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Republic, form of government in which a state is ruled by representatives of the citizen body. Modern republics are founded on the idea that sovereignty rests with the people, though who is included and excluded from the category of the people has varied across history. Because citizens do not govern the state themselves but through representatives, republics may be distinguished from direct democracy, though modern representative democracies are by and large republics. The term republic may also be applied to any form of government in which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch.
Prior to the 17th century, the term was used to designate any state, with the exception of tyrannical regimes. Derived from the Latin expression res publica (“the public thing”), the category of republic could encompass not only democratic states but also oligarchies, aristocracies, and monarchies. In Six Books of the Commonwealth (1576), his canonical study of sovereignty, the French political philosopher Jean Bodin thus offered a far-reaching definition of the republic: “the rightly ordered government of a number of families, and of those things which are their common concern, by a sovereign power.” Tyrannies were excluded from this definition, because their object is not the common good but the private benefit of a single individual.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the meaning of republic shifted with the growing resistance to absolutist regimes and their upheaval in a series of wars and revolutions, from the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) to the American Revolution (1775–83) and the French Revolution (1787–89). Shaped by those events, the term republic came to designate a form of government in which the leader is periodically appointed under a constitution, in contrast to hereditary monarchies.
Despite its democratic implications, the term was claimed in the 20th century by states whose leadership enjoyed more power than most traditional monarchs, including military dictatorships such as the Republic of Chile under Augusto Pinochet and totalitarian regimes such as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.
Tom Petty defies his record label and files for bankruptcy
The music industry is notorious for its creative accounting practices and for onerous contracts that can keep even some top-selling artists perpetually in debt to their record labels. In a typical recording contract, a record label advances an artist a certain sum of money against future earnings from royalties. But because the cost of things like studio time, marketing support and tour expenses must be “recouped” by the label before an artist earns any royalties, many artists who sign recording contracts never sell enough records to rn out” their advance. Where this system truly breaks down is when a top-selling artist or group like TLC or Run-DMC finds itself deeply in debt to its record label despite having sold millions of records. Those are but two groups that have pursued a strategy made famous by Rock and Roll Hall of Fame member Tom Petty when he declared bankruptcy on May 23, 1979 in an effort to free himself from his contract with Shelter Records.
At the time of Tom Petty’s bankruptcy filing, he had little to show financially for the two hit albums already behind him: 1976’s Tom Petty and The Heartbreakers (featuring the hit singles 𠇋reakdown” and 𠇊merican Girl”) and 1978’s You’re Gonna Get It! Unhappy with the terms of his contract with Shelter Records, Petty seized upon the sale of Shelter by ABC to industry giant MCA as justification to declare himself, in effect, a free agent. In his own words, he would not be 𠇋ought and sold like a piece of meat.” (Never mind the fact that the deal was actually a re-acquisition, since Shelter𠅊nd with it Petty’s contract—had actually been owned by MCA before being acquired by ABC.) Petty refused to allow his next album to be released, even going so far as to bear the cost of recording it personally, leaving him some $500,000 in debt. This was when he filed for bankruptcy, hoping to gain leverage in the brewing legal dispute by having the bankruptcy court declare null and void an extremely unfavorable contract that Petty felt he had signed under duress.
Ultimately, MCA blinked, agreeing to release Petty from his existing contract but immediately re-signing him to a $3 million contract with a brand-new subsidiary label created especially for this purpose. The album that Petty had held back, Damn The Torpedoes (featuring the singles “Refugee” and 𠇍on’t Do Me Like That”), would go on to be certified Double Platinum and make Tom Petty and The Heartbreakers into true superstars. But if MCA thought that its squabbles with Petty were behind them at that point, they were sorely mistaken. In 1981, Petty once again threatened to withhold his new album, Hard Promises, when MCA announced its intention to sell it for $9.98𠅊 full dollar more than the typical retail price at the time. Said Tom Petty at the time, “If we don’t take a stand, one of these days records are going to be $20.” And once again, MCA finally agreed, selling the album at retail for the then-customary $8.98
Establishment of Consular Relations, 1844 .
Beginning with Samuel Shaw in 1784, the United States appointed a number of consuls to serve the interests of U.S. merchants in Guangzhou. The appointees were themselves usually merchants. However, these consuls served intermittently and without instructions from Washington, and never received formal acknowledgment of their limited consular credentials from the Chinese Government until after 1843. Thus the start of official consular relations dates to the appointment of a U.S. consul to the ports of Fuzhou (Foochow) and Xiamen (Amoy) in 1844.
Establishment of Consular Posts, 1844-1947 .
Fuzhou (Foochow) 1844 Shanghai 1847 Macao 1847 Xiamen (Amoy) 1849 Ningbo (Ningpo) 1853 Whampoa 1853 Guangzhou (Canton) 1853 Shantou (Swatow) 1860 Beijing (Peking) 1861 Niuzhuang (Newchwang) 1862 Yantai (Chefoo) 1863 Hankou (Hankow) 1863 Zhenjiang (Chinkiang) 1864 Jiujiang (Kiukiang) 1867 Tianjin (Tientsin) 1871 Chongqing (Chungking) 1896 Dalian (Dairen) 1904 Hangzhou (Hangchow) 1904 Nanjing (Nanking) 1904 Shenyang (Mukden) 1904 Qingdao (Tsingtao) 1906 Harbin 1907 Andong (Antung) 1914 Changsha 1915 Jinan (Tsinanfu) 1918 Kunming (Yunnanfu) 1921 Guilin (Kweilin) 1943 Chengdu (Chengtu) 1945 Changchun 1947. The United States established a consular post in the British colony of Hong Kong in 1843. The United States also established consular posts in Taiwan during the time that it was a colony of the Empire of Japan, in Danshui (then called Tansui or Tamshui) in 1898 and in Taipei (then called Taihoku) in 1914. The above dates reflect, as accurately as possible, the date when a full consul (as opposed to vice consul or consular agent) was either first assigned to or arrived at each post.
Chile from 1818 to 1920
The Chilean oligarchy had little sympathy with O’Higgins, who favoured reducing their privileges. They accepted him, however, because he was supported by the army and because of dangers posed by Spaniards still in Peru and in parts of Chile (Valdivia and the island of Chiloé) and by internal guerrillas loyal to the Spanish monarchy. Opposition to O’Higgins began to make itself heard once the Chilean-Argentine army expelled the Spaniards from Peru it increased after 1822, when the Chileans succeeded in driving the remaining Spaniards from Chile. O’Higgins’s attempt, by means of a new constitution, to concede a larger political role to the oligarchy did not increase his support, and general unrest and poor harvests forced him to abdicate in 1823.
The years 1823–30 were troubled by an internal political split between the oligarchy and the army 30 successive governments held office, and a variety of political experiments were tried. Rivalries developed between federalists and centralizers and between authoritarians and liberals. To the political chaos were added financial and economic disorder and an increase in lawlessness that tended to strengthen the authoritarian members of the oligarchy. Rival political factions were eliminated in 1829 when authoritarians, with the help of a part of the army, were able to install a junta (collegial government) that nominated José Tomás de Ovalle as provisory president. Actual power, however, was held by Diego Portales, who, as either a cabinet member or a private citizen, in fact ruled as a virtual dictator.
- OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Chile
- FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
- CAPITAL: Santiago
- POPULATION: 17,925,262
- OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Spanish
- MONEY: Chilean peso
- AREA: 291,932 square miles (756,102 square kilometers)
Chile is a long narrow country which extends like a ribbon down the west coast of South America. While the coastline is over 4,000 miles (6,437 kilometers) long, it is only about 61 miles (91 kilometers) wide. The country has suffered from many earthquakes, such as the massive 8.8-magnitude quake that struck the country in February 2010.
Cape Horn is the southernmost tip of South America. In the past, ships had to round the horn to sail from Pacific to Atlantic ports and to Europe before the Panama Canal was built. Cape Horn is known for high winds and treacherous waves.
Map created by National Geographic Maps
PEOPLE & CULTURE
Today only about 5 percent of the population is native Mapuche and other indigenous groups. Nearly 95 percent of Chileans have a mixture of native and European roots. There are areas in the south where the Mapuche live, speak their language, and practice their own religion.
About 40 percent of the population lives in the area around the capital of Santiago. Children in rural areas need to wake up at 5:00 - 6:00 a.m. to walk to school or meet the bus. Their journeys sometimes take two hours each way. After school, they help their parents in the fields and do their homework.
The region is rich in natural beauty and plant and animal life. The long coastline is home to penguins, pelicans, and sea lions, and migratory whales can be seen in the waters as they journey to and from feeding and breeding grounds. Puma, alpacas, vicunas, foxes, condors, and flamingos are all found on the diverse landscapes of Chile.
The Atacama Desert is one of the driest areas on the Earth. There are many species of reptiles and cacti. The country's rich supply of copper is also found in the desert region.
GOVERNMENT & ECONOMY
The country is governed by an elected president, who is both the chief of state and head of government. Presidential elections are held every four years. The president picks cabinet members. There are two houses of congress, the National Congress and the Senate.
The country is one of the largest exporters of grapes.
The northern part of the country was ruled by the Inca before the Spanish took control in the 16th century. Native Mapuche people lived in the southern and central regions before the country became a Spanish colony.
The country gained independence from Spain in 1810. Toward the end of the 1800s, many Europeans began to settle in Chile, including Germans, French, British, and Italians. Many Chinese moved to Chile to help build the railroad.
Chile was once considered to be a very stable and free country. But in 1973 a bloody battle overthrew Salvador Allende's elected Marxist government and the country suffered 16 years under the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet. Democracy was restored in 1989.
Chile is at a historic moment, facing central questions of governance, the social contract and its economic model. Despite tremendous economic progress and poverty reduction over the last few decades, the existing policy framework has been insufficient to continue fostering productivity growth and economic diversification, improve labor market outcomes, and further address deep-rooted inequality.
The 2019-20 protests exposed the vulnerability of the socio-economic system, with protesters demanding a change in the country’s political and social direction. The stagnation of growth and productivity in the last decade has raised questions over the sustainability of the country’s growth trajectory and the type of reforms needed.
In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic has plunged the economy into the worst recession in decades. GDP contracted 6.0 percent in 2020, although a loosening of lockdown measures allowed a partial recovery towards the end of the year. Over one million jobs were lost, affecting mostly women and workers in commerce, agriculture, and hospitality, further undermining the fragile middle class. In conjunction with the economic contraction, the fiscal deficit increased to 7.5 percent of GDP in 2020, the largest in over three decades.
Although the authorities tapped into fiscal buffers, public debt rose from 28 percent in 2019 to 33 percent in 2020. Poverty is expected to have increased from 8.1 to 12.2 percent, with about 780 thousand people expected to have fallen into poverty. The effects of mobility restrictions and uncertainty were only partially offset by one of the largest policy responses in the region. This response included cash transfers, a job retention scheme, tax deferrals and reductions, liquidity provisions and guarantees, and early withdrawals from pension funds.
Growth is expected to rebound to 5.5 percent in 2021, on the back of a continued government stimulus and a rapid vaccination rollout. Chile is the fourth country in the world and the first in the region in terms of per capita vaccination rates. As of March 26, 2021, Chile has vaccinated more than 30% of its adults with a goal of vaccinating 80% of its 19 million people by June 30, 2021. Another factor that will boost the economy is accumulated liquidity due to monetary stimuli and pension fund withdrawals. Although uncertainty will curb private investment recovery, domestic demand will be spurred by accommodative policies. Exports should benefit from higher copper prices and a strong recovery in advanced economies and China. Despite all this, Chile will likely not reach pre-pandemic GDP levels until 2022 (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Real GDP prospects before and after the pandemic
World Bank Group support in Chile includes activities of the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation (IFC).
Through multisector coordination, the World Bank seeks to provide solutions to the country’s challenges to promote equality of opportunity in three main areas: social protection of the most vulnerable decentralization and regional development and climate change adaptation for sustainable development.
The World Bank Group has been accompanying Chile's development process since 1948, with the delivery of the first loans to a non-European country. With the opening of its first office in Santiago in December 2017, the Bank Group has strengthened its partnership with Chile. Today the Bank works in close collaboration with 15 ministries, 3 regional governments and more than 200 municipalities to provide technical assistance and support public policy design in priority areas.
Though a mostly knowledge-based engagement, the World Bank supports Chile as implements innovative approaches to development. Led by a substantial and growing Reimbursable Advisory Services (RAS) program that has tripled in the last two years, it includes ongoing work on the design and implementation of best-practice social protection programs, on ambitious environment and climate change goals, and on how to factor equity and climate into public investment plans.
The International Finance Corporation investment portfolio in Chile stands at $652 million, with an additional US$433 million in mobilization for a total of US$1.1 billion in 17 active clients. Its engagement has focused on bringing innovative financing mechanisms to renewable energy, micro-- small- and medium-enterprise financing, and education.
Some selected projects that have recently concluded:
In coordination with the Ministry of Social and Family Development, the World Bank is implementing Gestión Social Local (GSL), a methodology to assess performance and provide an integrated delivery social benefits and services at the municipal level. Through a one-stop shop, officials can offer each beneficiary a full support package from the various programs and transfers for which they qualify. This not only increases the delivery of support, but also increases the efficiency of public spending and support programs through an integrated platform. Considering the importance of GSL to the municipal response to the social and economic impacts of COVID-19, this program was expanded to 232 municipalities throughout Chile and will reach all the municipalities in the country in 2021. It will also add a new module for employment support on a pilot basis 7 municipalities, that will be extended to other 50 during this year.
In coordination with the Ministry of Social and Family Development we supported the Clase Media Protegida program. Although the Chilean middle class has been growing in the last decade, certain catastrophic situations have been identified for as areas where a public policy response could significantly to this reduce downward mobility into vulnerability or poverty.
Additionally we worked with the Ministry of Health, Civil Society and Parliamentarians to showcase the Ley Ricarte Soto that provides support for high-cost illnesses.
With the Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning we conducted a study to assess the state of timber construction in the country and the potential for industrialized timber construction to help overcome the social housing deficit while revitalizing growth and reducing the impact of construction on climate change.
During the Chilean COP Presidency, our support included a Roadmap for Blue Carbon in Chile. With the Ministry of Agriculture we conducted a water and irrigation study that provided updated data.
In 2019-2020 under the framework of the Partnership RAS Program with the Ministry of Finance, we shared international lessons and best practice for the design and implementation of fiscal decentralization reforms .
State Department Terrorist Designations of ISIS Affiliates and Leaders in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Mozambique
The Department of State has designated the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria – Democratic Republic of the Congo (ISIS-DRC) and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria – Mozambique (ISIS-Mozambique) as Foreign Terrorist Organizations under section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended. The Department has also designated ISIS-DRC and ISIS-Mozambique as Specially Designated Global Terrorists (SDGTs) under Executive Order 13224, while also designating respective leaders of those organizations, Seka Musa Baluku and Abu Yasir Hassan, as SDGTs.
As a result of these designations, among other consequences, all property and interests in property of those designated that are subject to U.S. jurisdiction are blocked, and U.S. persons are generally prohibited from engaging in any transactions with them. Foreign financial institutions that knowingly conduct or facilitate any significant transaction on behalf of these groups or individuals could be subject to U.S. correspondent account or payable-through account sanctions. Additionally, it is a crime to knowingly provide material support or resources to ISIS-DRC or ISIS-Mozambique, or to attempt or conspire to do so.
The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) announced the launch of the Islamic State Central Africa Province (ISCAP) in April 2019 to promote the presence of ISIS associated elements within Central, East, and Southern Africa. Although ISIS-associated media portray ISCAP as a unified structure, ISIS-DRC and ISIS-Mozambique are distinct groups with distinct origins.
ISIS-DRC, also known as the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) and Madina at Tauheed Wau Mujahedeen, among other names, is responsible for many attacks across North Kivu and Ituri Provinces in eastern DRC. Under the leadership of Seka Musa Baluku, ISIS-DRC has been notorious in this region for its brutal violence against Congolese citizens and regional military forces, with attacks killing over 849 civilians in 2020 alone, according to United Nations reporting on the ADF. The ADF was previously sanctioned by the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the United Nations under the UN Security Council’s DRC sanctions regime in 2014 for its violence and atrocities. The U.S. Department of the Treasury also sanctioned six ADF members, including leader Seka Musa Baluku, in 2019 under the Global Magnitsky sanctions program for their roles in serious human rights abuse, with a subsequent United Nations sanctions listing for Baluku in early 2020 under the DRC sanctions program.
ISIS-Mozambique, also known as Ansar al-Sunna (and locally as al-Shabaab in Mozambique), among other names, reportedly pledged allegiance to ISIS as early as April 2018, and was acknowledged by ISIS-Core as an affiliate in August 2019. Since October 2017, ISIS-Mozambique, led by Abu Yasir Hassan, has killed more than 1,300 civilians, and it is estimated that more than 2,300 civilians, security force members, and suspected ISIS-Mozambique militants have been killed since the terrorist group began its violent extremist insurgency. The group was responsible for orchestrating a series of large scale and sophisticated attacks resulting in the capture of the strategic port of Mocimboa da Praia, Cabo Delgado Province. ISIS-Mozambique’s attacks have caused the displacement of nearly 670,000 persons within northern Mozambique.
The Second Spanish Republic
The Second Spanish Republic played an important role in the country&rsquos history. It began as a late consequence of the stock market crash of 1929 and was terminated by the dictatorship of General Franco, who emerged victorious from the Spanish Civil War after plotting a military coup against the republic. The period marked the second time in Spanish history that citizens could vote for their leaders.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929 sent Spain spiraling into an economic crisis and led to the downfall of General Miguel Primo de Rivera's dictatorial government. Spanish King Alfonso XIII had supported the dictatorial regime and therefore became a symbol of oppression in the eyes of the working class, who, after a period of turmoil, helped the Republicans rise to power and win the election. During the transition between the fall of the dictatorship in 1930 and the proclamation of the republic in 1931, the Pact of San Sebastián was signed by the Republicans to overthrow the monarchy.
In response to the anti-monarchical campaign, King Alfonso XIII decided to flee to Rome and a provisional government was established, headed by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora. On December 9, 1931, a new Spanish constitution was adopted. It guaranteed the freedom of speech and freedom of association, gave women the right to vote, legalized divorce, and stripped Spanish nobility of their noble privileges. Under this constitution, the National Anthem was changed to the Himno de Riego and Spain&rsquos flag became tricolored (red-yellow-purple) with horizontal stripes. Additionally, Spain's regions now had the right to autonomy, which was declared by Catalonia in 1932 and by the Basque Country in 1936.
During the period of the Second Spanish Republic, numerous reforms were carried out, including an important land reform. However, these efforts failed to meet expectations. In the following months, there was increasing violence between liberals and conservatives, and various strikes and popular uprisings contributed to the instability of the new government.
Seizing upon this opportunity, a group of military officers led by General Francisco Franco attempted a coup d'état in July of 1936, which was met with serious resistance and led to a full-blown civil war.
The Second Spanish Republic effectively came to an end on April 1, 1939, when General Francisco Franco and his forces were declared victorious in the Spanish Civil War. After decades of dictatorship and varying levels of repression, Franco died in 1975. King Juan Carlos I, the great-grandson of Alfonso XIII and Franco&rsquos chosen successor, supported Spain's transition to a democracy and called for elections.
Republic of Chile Declared - History
"Imagination plays too important a role in the writing of history, and what is imagination but the projection of the author's personality." - Pieter Geyl.
Please note: The Republic of Molossia bears no relation to the ancient Greek nation of the same name.
The Molossian Nation was founded on May 26th, 1977 I. Known at that time as the Grand Republic of Vuldstein, James Spielman was declared King James I, and Kevin Baugh was declared Prime Minister. After a short period of sporadic activity the nation entered into a period of dormancy. King James I, though still monarch, ceased to be active in the kingdom at that time. The Kingdom continued on, without the direct participation of the King, and continued to be developed by the Prime Minister. In 1980 III it was renamed the Kingdom of Edelstein, and in 1988 XI it was renamed again, this time as the Kingdom of Zaria. The Kingdom existed as a nomadic government, without a home. Carried on by the Prime Minister, the Government traveled to Europe. While in Europe, and after its return from Europe in 1992 XV, the Kingdom prospered and grew culturally.
In 1995 XVIII, the Kingdom was transplanted to the State of Nevada, USA. In 1998, land was purchased that our nation could call home, and upon which the government was formally and officially established. In June 1998 XXI, the Kingdom was renounced in favor of a provisional Communist government. In September 1998 XXI, Molossia sacrificed its sovereignty and joined the United Provinces of Utopia as a province of that nation.
In January 1999 XXII the UPOU ceased to exist as a nation, and bereft of a national government, the People's Democratic Republic of Molossia was declared, on February 21st, 1999 XXII, with Kevin Baugh serving as Premier.
Beginning in the spring of 1999 XXII, Molossia began a serious path of developing itself as an emerging small nation, rather than a micronation project. Our possession of physical territory makes this a course a tangible one, rather than a fantasy.
On September 3rd, 1999 XXII, the Communist government was renounced, the People's Democratic Republic ceased to exist, and the Republic of Molossia was declared. The former Premier, Kevin Baugh, became the President of the new government.
As a republic, we have strived to unite small nations, and to extend the world of small nations into the world of large nations. In 2000 XXIII, Molossia hosted the first Intermicronational Olympic Games, in concert with the 2000 Sydney Games. That same year, Molossia sponsored the successful adoption of Norton Day (January 8th) as the first international holiday exclusively for small nations, and further created the Norton Awards for Intermicronational Excellence. In 2001 XXIV, our nation hosted the first Intermicronational World Exposition, showcasing small nations from the world over.
In August 2003 XXVI Molossia expanded its frontiers for the first time and purchased land in Northern California, creating our first colony, Farfalla. This colony was surrendered in late 2005, only to be supplanted almost simultaneously by a new territory, Desert Homestead Province, located in Southern California. In February 2015 XXXVIII Farfalla Colony was regained by our nation, becoming a part of Molossia again after nearly ten years.
On 22 May 2006 XXIX, Molossia was attacked by the nearby small nation of Mustachistan, resulting in a brief war with that nation. That war ended on 8 June 2006 XXIX, with a resounding Molossian victory. Problems have continued with that country however, most recently with a crisis over the Mustachistan missile program in November and December 2006 XXIX.
In March 2007 XXX, Molossia led the way in the environmental arena by banning incandescent lightbulbs. In January 2009 XXXII, Molossia also banned plastic shopping bags and began a comprehensive recycling program.
In September 2008 XXXI, a long-forgotten Declaration of War was discovered, opening hostilities with East Germany. War was apparently declared on 2 November 1983 VII, when Molossia was still known as the Grand Republic of Vuldstein. In spite of East Germany being defunct, it still exists in part in the form of a small uninhabited island off Cuba, and thus the war, at least in theory, continues, with no end in sight.
On 9 April 2010 XXXIII, Molossia was invaded and the government was briefly overthrown. The nation was renamed "Kickassia", and a dictatorial leader assumed control. His authoritarian style quickly became his downfall and the upstart government collapsed swiftly. On 12 April 2010 XXXIII, the invaders departed peacefully and Molossia was restored to its rightful state, with His Excellency, The President again at the helm.
Due to its longevity, Molossia has gained the respect of other small, unrecognized nations, and a certain amount of notoriety. Our nation has been featured in several radio interviews, a television interview, newspapers and magazines around the world, internet articles, and in a book by Lonely Planet. His Excellency, The President also appears regularly in the annual Nevada Day Parade, held in nearby Carson City, Nevada. Our nation has an active Space Program and frequently launches rockets. Molossia has a proud Navy, which regularly plies the waters of local lakes and even the ocean. Molossia sets the standards for others, leading the way in the world of small nations.
Molossia has a proud heritage and history, one that is unique to our nation and set us apart as a special place. Today's republic looks toward a proud future for all Molossians and small nations the world over.