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(SP-706: 1. 40'; b. 10'; dr. 2'6"; s. 18 mph.; a. 1 mg.)
Motor boat Nirvana was built in 1915 by S.O. Hauser, Staten Island; acquired by the Navy from M.S. Martin 21 May 1917, and commissioned 10 August 1917 to serve on section patrol during World War I. Assigned to the 3d Naval District, Nirvana reported to Fort Lafayette 18 August and patrolled between City Island, N.Y. and Fort Lafayette until decommissioned 31 December.
Recommissioning 18 April 1918, she steamed to Erie, Pa. 10 June and transferred to the 10th District. She patrolled the Great Lakes through the end of the war. Returning to Marine Basin 8 December, she decommissioned and was returned to her owner 20 January 1919.
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Nirvana, American alternative rock group whose breakthrough album, Nevermind (1991), announced a new musical style ( grunge) and gave voice to the post-baby boom young adults known as Generation X. The members were Kurt Cobain (b. February 20, 1967, Aberdeen, Washington, U.S.—d. April 5, 1994, Seattle, Washington), Krist Novoselic (b. May 16, 1965, Compton, California), and Dave Grohl (b. January 14, 1969, Warren, Ohio).
From Aberdeen, near Seattle, Nirvana was part of the postpunk underground scene that centred on K Records of Olympia, Washington, before they recorded their first single, “Love Buzz” (1988), and album, Bleach (1989), for Sub Pop, an independent record company in Seattle. They refined this mix of 1960s-style pop and 1970s heavy metal–hard rock on their first album for a major label, Geffen Nevermind, featuring the anthemic hit “ Smells Like Teen Spirit,” was the first full expression of punk concerns to achieve mass-market success in the United States.
Nirvana used extreme changes of tempo and volume to express anger and alienation: a quiet, tuneful verse switched into a ferocious, distorted chorus. In the fashion of many 1970s punk groups, guitarist-singer-songwriter Cobain set powerful rock against sarcastic, allusive lyrics that explored hopelessness, surrender, and male abjection (“As a defense I’m neutered and spayed,” he sang in “ On a Plain”). Imbued with the punk ethic that to succeed was to fail, Nirvana abhorred the media onslaught that accompanied their rapid ascent. Success brought celebrity, and Cobain, typecast as a self-destructive rock star, courted controversy both with his advocacy of feminism and gay rights and with his embroilment in a sequence of drug- and gun-related escapades—a number of which involved his wife, Courtney Love, leader of the band Hole.
Like Nevermind, the band’s third album, In Utero (1993)—which contained clear articulations of Cobain’s psyche in songs such as “All Apologies” and “Rape Me”—reached number one on the U.S. album charts. By this point, however, Cobain’s heroin use was out of control. After a reputed suicide attempt in Rome in March 1994, he entered a Los Angeles treatment centre. In a mysterious sequence of events, he returned to Seattle, where he shot and killed himself in his lakeside home. Subsequent concert releases, notably Unplugged in New York (1994) and From the Muddy Banks of the Wishkah (1996), only added to Nirvana’s legend.
In 2002 the greatest-hits album Nirvana appeared and included the previously unreleased single “You Know You’re Right.” That year a collection of Cobain’s journals was also published. In 2014 the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
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Grunge rock icon Kurt Cobain dies by suicide
Modern rock icon Kurt Cobain dies by suicide on April 5, 1994. His body was discovered inside his home in Seattle, Washington, three days later by Gary Smith, an electrician, who was installing a security system in the house. Despite indications that Cobain, the lead singer of Nirvana, killed himself, some skeptics questioned the circumstances of his death and pinned responsibility on his wife, Courtney Love.
Cobain’s downward spiral began taking shape in Italy the previous month. He went into a coma and nearly died after mixing champagne and the drug Rohypnol. The public was led to believe that the coma was induced by an accidental heroin overdose, since Cobain had a well-known problem with the drug.
Back at home in Seattle&aposs Denny-Blaine neighborhood, the police were called to Cobain and Love’s home when he again threatened to kill himself. Although Cobain stated in a 1991 interview that he didn’t believe in guns, the officers confiscated four from his possession. As his wife and friends watched him spin out of control, they attempted to intervene. Cobain mostly ignored their concerns but reluctantly checked into a rehabilitation clinic in Los Angeles at the end of March.
On March 30, Cobain walked away from the clinic without informing his family or friends. For the next few days, Love could not locate him and decided to hire a private detective on April 3. The detective made contact with Cobain the following day in Seattle, but Cobain refused to return to Los Angeles.
In the meantime, Cobain had convinced a friend to buy him a gun, claiming he needed it for protection. On April 5, Cobain returned home. He had ingested enough Valium and heroin to reach near-fatal levels. In the apartment above the garage was Cobain’s suicide note, quoting Neil Young’s lyric that it is tter to burn out than to fade away.”
Grunge icon Kurt Cobain is found dead three days after his suicide
On April 8, 1994, rock star Kurt Cobain was found dead in his home in Seattle, Washington, with fresh injection marks in both arms and a fatal wound to the head from the 20-gauge shotgun found between his knees. Cobain’s suicide brought an end to a life marked by far more suffering than is generally associated with rock superstardom. But rock superstardom never did sit well with Kurt Cobain, a committed social outsider who was reluctantly dubbed the spokesman of his generation. “Success to him seemed like, I think, a brick wall,” said friend Greg Sage, a musical hero of Cobain’s from the local punk rock scene of the 1980s. “There was nowhere else to go but down.”
Kurt Cobain rose to fame as the leader and chief songwriter of the Seattle-based band Nirvana, the group primarily responsible for turning a thriving regional music scene in the Pacific Northwest into a worldwide pop-cultural phenomenon often labeled “grunge.” As enormously popular as Nirvana became in the wake of their era-defining single “Smells Like Teen Spirit” (1991), it’s easy to forget just how far outside the mainstream the band really was, and just how ill-suited to pop celebrity the misanthropic, heroin-addicted Kurt Cobain was. In his suicide note, Cobain wrote: “I have it good, very good, and I’m grateful, but since the age of seven, I’ve become hateful towards all humans in general….Thank you all from the pit of my burning, nauseous stomach for your letters and concern during the past years. I’m too much of an erratic, moody baby! I don’t have the passion anymore, and so remember, it’s better to burn out than to fade away.”
A Brief History of Grunge: The Seattle Sound
The word grunge, which means grime or dirt, came to describe a music genre, fashion style and lifestyle exclusively attached to the Pacific Northwest and, specifically, Seattle. With the effects of this movement still relevant some 30 years later, it’s worth exploring how it all began – and how grunge entered the mainstream.
It all started with the Melvins. Formed in 1983 in Washington State, the band were part of a generation of musicians influenced by the likes of KISS, Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin and AC/DC. Taking inspiration from the bands they loved, the Melvins were one of the first rock groups to mix elements of metal and punk in their sound.
The city of Seattle at that time was just shedding its hippie image but still holding on to the hippie values of counterculture and nonconformity. In 1984, Seattle-based bands Green River and Soundgarden formed, followed by the Screaming Trees in 1985. The following year brought the founding of Sub Pop Records and saw Seattle-based record label C/Z Records’ first release, Deep Six. This compilation, credited as the first distribution of grunge, included the Melvins, Green River, Soundgarden, Malfunkshun, Skin Yard and The U-Men. Metal band Alice in Chains joined this faction of Seattle bands when they formed in 1987.
Between 1988 and 1990, the tight-knit group of Seattle bands went through many transformations. Green River split into two groups: the members who wanted to stay “underground” formed Mudhoney, while those who wanted to become famous rock stars formed Mother Love Bone (picking up the lead singer from Malfunkshun, Andrew Wood). Representing another shift in those values of nonconformity, Soundgarden signed in 1988 with a mainstream label, A&M Records, to the dismay of many of their fans.
At the start of the new decade, Mother Love Bone was set to become the rock stars they intended to be when Wood unexpectedly died of a heroin overdose. Wood’s roommate, Chris Cornell of Soundgarden, wrote a tribute to his late friend. A few songs played with the surviving Mother Love Bone members turned into an entire album, Temple of the Dog. When Cornell decided that one of the songs would be better as a duet, he invited a backup vocalist, Eddie Vedder, to join him for the singing of ‘Hunger Strike.’ The same year, Vedder joined the remaining Mother Love Bone members in creating a new band, first named Mookie Blaylock and eventually renamed Pearl Jam.
In 1990, Nirvana consisted only of singer-guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic, and were yet to find a full-time drummer. They were eventually introduced to Dave Grohl through their friends the Melvins, becoming another staple grunge band of the ’90s made possible through collaboration.
The bands became regulars at music venues across the city, performing at locations still open today such as The Crocodile and The Showbox. Before any of the bands really left Seattle, they described themselves in self-deprecating ways, referring to themselves and their music style as dirt, scum and – you guessed it – grunge. In 1991, when Nirvana reached number one on Billboard’s Alternative Songs chart, with Pearl Jam following closely behind, “grunge” turned from a joke into an actual descriptor of the rock music subgenre characterized by guitar distortion, feedback and heartfelt, anguished lyrics. That same year, Mudhoney and the Screaming Trees achieved indie success. Soundgarden didn’t catch up with the commercial success of Nirvana and Pearl Jam until 1994.
As these bands developed a need for marketing, “grunge” changed from descriptor to ultimate promoter, especially in fashion. That industry, from Macy’s to Marc Jacobs, started creating items that mimicked the style of these bands and their Seattle audiences, namely flannel shirts, combat boots and wool ski hats, often worn with unwashed hair.
While the muses for these fashion statements may have started out too poor and cold to buy anything else, and didn’t care to look after or style their hair, the popularity of grunge inspired the style of the rich. The combat boots that were practical for traction in Seattle’s rain began hitting the catwalks. For the first time, instead of going from boutiques to last season’s department to Goodwill, clothes purchased from Goodwill were inspiring what got brought into the shops. Punks were anti-fashion: their outfits made a statement against it. Grunge rockers were fashion-indifferent: they made no statement at all. And yet grunge became a fashion statement in and of itself.
As the concept of grunge was increasingly used in the mainstream, it became increasingly rejected in anti-conformist Seattle. Grunge became a blanket term for Northwest bands of the ’80s and ’90s, even if they had completely different styles and sounds.
Today, though, the term has been reclaimed. Seattleites still hold the same values that began the grunge movement and have learned to embrace the subgenre that, in a lot of ways, put their city on the map.
Nirvana SP-706 - History
Nirvana's logo with the Smiley Face.
Nirvana is an American grunge rock band that was formed by singer-songwriter/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen, Washington in 1987. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers such as Dale Crover, Chad Channing, Aaron Burckhard, Dave Foster, and Dan Peters (appearing on the single "Sliver") Pat Smear, who joined in 1993 as a backup vocalist/guitarist and the longest-lasting and most famous being Dave Grohl , who joined the band in 1990.
In the late 1980s, Nirvana established itself as part of the Seattle Grunge scene, releasing its first album Bleach (1989) for the independent Record Label Sub Pop . The band eventually came to develop a sound that relied on dynamic contrasts, often between quiet verses and loud, heavy choruses. After signing to major label D GC Records , Nirvana found unexpected success with " Smells Like Teen Spirit ", the first single from the band's second album Nevermind (1991). Nirvana's sudden success widely popularized a lternative rock as a whole, and the band's frontman Cobain found himself referred to in the media as the "spokesman of a generation", with Nirvana being considered the "flagship band" of Generation X. Nirvana's third studio album, In Utero (1993), featured an abrasive, less-mainstream sound and challenged the group's audience. The album did not match the sales figures of Nevermind but was still a critical and commercial success. Sadly, in 1994, the band announced they were breaking up due to Cobain’s health issues and heroin addiction, that ultimately led to a prison sentence until 1995. Dave Grohl, the final drummer for Nirvana, then went on to form the pop-rock band The Foo Fighters, which are still active.
Nirvana formed in 1987. Considered by many to be the leading lights of the Seattle grunge scene of the late 1980s/early 1990s, and perhaps the most influential rock band of Generations X & Y, Nirvana was a powerful trio of musicians who brought a unique aesthetic to a growing-stale rock scene. They had already made some waves on Sub Pop with their debut, "Bleach". But it wasn't until their major-label debut for DGC/Geffen Records, 1991's "Nevermind" - perhaps, more specifically, the first 30 seconds of "Smells Like Teen Spirit" - that they broke into the mainstream of America - not really because they wanted to. Lead singer frontman Kurt Cobain's death (suicide) in April 1994 brought an untimely end to the band. Drummer Dave Grohl went on to form the Foo Fighters. In the fall of 2004, "With The Lights Out" (a 3-CD/DVD set of mostly unreleased material) confirmed that interest in the band is still very high. Most young rock stars today will likely cite Nirvana as a major influence on them.
Pick up the health bonuses and medikits in the starting area (A) and kill the Imps in front of you. Take the teleporter on the right (the eastern one). On the other side, continue along the path either way, killing Spectres and Shotgun Guys along the way. Once you approach the teleporter at the end, the wall will open, releasing two pairs of Revenants. Flip the switch to lower the wall, then step through the second teleporter (B).
In the next area, flip all four switches on the triangular platform (C). This raises a staircase in front of you. The nearest step actually acts as a lift, so lower it and step on. Once it has risen again, you can jump onto the triangular platform (D) to retrieve the rocket launcher. Afterwards, climb the stairs and continue down towards a horde of Imps and Mancubi as well as two teleporters. Take the southern one (to your right).
In the next area, press the use key on any of the four walls to lower them, unleashing an ambush of Imps around you. Crossing into their territory causes the next four walls to lower, revealing further two Pain Elementals. After all the enemies are dead, pick up the yellow skull key (E) and go through the teleporter. Flip the other switch to open a shortcut back to the starting area. This time take the teleporter on the left (F, the western one).
Open the yellow walls in the next area (it may be tempting to fire rockets between the yellow walls before lowering them, but be careful, as there is a high probability of hitting the walls). From here, follow the ledge around to the end, then drop down onto the Imps' platform and flip the switch. This lowers the Chaingunners' platform across the way, where you can pick up the red key (G). Grab the nearby radiation suit and head back out into the main slime pit with the brown platforms. The blue key rests on the northwestern-most platform (H). Lower the platform just southeast of this as you would a lift, ride it up and drop onto the blue key platform. Once you've obtained all 3 keys, head back to the southeast corner of the pit and lower the platform there (I). Ride it back up to the ledge, make your way through the red and blue barriers, then exit.
Trivia and other points of interest
- from the popular band Nirvana died from a shotgun blast the same year Doom II was released. Interestingly a super shotgun is found on the first sector on this level.
- In some online Doom forums/discussion boards, this was considered the worst Doom II stage created.
There are no official secrets in this level.
- To obtain the megasphere in the same room where you get the yellow skull key, return to the previous room (the one with the northern and southern teleporters), flip the switch close to the southern teleporter, go through it again and run into the megasphere's corner before it rises again.
- In the room you teleport to after fighting the Revenants, if you switch all four switches too fast it can result in some of them not working, leaving the player permanently stuck in the first area of the map.
- The room with the arrow-shaped staircase has some weird effects on the ceiling. This is due to linedefs 114 and 134 referring to sector 50 instead of sector 49, and sector 49 having no defined ceiling texture.
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Cobain called the song “Where Did You Sleep Last Night,” but it’s also called “In the Pines,” sometimes “Black Girl,” or “My Girl.”
It’s a folk song and as such, its origins are foggy. It was probably born from African Americans living along or east of the Appalachian Mountains around the turn of the 20 th century. It’s also what’s called, a murder ballad—which is a European tradition that stretches as far back as the Renaissance. In Shakespeare’s time, when some gruesome slaying or rape occured, the crime was transcribed and printed onto large pieces of paper which were sold on the streets. Over time, the popular ones would be set to music.
Then, when the English and Scottish began to cross the Atlantic, they brought this commemoration of shocking crimes with them. When they settled along the Appalachians, the European murder ballad became a bedrock of the American folk tradition. You can hear it in popular songs like “Long Black Veil,” “Pretty Polly” and “Delia’s Gone”:
Murder ballads tell a wide variety of tragic tales, but they have a few things in common: They’re stories, first and foremost, and at the heart of the story is a transgression, most often made by a woman. She’s done something society deems untoward, she’s cheated, flirted, stayed out too late, or simply didn’t return a man’s favor.
Then there’s the tone. Murder ballads are haunting and mournful, of course, but there’s this added level of creepiness when a story of a gruesome death is being told in harmony, sweetly, or almost crooning, like Johnny Cash did.
As for our murder ballad, “In the Pines” has its own collection of lyrical calling cards, which first start come together in 1926, when a banjoist named Dock Walsh makes the first commercial recording of the song. Right off the bat he introduces us to one of the key elements of the song—the pines.
“In the pines, in the pines, where the sun never shines and I shiver when the cold wind blows.”
Another element is the train—a mysteriously long train.
“The longest train I ever saw went down that Georgie line. The engine it stopped at a six-miles post, the cabin it never left town.”
But Walsh’s version also includes those murder ballad elements like, a transgression and confrontation:
“Now darlin, now darlin don’t tell me no lie, where did you stay last night?”
And then, an act of violence:
“The train run back back one mile from town and killed my girl, you know. Her head was caught in the driver’s wheel, her body I never could find.”
Not all of the versions of this song will include all of these elements. Artists in the decades to come will pick and choose depending on the story they want to tell or the mood they want to evoke. But the pines—that cold dark wilderness—will become the most common refrain that ties all the various versions together.
“I think the pines symbolizes a wilderness,” says Elizabeth DiSavino, a professor of music at Brea College in Kentucky. “A place where a person has left to be by themselves to face what they are and what they have done.”
It’s in the 1940s, that the song really starts to put down roots with two major, influential and lasting renditions of “In the Pines” by two very important artists. First, is Bill Monroe—a Kentucky man, a mandolin player and singer-songwriter who would become known as the Father of Bluegrass. In 1941 Monroe records a version of “In the Pines” with his band The Bluegrass Boys.
“I would call that recording a pre-bluegrass era recording,” DiSavino says. “You know by that point Monroe was playing concerts and selling records and he was kind of a big deal in early country music.”
In Monroe’s version, there’s actually no mention of death or violence, so it eschews the murder ballad elements of its predecessors and becomes a bit lighter and sweeter in tone. But it retains that sad and haunting quality thanks to the high harmonies of Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys telling this tale about the enigmatic train that takes his love away.
“What’s more country than a heartbreak song,” she says. “I think that’s very much in character of the kinds of songs that Bill Monroe sang and became a part of the bluegrass repertoire.”
The other pivotal musician for this song is the great early 20 th -century folk and blues musician Lead Belly. Lead Belly was playing music and gaining a reputation in Louisiana and Texas in the early 1900s. But his music really got a wider audience after he met the folklorist Alan Lomax in the 1930s.
“Alan Lomax toted Lead Belly around to society people in New York,” DiSavino says. “You can see in videos he’s singing to these ladies in pink chiffon gowns and he’s got this face like these people really want me to sing this here?”
In 1944, in New York, Lead Belly records the first of at least a half-dozen versions of “In the Pines,” which he most often calls “Where Did You Sleep Last Night,” or “Black Girl,” or “Black Gal.”
“He found this song and reinterpreted it and made it his own,” she says. “He sort of blues-ified it.”
In his versions, Lead Belly leans into the darkness of the song. That bluesified effect gives the song a creepier feel, like something’s not right. It’s also, musically bare. It’s just his voice and his guitar. It’s lonely. In his song, Lead Belly addresses either “my girl” or “black girl,” probably depending on the white or black audiences he was singing to at the time. And, lyrically, he does away with the train entirely. Instead, Lead Belly focuses on the confrontation and the murder.
“Lead Belly lead a violent life,” she says. “He was in jail for murder. This is very in character to sing a song about violence and murder.”
“The Lead Belly version he’s very much to my mind emphasizing the love gone wrong,” says music critic and professor Eric Weisbard. “And the sense of being in the pines as being alienated from love and alienated from life that way.”
From this moment on, the versions of “In the Pines” follow either Monroe—a tender, high-lonesome country/bluegrass song about a mysterious train and a heartbreak—or Lead Belly, a musically stark and lyrically bleak murder ballad that emphasizes isolation and death. And you can actually see a pattern emerge over time, with each subsequent decade, each generation picking a tradition for themselves.
In the latest episode of Studio 360 (which along with being a public-radio show is a Slate podcast), producer Lauren Hansen tells the long, rich musical and social history of a great old American song, before and after Kurt Cobain and Nirvana took a turn at making it theirs. This includes speaking with musicians Bill Callahan and Fantastic Negrito, who both covered the song.
To hear a full audio version, listen to this episode of Studio 360 below. The story begins at 26:00, with an introduction from host Kurt Andersen. You can also subscribe and listen to the show on Apple Podcasts.