it was another matter for their horses.

On September 4th of that year they packed their mules, saddled their horses, and began riding southwest up the Laramie River from the North Platte, near today’s Fort Laramie. They planned to travel until they found beaver, then trap until snow and cold sent them back downstream. But things did not go as planned. It would be May before they finally returned, having camped out all winter in the Laramie Valley. And they would walk back.

One of the men was 22-year-old Zenas Leonard. He had left the family farm in Pennsylvania after announcing “I can make my living without picking stones.” In 1839, he published an account of his five-year adventure in the Rocky Mountains: Narrative of the Adventures of Zenas Leonard.

Traveling was easy at first. In Leonard’s words, the trappers “found the prairies or plains very extensive—unobstructed with timber or brush—handsomely situated, with here and there a small creek passing through them, and in some places literally covered with game, such as Buffaloe, White and Black tailed deer, Grizzley, Red and White Bear, Elk, Prairie Dog, wild Goat, Big horned mountain Sheep, Antelope, &c.”

But when they arrived at the foot of the Laramie Range through which “the Laramies passes,” they found it impossible to continue, as “huge rocks projecting several hundred feet high closed it to the very current.” Instead, they traveled along the base of the range to a buffalo trail leading to the crest, where they made camp. At midnight it began snowing hard they were forced to stay put for three days.

Not bothered by the early-October blizzard, the party continued on to the Laramie Valley. Leonard describes it as long and broad “with the river Laramies passing through the centre of it, the banks of which are covered with timber, from 1/4 to 1/2 a mile wide … on a clear morning, by taking a view with a spyglass, you can see the different kinds of game that inhabit these plains, such as Buffaloe, Bear, Deer, Elk, Antelope, Bighorn, Wolves, &c.”

Beaver were abundant they trapped twenty the first night. Then they continued upstream, periodically stopping for a few days to trap. Clearly the Laramie Valley was worth the trouble of getting there.

But by October 22, the days were consistently cold and snowy. All agreed it was time to return to winter quarters on the North Platte. They followed the Laramie River to the buffalo trail but … surprise! It was no longer passable—there was too much snow. Several men searched for an alternative route but found none. In the discussion that followed, “a majority of the company decided in favor of encamping in the valley for the winter.”

The river was the obvious place to camp. Game was abundant. Cottonwood trees would provide wood for shelters, fuel for heat and nutritious inner bark for horses and mules when grass was buried in snow. They established camp on November 4th.

Less than a month later, the horses were struggling to find grass. The men collected armloads of cottonwood bark, but “to our utter surprise and discomfiture, on presenting it to them they would not eat it, and upon examining it by tasting, we found it to be the bitter, instead of the sweet Cottonwood.” By the end of December, most of the horses had died apparently the two mules were less picky.

They celebrated the New Year anyway. “[W]e concluded to have a feast in our best style … These men killed ten Buffaloe, from which they selected one of the fattest humps they could find and brought in, and after roasting it handsomely before the fire, we all seated ourselves upon the ground, encircling, what we there called a splendid repast to dine upon. Feasting sumptuously, cracking a few jokes, taking a few rounds with our rifles, and wishing heartily for some liquor, having none at that place we spent the day.”

Food and fuel remained abundant, but the men grew restless. Someone had heard they could buy horses in Santa Fe, so all but four men headed south on foot with beaver skins to trade. It would have been a 500-mile trek, but two weeks later, they were turned back by snow.

Finally, on April 20th, they loaded what they could on the two weak mules, cached everything else, and headed east across the Laramie Range through deep snow. Back on the plains, they stopped at the first sweet cottonwoods they came to and let the mules feast on inner bark for several days. They reached the North Platte on May 20, 1832.

Why no one in the group recognized the Laramie River cottonwoods as the bitter type is puzzling. Travelers as far back as Lewis and Clark could distinguish between the sweet and bitter types, and knew that horses would not eat the bark of the latter.

Were they an ignorant bunch? After all, they crossed the snowy Laramie Range in October, trapped beaver in the Laramie Valley into early November, and rang in the New Year with gusto in spite of losing all their horses, intending to walk to Santa Fe to get more.

Or were they skilled adventurous men not averse to hardship? Maybe it was no big deal to spend five wintry months camped on the Laramie River before walking back to the North Platte.

Editor’s note: An earlier version of this article first appeared online among the collections of the Albany County Historical Society. Special thanks to the author and to Kim Viner of the society for allowing its republication here.


Zenas Leonard -->

Zenas Leonard (fྍt 19. mars 1809 i Clearfield County i Pennsylvania i USA, dྍ 14. juli 1857) var en amerikansk mountain man, oppdagelsesreisende og pelshandler, best kjent for sin dagbok Narrative of the Adventures of Zenas Leonard [2]

Som ung mann arbeidet han for sin onkel i Pittsburgh før han flyttet til St. Louis for der å arbeide i kontorene til handelskompaniet Gannt and Blackwell.

I 1831 dro han avsted med et Gant and Blackwell-kompani på ca 70 mann på en fangst- og handelsekspedisjon. De levde av det de fikk ut av landet (Leonard skriver at

«The flesh of the Buffaloe is the wholesomest and most palatable of meat kind»).

De slet under mangelen på mange fornnheter, men samlet set en veldig rikdom av pelser. Hestene d under den strenge vinteren, og folklene var også bær ved sultedn. En av grunnene til at de klarte seg var at de handlet med indianerne. Blant de mest hjelpsomme av stammefolkene var en negro som levde blant kråkeindianerne i det nordlige sentrale Wyoming han hevdet at han hadde vært med på Lewis og Clarks ekspedisjon det kan ha dreid seg om slaven og oppdageren York.

In this village we found a negro man, who informed us that he first came to this country with Lewis & Clark – with whom he also returned to the State of Missouri, and in a few years returned again with a Mr. Mackinney, a trader on the Missouri river, and has remained here ever since - which is about ten or twelve years. He has acquired a correct knowledge of their manner of living, and speaks their language fluently. He has rose [sic] to be quite a considerable character, or chief, in their village at least he assumes all the dignities of a chief, for he has four wives, with whom he lives alternately. [3]

I 1835 kom Leonard tilbake til Independence i Missouri med nok pelser til å kunne stablere en forretning og handelspost ved Fort Osage. Han fortsatte å handle langs elven der resten av livet. [4]


Narrative of the adventures of Zenas Leonard

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Zenas Leonard left his parents’ home in Pennsylvania in the early 1830’s to seek his fortune in the West. They did not hear from him for more than five years, and he was presumed dead. Then one day he showed up at their door, fresh from the Rocky Mountains. Everyone was eager to hear his story, so he wrote it down, first publishing part of it in a local newspaper, and later the entire account as a book.

Leonard had been living as a mountain man, completely cut off from civilization, surviving for years just with his gun and traps. Although he was clearly brave and manly, Zenas did miss home:

"I could not sleep, and lay contemplating on the striking contrast between a night in the villages of Pennsylvania and one on the Rocky Mountains. In the latter, the plough-boy's whistle, the gambols of the children on the green, the lowing of the herds, and the deep tones of the evening bell, are unheard not a sound strikes upon the ear, except perchance the distant howling of some wild beast, or war-whoop of the uncultivated savage--all was silent on this occasion save the muttering of a small brook as it wound its way through the deep cavities of the gulch down the mountain, and the gentle whispering of the breeze, as it crept through the dark pine or cedar forest, and sighed in melancholy accents. "

Homesickness was the least of his worries, however, and he was constantly facing death by hostile tribes, starvation, or grizzly bears. His descriptions of the grizzlies, which were common in his day, are particularly vivid:

"The Grizzly Bear is the most ferocious animal that inhabits these prairies, and are very numerous. They no sooner see you than they will make at you with open mouth. If you stand still, they will come within two or three yards of you, and stand upon their hind feet, and look you in the face, if you have fortitude enough to face them, they will turn and run off but if you turn they will most assuredly tear you to pieces furnishing strong proof of the fact, that no wild beast, however daring and ferocious, unless wounded, will attack the face of man."

Often witnessing bloody and vicious battles (which he describes in detail) between different Indian tribes and between Indians and whites, Leonard was understandably afraid of encounters with natives. However, there were some exceptions, and he had friendly relations with certain tribes. For example, the Flatheads were unthreatening, and Zenas became familiar with some of their practices.

Leonard's intimate and unique story is rich in such detail, and is truly high adventure.


Narrative of the adventures of Zenas Leonard

Subjects
People
Places
Times

Work Description

Zenas Leonard left his parents’ home in Pennsylvania in the early 1830’s to seek his fortune in the West. They did not hear from him for more than five years, and he was presumed dead. Then one day he showed up at their door, fresh from the Rocky Mountains. Everyone was eager to hear his story, so he wrote it down, first publishing part of it in a local newspaper, and later the entire account as a book.

Leonard had been living as a mountain man, completely cut off from civilization, surviving for years just with his gun and traps. Although he was clearly brave and manly, Zenas did miss home:

"I could not sleep, and lay contemplating on the striking contrast between a night in the villages of Pennsylvania and one on the Rocky Mountains. In the latter, the plough-boy's whistle, the gambols of the children on the green, the lowing of the herds, and the deep tones of the evening bell, are unheard not a sound strikes upon the ear, except perchance the distant howling of some wild beast, or war-whoop of the uncultivated savage--all was silent on this occasion save the muttering of a small brook as it wound its way through the deep cavities of the gulch down the mountain, and the gentle whispering of the breeze, as it crept through the dark pine or cedar forest, and sighed in melancholy accents. "

Homesickness was the least of his worries, however, and he was constantly facing death by hostile tribes, starvation, or grizzly bears. His descriptions of the grizzlies, which were common in his day, are particularly vivid:

"The Grizzly Bear is the most ferocious animal that inhabits these prairies, and are very numerous. They no sooner see you than they will make at you with open mouth. If you stand still, they will come within two or three yards of you, and stand upon their hind feet, and look you in the face, if you have fortitude enough to face them, they will turn and run off but if you turn they will most assuredly tear you to pieces furnishing strong proof of the fact, that no wild beast, however daring and ferocious, unless wounded, will attack the face of man."

Often witnessing bloody and vicious battles (which he describes in detail) between different Indian tribes and between Indians and whites, Leonard was understandably afraid of encounters with natives. However, there were some exceptions, and he had friendly relations with certain tribes. For example, the Flatheads were unthreatening, and Zenas became familiar with some of their practices.

Leonard's intimate and unique story is rich in such detail, and is truly high adventure.


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Tag: Zenas Leonard

Zenas Leonard is best known for his eye-witness account of the Walker expedition (which was the first westward pass) over the Sierras. The account was serialized in his home town paper in PA the Clearfield Republican when he got back and published in book form in 1839. Despite dying before his 50th birthday, Zenas did alright for himself. His account has been republished several times since and is readable online in several places. His writing is concise, frank, and gives a richly detailed account of a pivotal moment in American History. In fact, the original printed first edition sold last year at auction in San Francisco for a cool 125,000.

Yesterday I had the very fun fortune to come across this: First some context, the troop of 58 men is starving at the Nevada foot of the Sierras trying to find a way over in very deep snow, and sent a hunting party to look for anything they could find to eat. (Although not cactus, because unlike the natives, mountain men were strictly Paleo in their diet). The narrative writes that the unsuccessful hunters came back only with a “colt and a CAMEL “.

The footnotes are from a later reprinting explaining that the great California Camel experiment didn’t occur until some 20 years later, so Leonard must have gotten it wrong since camels are in Africa and not California.

Which leaves a bit of a mystery with something like three possible solutions.

  1. Zenas was wrong and it was some other animal that he didn’t recognize.
  2. Zenas was right but his manuscript was illegible in places and the word is some related other word that makes more sense – like ‘cattle’ or ‘ram’
  3. There really was a camel in Nevada in 1832 because it got left behind or lost from some forgotten expedition.

Robin of Napa and I had a fun chat about what it might have been and she suggested maybe a llama that had straggled behind. And, honestly if the potato could make it here from Peru, why not a llama?

Rickipedia’s more serious answer thinks its explanation #1. He believes the animal was a pronghorn.

I would wager the “camel” was our pronghorn Antilocapra americana. They had nothing like it in Europe or the eastern US. They knew deer and they knew elk (which they call red deer in Europe) but not pronghorn. It is commonly called antelope, although incorrectly, because of pronghorn’s vague resemblance to African antelopes.

Well, I am almost always prepared to trust Rick’s instinct but a camel with horns? Even female pronghorn have horns so it must have had them. Of course not every 19th century illustration of a species actually looks like the animal in question. We all know that right?

Here’s some personal history that migt be relevant: Jon and I had the odd fortune of actually riding camels to a monastery in Egypt many years ago, I can testify that they are fairly LARGE and unmistakable – intimidating even without the horns. I can’t imagine there was ever one lost in Nevada. But then, we’ve never ridden pronghorn.


York Explored the West With Lewis and Clark, But His Freedom Wouldn’t Come Until Decades Later

It wasn’t York’s choice to join the expedition.

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Then again, York didn’t have a say in the matter. Though he had grown up side-by-side with William Clark—future leader of the first-known expedition to travel over land from the Eastern seaboard to the Pacific Ocean—the two were not equals. Clark was the white son of a prominent southern farmer, and York was a black, enslaved laborer.

When Meriwether Lewis invited Clark, his army buddy and an accomplished soldier and outdoorsman, to accompany him on a journey across the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase Territory in 1803, the two conferred at length about the men that would accompany them on what would be called the Corps of Discovery. They selected soldiers that had demonstrated bravery in battle. They chose interpreters and French oarsmen who knew the country better than they. And they chose York, Clark’s 6-feet, 200-pound “body servant.”

According to In Search of York, by author Robert B. Betts, York was born into slavery, the son of “Old York” and Rose, two enslaved laborers owned by Clark’s father John.

During the 28-month journey, Clark experienced a dramatic upheaval. In the West, Clark found a version of servitude vastly different from the one he had been born into. As detailed in The Journals of Lewis and Clark, during the two years of the Corps of Discovery expedition, York handled firearms, killed game and helped to navigate trails and waterways. In early December 1804, York was one of 15 men on a dangerous buffalo hunt to replenish their supply. “Several men returned a little frost bit,” wrote Clark in his journal. “Servents [sic] feet also frosted. ” Native Americans they encountered were reportedly awestruck with York's appearance, and he was later allowed to have a vote in key decisions. But when the men returned to the East legends and heroes, York, whose contributions to the expedition rivaled that of his comrades, returned to a life of enslavement.

When the expedition first left from St. Louis on May 14, 1804, not all of its members—all of whom were white and many of whom had been raised in the South, were eager to have an African-American at their side. And they weren’t shy about sharing their opinions. Just a month in to their journey, one of the party threw sand at York, which according to Clark’s journal, resulted in him “nearly loseing [sic] an eye.”

But York was one of them now, and for all intents and purposes, his role in the Corps of Discovery was equal to that of the expedition’s white men. Back in Kentucky, where the Clark property stood, like all enslaved individuals, he was prohibited from using firearms. But during their journey York carried a gun and regularly managed to shoot buffalo, deer, geese and brant to feed the party. Clark often chose York as one of the men to accompany him on scouting trips and, when game was scarce later on in the journey, York was sent with only one other man to barter for food with the Nez Perce, whose hospitality proved crucial to the expedition’s success. When the men voted on where to spend the winter of 1805, according to Clark's journal, York’s ballot was counted as equal to the others.

A combination of fear and curiosity about York may have given Lewis and Clark a leg up in their interactions with Native Americans across the West. As historian Thomas P. Slaughter points out in Exploring Lewis and Clark, “For the Nez Perce, all of the expedition’s men were remarkable, but York was the most alien of all.” A handful of white men—primarily early Russian trappers and seamen—had passed through Pacific Northwest territory by the early 19th century but apparently never a black man. Not believing his skin color was real, they tried to “rub the black off with coarse sand,” only stopping when blood began to ooze from the raw spot.

Clark encouraged the Nez Perce they encountered to closely examine York and, mentions in his journal goading him to “perform” as, alternately, a frightening monster or as a harmless dancing buffoon. There is no mention of showing off any of any of the other men in the Corps of Discovery as objects of curiosity.

According to Slaughter, this exhibition of York made a lasting impression. The Nez Perce have carried an oral history of trying to wash the color from York’s skin well into the 20th century: “They called him ‘Raven’s Son’ for his color and the ‘mystery’ he embodied.” In one Nez Perce legend recorded in 1966, members of the tribe wanted to slaughter the party when it emerged from the Bitterroot Mountains but feared retaliation from “the black man.” When the expedition needed horses to cross the Rocky Mountains, the Shoshone were unwilling to barter with Lewis until he promised them a glimpse of the “extraordinary” York.

Despite his contributions to the Corps of Discovery, Clark refused to release York from bondage upon returning east. It wasn’t unheard of that a master might manumit an enslaved laborer as a gesture of gratitude, and Clark himself had released a man named Ben in 1802 “in consideration of the services already rendered.” But during his time in St. Louis and later when the Clark family traveled to Washington, D.C., York was forced to remain at Clark’s side.

Then, three years after their return from the West, sometime in the late summer or early fall of 1809, York’s “misconduct” led to a falling out with Clark. He removed York from his “privileged” position of body servant and hired him out for at least a year to a Louisville, Kentucky, farm owner by the name of Young. York had a wife back in Louisville, whom he married before leaving on the expedition, and there is some evidence that he had made requests to be returned to Kentucky from Clark's home in Missouri to be with her. Clark’s decision to send him away, however, was not meant to honor York’s appeals—Young, his temporary owner, was notorious for physically abusing his enslaved laborers.

It was during York’s time in Louisville that his story becomes spotty Clark doesn’t mention him in writing again. In fact, it wasn’t until some 20 years later, in 1832, that Clark spoke publicly of York. During a visit from Washington Irving (of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow fame), Clark revealed that he freed a number of his slaves, including York, who he said began a business as a wagonner. Clark, whose account betrays a clear prejudice, claimed freedom was York’s downfall:

“He could not get up early enough in the morng [sic] - his horses were ill kept - two died - the others grew poor. He sold them, was cheated - entered into service - fared ill. Damn this freedom, said York, I have never had a happy day since I got it. He determined to go back to his old master - set off for St. Louis, but was taken with the cholera in Tennessee & died.”

Clark’s story about York may be the most official surviving evidence of his fate, but it is not the end of his legend. Stories place him sharing stories of his travels in the taverns of St. Louis.

Zenas Leonard, a trapper who traveled to the Rockies in 1832, recalled meeting an old black man living among the Crow in Wyoming who claimed he had first come to the territory with Lewis and Clark.

Wherever York ended up, according to Betts’ book, it is reasonably certain that he was manumitted sometime between 1811 and 1815.

As a free man, York slipped into anonymity, struggling to survive in a system meant to keep African-Americans repressed. But as an enslaved laborer, in bondage to his master, York saw the American continent—and left more of a legacy, albeit one written without his consent—than most men of his era ever would.


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Se også

  1. ^ab Social Networks and Archival Context , SNAC Ark-ID w67967dn , besøkt 9. oktober 2017
  2. ^ Zenas Leonard (1839). «Narrative of the Adventures of Zenas Leonard» . Besøkt 16. juli 2011 .  
  3. ^Zenas Leonard (1839). «Narrative of the Adventures of Zenas Leonard» . Besøkt 16. juli 2011 .  
  4. ^ Sierra Nevada Virtual Museum. «Zenas Leonard» . Besøkt 16. juli 2011 .  


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