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Cal State Monterey Bay

Cal State Monterey Bay

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California State University Monterey Bay is situated between the Salinas Valley and Monterey Bay, in Seaside, California. It is commonly referred to as Cal State Monterey Bay.It is a 1,387-acre campus, which was once the army base to hundreds of families and local community members. The university emphasizes to offer quality higher education for traditionally underserved and low-income populations in the community.The Cal State Monterey Bay was founded in 1994, after the closure of Fort Ord - the largest U.S. President, Bill Clinton.The other facilities on campus include a Campus Health Center and the Library Learning Complex. The first new building on the campus was constructed during the academic year 2001-2002.CSU Monterey Bay offers a total of 14 undergraduate degrees, four graduate degrees, and several teacher certification options. Some of the college departments include arts, humanities and social science, professional studies, university studies, and media arts and technology.Cal State Monterey Bay is accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

California State University, Monterey Bay

California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB or Cal State Monterey Bay) is a public university in Monterey County, California. Its main campus is located on the site of the former military base Fort Ord, straddling the cities of Seaside and Marina, about one mile inland from Monterey Bay along the Central Coast of California. CSUMB also has locations in the cities of Monterey and Salinas. Founded in 1994, CSUMB is part of the California State University system and is accredited by the WASC Senior College and University Commission. The university is a Hispanic-serving institution.


Native American period Edit

Long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. [12] They subsisted by hunting, fishing and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula. Researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlone's primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone. [13] A number of midden sites have been located along about 12 miles (19 km) of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans' Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. [14]

Spanish period Edit

The city is named after Monterey Bay. The current bay's name was given by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602. He anchored in what is now the Monterey harbor on December 16, and named it Puerto de Monterrey, in honor of the Conde de Monterrey, who was then the viceroy of New Spain. [15] Monterrey is an alternate spelling of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain from which the viceroy and his father (the Fourth Count of Monterrei) originated. Some variants of the city's name are recorded as Monte Rey and Monterey. [16] Monterey Bay had been described earlier by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, but he had given it a different name. Despite the explorations of Cabrillo and Vizcaino, and despite Spain's frequent trading voyages between Asia and Mexico, the Spanish did not make Monterey Bay into a settled permanent harbor before the eighteenth century because it was too exposed to rough ocean currents and winds.

Despite Monterey's limited use as a maritime port, the encroachments of other Europeans near California in the eighteenth century prompted the Spanish monarchy to try to better secure the region. As a result it commissioned the Portola exploration and Alta California mission system. In 1769 the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolá expedition, traveled north from San Diego. They sought Vizcaíno's Port of Monterey, which he had described as "a fine harbor sheltered from all winds" 167 years earlier. [17] The explorers failed to recognize the place, which he when they came to it on October 1, 1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back. On the return journey, they camped near one of Monterey's lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaíno had described. [18] Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, "We halted in sight of the Point of Pines (recognized, as was said, in the beginning of October) and camped near a small lagoon which has rather muddy water, but abounds in pasture and firewood." [19]

Gaspar de Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcaíno's Port of Monterey after all. The land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra, [20] who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3, 1770, Serra founded the Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo inside the presidio enclosure. Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the second governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. [21] San Diego is the only city in California older than Monterey.

Serra's missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, so he relocated and built a new mission in Carmel the following year to gain greater independence from Fages. The existing wood and adobe church remained in service to the nearby soldiers and became the Royal Presidio Chapel.

Monterey became the capital of the "Province of Both Californias" in 1777, and the chapel was renamed the Royal Presidio Chapel. The original church was destroyed by fire in 1789 and replaced by the present sandstone structure. It was completed in 1794 by Indian labor. [22] In 1840, the chapel was rededicated to the patronage of Saint Charles Borromeo. The cathedral is the oldest continuously operating parish and the oldest stone building in California. It is also the oldest (and smallest) serving cathedral along with St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, Louisiana. It is the only existing presidio chapel in California and the only surviving building from the original Monterey Presidio. [23]

The city was originally the only port of entry for all taxable goods in California. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House, the oldest governmental building in the state and California's Historic Landmark Number One. [24] Built in three phases, the Spanish began construction of the Custom House in 1814, the Mexican government completed the center section in 1827, and the United States government finished the lower end in 1846. [25]

On November 24, 1818, Argentine corsair Hippolyte Bouchard landed 7 km (4.3 mi) away from the Presidio of Monterey in a hidden creek. The fort's resistance proved ineffective, and after an hour of combat the Argentine flag flew over it. [26] The Argentines took the city for six days, during which time they stole the cattle and burned the fort, the artillery headquarters, the governor's residence and the Spanish houses. The town's residents were unharmed. [27]

Mexican period Edit

Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, but the civil and religious institutions of Alta California remained much the same until the 1830s, when the secularization of the missions converted most of the mission pasture lands into private land grant ranchos.

Monterey was the site of the Battle of Monterey on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War. It was on this date that John D. Sloat, Commodore in the United States Navy, raised the U.S. flag over the Monterey Custom House and claimed California for the United States.

In addition, many historic "firsts" occurred in Monterey. These include California's first theater, brick house, publicly funded school, public building, public library, and printing press, which printed The Californian, California's first newspaper. Larkin House, [28] one of Monterey State Historic Park's National Historic Landmarks, built in the Mexican period by Thomas Oliver Larkin, is an early example of Monterey Colonial architecture. The old Custom House, [29] the historic district and the Royal Presidio Chapel are also National Historic Landmarks. [30] The Cooper-Molera Adobe is a National Trust Historic Site. [31]

State of California Edit

Colton Hall, [32] built in 1849 by Walter Colton, originally served as both a public school and a government meeting place.

Monterey hosted California's first constitutional convention in 1849, which composed the documents necessary to apply to the United States for statehood. Today it houses a small museum, while adjacent buildings serve as the seat of local government, and the Monterey post office (opened in 1849). [16] Monterey was incorporated in 1890. [16]

Monterey had long been famous for the abundant fishery in Monterey Bay. That changed in the 1950s when the local fishery business collapsed due to overfishing. A few of the old fishermen's cabins from the early 20th century have been preserved as they originally stood along Cannery Row.

The city has a noteworthy history as a center for California painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Such painters as Arthur Frank Mathews, Armin Hansen, Xavier Martinez, Rowena Meeks Abdy and Percy Gray lived or visited to pursue painting in the style of either En plein air or Tonalism.

In addition to painters, many noted authors have also lived in and around the Monterey area, including Robert Louis Stevenson, John Steinbeck, Ed Ricketts, Robinson Jeffers, Robert A. Heinlein, and Henry Miller.

More recently, Monterey has been recognized for its significant involvement in post-secondary learning of languages other than English and its major role in delivering translation and interpretation services around the world.

In November 1995, California Governor Pete Wilson proclaimed Monterey as "the Language Capital of the World". [1]

On June 7, 2021, the new macOS Monterey operating system was presented at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC2021) and named after the Monterey region.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.7 sq mi (30.4 km 2 ), of which 8.5 sq mi (21.9 km 2 ) is land and 3.3 sq mi (8.5 km 2 ) (28.05%) is water. Sand deposits in the northern coastal area comprise the sole known mineral resources.

Local soil is Quaternary Alluvium. Common soil series include the Baywood fine sand on the east side, Narlon loamy sand on the west side, Sheridan coarse sandy loam on hilly terrain, and the pale Tangair sand on hills supporting closed-cone pine habitat. The city is in a moderate to high seismic risk zone, the principal threat being the active San Andreas Fault approximately 26 miles (42 km) to the east. The Monterey Bay fault, which tracks three miles (4.8 km) to the north, is also active, as is the Palo Colorado fault seven miles (11.3 km) to the south. Also nearby, minor but potentially active, are the Berwick Canyon, Seaside, Tularcitos and Chupines faults.

Monterey Bay's maximum credible tsunami for a 100-year interval has been calculated as a wave nine feet (2.7 m) high. The considerable undeveloped area in the northwest part of the city has a high potential for landslides and erosion.

The city is adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, a federally protected ocean area extending 276 mi (444 km) along the coast. Sometimes this sanctuary is confused with the local bay which is also termed Monterey Bay.

The California sea otter, a threatened subspecies, inhabits the local Monterey Bay marine environment, and a field station of The Marine Mammal Center is located in Monterey to support sea rescue operations in this section of the California coast. The rare San Joaquin kit fox is found in Monterey's oak-forest and chaparral habitats. The chaparral, found mainly on the city's drier eastern slopes, hosts such plants as manzanita, chamise and ceanothus. Additional species of interest (that is, potential candidates for endangered species status) are the Salinas kangaroo rat and the silver-sided legless lizard.

There is a variety of natural habitat in Monterey: littoral zone and sand dunes closed-cone pine forest and Monterey Cypress. There are no dairy farms in the city of Monterey the semi-hard cheese known as Monterey Jack originated in nearby Carmel Valley, California, and is named after businessman and land speculator David Jack.

The closed-cone pine habitat is dominated by Monterey pine, Knobcone pine and Bishop pine, and contains the rare Monterey manzanita. In the early 20th century the botanist Willis Linn Jepson characterized Monterey Peninsula's forests as the "most important silva ever", and encouraged Samuel F.B. Morse (a century younger than the inventor Samuel F. B. Morse) of the Del Monte Properties Company to explore the possibilities of preserving the unique forest communities. [33] The dune area is no less important, as it hosts endangered species such as the vascular plants Seaside birds beak, Hickman's potentilla and Eastwood's Ericameria. Rare plants also inhabit the chaparral: Hickman's onion, Yadon's piperia (Piperia yadonii) and Sandmat manzanita. Other rare plants in Monterey include Hutchinson's delphinium, Tidestrom lupine, Gardner's yampah and Knotweed, the latter perhaps already extinct.

Monterey's noise pollution has been mapped to define the principal sources of noise and to ascertain the areas of the population exposed to significant levels. Principal sources are the Monterey Regional Airport, State Route 1 and major arterial streets such as Munras Avenue, Fremont Street, Del Monte Boulevard, and Camino Aguajito. While most of Monterey is a quiet residential city, a moderate number of people in the northern part of the city are exposed to aircraft noise at levels in excess of 60 dB on the Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) scale. The most intense source is State Route 1: all residents exposed to levels greater than 65 CNEL—about 1600 people—live near State Route 1 or one of the principal arterial streets.

Climate Edit

The climate of Monterey is regulated by its proximity to the Pacific Ocean resulting in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csb) and closely resembles that of an oceanic climate. The average high temperatures in the city range from around 57 °F (14 °C) in December to 70 °F (21 °C) in September (which is warmer than both July & August). Average annual precipitation is around 19.5 inches (500 mm), with most rainfall occurring between October and April, with little to no precipitation falling during the summer months. There is an average of 70 days with measurable precipitation annually. Summers in Monterey are often cool and foggy. The cold surface waters cause even summer nights to be unusually cool for the latitude, opposite to on the U.S. east coast where coastal summer days and nights are much warmer. The extreme moderation is further underlined by the fact that Monterey is on a similar latitude in California as Death Valley – one of the hottest areas in the world. Regions of the world with similar temperatures to Monterey include much of the United Kingdom, Ireland, southern Australia (including Tasmania), New Zealand, the western coast of Norway, the coastal areas of Scandinavia, and the Atlantic coast of Spain.

During winter, snow occasionally falls in the higher elevations of the Santa Lucia Mountains and Gabilan Mountains that overlook Monterey, but snow in Monterey itself is extremely rare. A few unusual events in January 1962, February 1976, and December 1997 brought a light coating of snow to Monterey. In March 2006, a total of 3.2 inches (81 mm) fell in Monterey, including 2.2 inches (56 mm) on March 10, 2006. The snowfall on January 21, 1962, of 1.5 inches (38 mm), is remembered for delaying the Bing Crosby golf tournament in nearby Pebble Beach.

The record lowest temperature was 20 °F (−7 °C) on December 22, 1990. Annually, there are an average of 2.9 days with 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, and an average of 2 days with lows reaching the freezing mark or lower.

The wettest year on record was 1998 with 41.01 inches (1,042 mm) of precipitation. The driest year was 1953 with 8.95 inches (227 mm). The most precipitation in one month was 14.26 inches (362 mm) in February 1998. The record maximum 24-hour precipitation was 3.85 inches (98 mm) on December 23, 1995. [34]

Climate data for Monterey
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
Average high °F (°C) 58.3
Average low °F (°C) 43.7
Record low °F (°C) 22
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.40
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11 10 10 6 4 3 2 2 2 4 7 10 70
Source 1: WRCC (temperature and precipitation 1981–2010, extremes 1906–present) [35]
Source 2: Weather Channel [36]
Historical population
Census Pop.
18801,396 25.5%
18901,662 19.1%
19001,748 5.2%
19104,923 181.6%
19205,479 11.3%
19309,141 66.8%
194010,084 10.3%
195016,205 60.7%
196022,618 39.6%
197026,302 16.3%
198027,558 4.8%
199031,954 16.0%
200029,674 −7.1%
201027,810 −6.3%
2019 (est.)28,178 [10] 1.3%
U.S. Decennial Census [37]

2010 Edit

The 2010 United States Census [38] reported that Monterey had a population of 27,810. The population density was 2,364.0 people per square mile (912.7/km 2 ). The racial makeup of Monterey was 21,788 (78.3%) White, 777 (2.8%) African American, 149 (0.5%) Native American, 2,204 (7.9%) Asian, 91 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 1,382 (5.0%) from other races, and 1,419 (5.1%) from two or more races. There were 3,817 people (13.7%) of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race.

The Census reported that 25,307 people (91.0% of the population) lived in households, 2,210 (7.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 293 (1.1%) were institutionalized.

There were 12,184 households, out of which 2,475 (20.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 4,690 (38.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 902 (7.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 371 (3.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. 4,778 households (39.2%) were made up of individuals, and 1,432 (11.8%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08. There were 5,963 families (48.9% of all households) the average family size was 2.81.

The population was spread out, with 4,266 people (15.3%) under the age of 18, 3,841 people (13.8%) aged 18 to 24, 8,474 people (30.5%) aged 25 to 44, 6,932 people (24.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 4,297 people (15.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.6 males.

There were 13,584 housing units at an average density of 1,154.7 per square mile (445.8/km 2 ), of which 4,360 (35.8%) were owner-occupied, and 7,824 (64.2%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0% the rental vacancy rate was 6.5%. 9,458 people (34.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 15,849 people (57.0%) lived in rental housing units.

2000 Edit

As of the census of 2000, [39] there were 29,674 people, 12,600 households, and 6,476 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,516.9 people per square mile (1,357.5/km 2 ). There were 13,382 housing units at an average density of 1,586.0 per square mile (612.2/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 80.8% White, 10.9% Hispanic, 7.4% Asian, 2.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races.

There were 12,600 households, out of which 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.6% were non-families. 37.0% of all households consisted of individuals, and 11.0% had a lone dweller who is over 64. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.82.

The age distribution is as follows: 16.6% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 33.8% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $49,109, and the median income for a family was $58,757. Males had a median income of $40,410 versus $31,258 for females. The per capita income for the city was $27,133. About 4.4% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over.

The city is served by Monterey Regional Airport, and local bus Service is provided by Monterey-Salinas Transit. The city government's Recreation and Community Services department runs the Monterey Sports Center. [40]

Top employers Edit

According to the City's 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [41] the top private sector employers in the city are (in alphabetical order):

Employer # of Employees
Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula 1,000 to 4,999
Ctb Mc Graw-Hill LLC 500 to 999
Dole Fresh Vegetables 250 to 499
Hyatt Regency Monterey Hotel & Spa 250 to 499
Language Line 250 to 499
Macy's 250 to 499
Monterey Bay Aquarium 250 to 499
Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey 250 to 499
Monterey Plaza Hotel & Spa 250 to 499
Portola Hotel & Spa 250 to 499

The top public sector employers are (in alphabetical order):

Employer # of Employees
City of Monterey 250 to 499
Defense Language Institute 1,000 to 4,999
Monterey Peninsula College 500 to 999
Monterey-Salinas Transit 250–499
Naval Postgraduate School 1,000 to 4,999

Other private sector employers based in Monterey include Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, and Mapleton Communications. Additional military facilities in Monterey include the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, and the United States Naval Research Laboratory – Monterey.

Visual arts Edit

Monterey is the home of the Monterey Museum of Art, its annex museum La Mirada and the Salvador Dalí Museum. There are several commercial galleries located in the historic district of Cannery Row, New Monterey and Customs House Plaza. [42]

Monterey is also the site of numerous waterfront arts and crafts festivals held in the Custom House Plaza at the top of Fisherman's Wharf. [ citation needed ]

Literary arts Edit

Steinbeck's friends included some of the city's more colorful characters, including Ed Ricketts, a marine biologist, and Bruce Ariss, artist and theater enthusiast who designed and built the Wharf Theater.

After Ricketts' death, the new owner of his lab and a group of friends assembled each Wednesday at the lab for drinks and jazz music. While visiting with the group, San Francisco disc jockey Jimmy Lyons suggested holding a jazz celebration in Monterey, which eventually became the Monterey Jazz Festival. [43]

In 1879 Robert Louis Stevenson spent a short time in Monterey at the French Hotel while writing The Amateur Emigrant, "The Old Pacific Capital," and "Vendetta of the West." The former hotel, now known as the "Stevenson House", stands at 530 Houston Street and features items that belonged to the writer.

Music Edit

The Monterey Jazz Festival began in 1958, presenting such artists as Louie Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, and Billie Holiday, and now claims to be "the longest running jazz festival in the world" (since the Newport Jazz Festival moved locations). [44]

In June 1967 the city was the venue of the Monterey Pop Festival. Formally known as the Monterey International Pop Music Festival the three-day concert event was held June 16 to 18, 1967, at the Monterey County Fairgrounds. It was the first widely promoted and heavily attended rock festival, attracting an estimated 200,000 total attendees with 55,000 to 90,000 people present at the event's peak at midnight on Sunday. It was notable as hosting the first major American appearances by Jimi Hendrix and The Who, as well as the first major public performances of Janis Joplin and Otis Redding. [45]

The Monterey Pop Festival embodied the themes of San Francisco as a focal point for the counterculture and is generally regarded as one of the beginnings of the "Summer of Love" in 1967. [46] It also became the template for future music festivals, notably the Woodstock Festival two years later.

In 1986, the Monterey Blues Festival was created and ran continuously for over two decades. [47] It filed for bankruptcy in 2012 [48] and was resurrected in 2017 as the Monterey International Blues Festival.

Theatre arts Edit

The building in which the first paid public dramatic entertainment in California occurred is located in Monterey and is called, appropriately, "California's First Theater". In 1847, a sailor named Jack Swan began construction on an adobe building at the corner of Pacific St. and Scott Ave, near the Pacific House and Fisherman's Wharf. Between 1847 and 1848 several detachments of soldiers were stationed in Monterey and some of the sailors approached Swan with a proposition to lease a section of his building for use as a theater and money-making venture—a proposal that Swan accepted. The enterprise collected $500 on its first performance, a considerable sum at that time. The primary mediums presented were melodramas and Olios (a form of musical revue and audience sing-along). In the spring of 1848, the play Putnam, the Iron Son of '76, was presented. After the California Gold Rush of 1849, much of the population, including Swan, traveled to northern California in search of riches. As a result, by the end that year, the company disbanded. In 1896, Swan died and the building was abandoned until 1906 when it was purchased by the California Historic Landmarks League, who deeded it to the State of California. In 1937, the building was leased to Denny-Watrous Management, who revived the tradition of melodrama at the now historic building. A resident company was created and named the Troupers of the Gold Coast, who maintained the tradition for over 50 years, closing for renovation in 1999. [49] It is now permanently closed.

The Wharf Theater opened on Fisherman's Wharf on May 18, 1950, with a production of Happy Birthday, featuring a set designed by Bruce Ariss. The theater also produced one of Bruce Ariss' original plays and was successful enough to draw the attention of MGM who brought the artist to Hollywood to work for several years. The theater was destroyed by fire on December 31, 1959. The company re-opened in 1960 in a new location on Alvarado Street (formerly "The Monterey Theater") which in 1963 was renamed "The Old Monterey Opera House". It continued until the mid-1960s when it fell to urban renewal. In the early 1970s, discussions began about rebuilding back on the wharf itself, and theater plans began to take shape. Bruce Ariss and Angelo Di Girolamo, whose brother had the original idea for a theater on the wharf, began construction on The New Wharf Theater in 1975. [50] Designed by Ariss, the New Wharf Theater opened its doors on December 3, 1976, with a community theater production of Guys and Dolls, directed by Monterey Peninsula College Drama Department chairman, Morgan Stock. Located at the northwest end of old Fisherman's Wharf, the theater is now known as the Bruce Ariss Wharf Theater. Girolamo died in September 2014. [51] [52]

In 2005, the Golden State Theatre, a former movie palace located on Alvarado Street was refurbished to produce live theatrical events. The Forest Theater Guild produced several plays at the Golden State including: Aida, Grease, Zoot Suit, and Fiddler on the Roof. The theater's new owners, Eric and Lori Lochtefeld, have produced several musicals in the theater in conjunction with Broadway By the Bay.

Attractions Edit

Monterey is well known for the abundance and diversity of its marine life, [53] which includes sea lions, sea otters, harbor seals, bat rays, kelp forests, pelicans and dolphins and several species of whales. Only a few miles offshore is the Monterey Canyon, the largest and deepest (3.2 km) underwater canyon off the Pacific coast of North America, which grants scientists access to the deep sea within hours. [54] The cornucopia of marine life makes Monterey a popular destination for scuba divers of all abilities ranging from novice to expert. Scuba classes are held at San Carlos State Beach, [55] which has been a favorite with divers since the 1960s. The Monterey Bay Aquarium on Cannery Row is one of the largest aquariums in North America, and several marine science laboratories, including Hopkins Marine Station are located in the area. [ citation needed ]

Monterey's historic Fisherman's Wharf was constructed in 1845, reconstructed in 1870 and is now a commercial shopping and restaurant district with several whale watching entities operating at the end of its pier. [ citation needed ]

Monterey is home to several museums and more than thirty carefully preserved historic buildings. Most of these buildings are adobes built in the mid-1800s. Some are museums and open to the public, including the Cooper Molera Adobe, Robert Louis Stevenson House, Casa Serrano, The Perry House, The Customs House, Colton Hall, Mayo Hayes O'Donnell Library and The First Brick House. [53] [56] Many others are only open during Monterey's annual adobe tour. The Monterey Museum of Art specializes in Early California Impressionist painting, photography, and contemporary art. Other youth-oriented art attractions include MY Museum, a children's museum, and YAC, an arts organization for teens. [ citation needed ]

What may be the only whalebone sidewalk still in existence in the United States lies in front of the Old Whaling Station, [57] left by New England whalers while California was still part of New Spain. [58]

Cannery Row is an historic industrial district west of downtown Monterey. Several companies operated large sardine canneries and packing houses from the 1920s until the 1950s when the sardines were overfished and the industry collapsed. The neighborhood was largely empty from the 1950s until the late 1980s when the Monterey Bay Aquarium bought the former Hovden Cannery and built their aquarium around it. The Aquarium revitalized the neighborhood and it is now the number one tourist destination on the Monterey Peninsula. Several of the canneries burnt down in the 1970s and some of their empty foundations are still visible along the oceanfront. A free shuttle transports visitors between downtown Monterey and the Aquarium.

Once called Ocean View Boulevard, Cannery Row street was renamed in 1953 in honor of writer John Steinbeck, [59] who had written a well-known novel of the same name. It has now become a tourist attraction with numerous establishments located in former cannery buildings, including Cannery Row Antique Mall which is located in the most historically intact cannery building open to the public. Other historical buildings in this district include Wing Chong Market, The American Tin Cannery which is a shopping mall, Doc Rickett's lab, next door to the aquarium and only open to the public a few times a year, and some of the water tanks written about by Steinbeck. A few privately owned and operated fishing companies still exist on Cannery Row, housed on piers located a short distance from the historic district frequented by tourists. Cannery Row is now considered the historic cannery district from Foam St. to the ocean. [ citation needed ]

Lake El Estero is a popular Monterey park. Recreation opportunities include paddle boats, the Dennis the Menace Park (named after the comics character Dennis the Menace), and a skate park designed by local skaters. Birders are especially fond of this park due to its easy accessibility and the diversity of bird life it attracts.

Religion Edit

The headquarters of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Monterey in California is in Monterey, and one of the relatively few Oratorian communities in the United States is located in the city. The city is adjacent to the historic Catholic Carmel Mission.

The Monterey Amberjacks are a professional baseball team that competes in the independent Pecos League which is not affiliated with Major League Baseball or Minor League Baseball. They play their home games at Sollecito Ballpark. [60]

The Monterey Bay Derby Dames is a non-profit, amateur flat track roller derby league created by skaters for skaters in Monterey County, California. They are a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. [ citation needed ]

Municipal government Edit

Monterey is governed by a mayor and 4 city council members, all elected by the public. [6]

As of December 2019, the mayor is Clyde Roberson and the city council members are Dan Albert, Jr., Alan Haffa, Ed Smith, and Tyller Williamson. [6]

The City of Monterey provides base maintenance support services for the Presidio of Monterey and the Naval Postgraduate School, including streets, parks, and building maintenance. Additional support services include traffic engineering, inspections, construction engineering and project management. [61] This innovative partnership has become known as the "Monterey Model" and is now being adopted by communities across the country. This service reduces maintenance costs by millions of dollars and supports a continued military presence in Monterey. [62]

County, state, and federal representatives Edit

Monterey is represented on the Monterey County Board of Supervisors by Supervisor Mary Adams. [63]

Local radio stations include KPIG-FM 107.5, KAZU-FM – 90.3 KDON-FM – 102.5, KCDU-FM – 101.7, KWAV-FM – 96.9, KDFG-FM – 103.9, KIDD-AM – 630, KNRY-AM – 1240, KRML 94.7 FM jazz, and 1610-AM the city information station. Television service for the community comes from the Monterey-Salinas-Santa Cruz designated market area (DMA). Local newspapers include the Monterey County Herald and the Monterey County Weekly.

Transportation Edit

The city is serviced by California State Route 1, also known as the Cabrillo Highway, as it runs along the coastline of the rest of Monterey Bay to the north and Big Sur to the south. California State Route 68, also known as the Monterey-Salinas Highway, connects the city to U.S. Route 101 at Salinas and to Pacific Grove.

Monterey Regional Airport connects the city to the large metropolitan areas in California, Arizona, Colorado, and Nevada.

Monterey train station was served until 1971, when Amtrak took over intercity train service and the Del Monte was discontinued.

There are several institutions of higher education in the area: the Defense Language Institute, located on the Presidio of Monterey, California the Naval Postgraduate School, on the site of a former resort hotel the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (a graduate school of Middlebury College) and Monterey Peninsula College, part of the California Community Colleges system. The federal institutions (the Defense Language Institute (DLI) and the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)) are important employers in and strongly associated with the city.

California State University, Monterey Bay and the Monterey College of Law are located at the site of the former Fort Ord in neighboring Seaside. CSU Monterey Bay has developed several programs in marine and watershed sciences.

The Monterey Peninsula Unified School District operates a high school, a middle school and three elementary schools. [65] Private schools include Santa Catalina School (girls, co-ed elementary and middle school) and Trinity Christian High School (co-ed).

Point Pinos Lighthouse is one of the six lighthouses along the coast for which Congress appropriated funds shortly after California statehood was ratified. Built in 1855, Pacific Grove&aposs lighthouse is on the northernmost tip of the Peninsula. Before its construction, this point had proved dangerous to sailors who mistakenly believed they had reached Monterey Bay.

Initially, whale oil was used to fuel the light at Point Pinos Lighthouse. In 1880, the lighthouse shifted to kerosene for fuel. In 1919, it was finally electrified.

Point Pinos Lighthouse was not just an aid to navigation it was a social hub in early Pacific Grove. Robert Louis Stevenson wrote positively of lightkeeper Allan Luce&aposs hospitality in The Old Pacific Capital, and Emily Fish was nicknamed "The Socialite Lightkeeper" for the many parties and dinners she held at the building.

Lighthouse Avenue takes its name from Point Pinos Lighthouse, located at its end. The road, laid out in 1874, was used to ferry supplies from the port at Monterey through Pacific Grove to the lighthouse.

California State University Monterey Bay: Humanities and Communication

California State University Monterey Bay, founded in 1994, is the 21st campus of the 23 campus California State University system. Established on the site of the former Fort Ord, CSUMB welcomed its first students in the fall of 1995. Framed by a powerful Vision Statement, CSUMB was imagined as a campus where innovation in its curriculum and connection to the local community would be at the forefront, particularly serving students traditionally underserved by higher education. Today, the campus has grown to nearly 8,000 students, a significant percentage drawn from the tri-county region surrounding CSUMB.

The B.A. in Human Communication (HCOM) (soon to be renamed Humanities and Communication) housed in the School of Humanities and Communication, is one of those original majors--a multidisciplinary degree bringing together the traditional humanities with communication studies. With around 450 majors, the fifth largest on campus, the HCOM major is designed to “prepare students to be critical, ethical, and creative thinkers and actors in a multicultural and increasingly interconnected global society,” as our mission statement declares. Importantly, a civic lens has been central to the major from the beginning. Founding faculty built the program on four main assumptions which continue to animate the curriculum today:

  • The will and ability to think and communicate ethically, creatively, critically, and effectively are key to meaningful human existence
  • Multicultural and historical knowledge are key to building peace and social equality
  • Study across various disciplines leads to an integrated understanding of world issues and problems
  • Knowledge is most meaningful when it is applied ethically, critically, and creatively toward concrete social goals and needs.

This ethos is evident in the major requirements, the design of particular courses, the kinds of projects and assignments students complete in the program, and the senior capstone. Each of these dimensions engages issues and questions of civic concern. Infused throughout the HCOM curriculum are certain signature approaches: cooperative argumentation as a means to foster deliberation and dialogue ethical reflection to enhance students’ sense of social location and positionality engaged creative practice service learning to engage in a reciprocal partnership with local communities and a variety of other community-based learning experiences.

A recent redesign of the major, in effect for fall 2018, includes a change of the major’s name from Human Communication to Humanities and Communication (to better communicate to students the nature of the curriculum). Four major learning outcomes (MLOs) will now frame the major’s core:

Ethical and Effective Communication

Social and Cultural Analysis

Engaged Creative Practice

In addition, students will then choose one of nine concentrations:

Creative Writing and Social Action

English Subject Matter Preparation

Ethnic and Gender Studies

Journalism and Media Studies

Philosophy and Applied Ethics

Scaffolded Levels of Student Learning
The design of the HCOM major includes a core that all students complete--creating a base upon which to build learning in a chosen area of concentration. Students begin in a proseminar which introduce them to the HCOM major--its MLOS, concentrations, multidisciplinary design and career possibilities. They complete one course for each core major learning outcome. They then choose an area of concentration and complete a required research and/or theory intensive course. Finally, they wrap up their time in HCOM with a senior capstone experience. In each of these areas, HCOM’s unique approach to civic learning is evident. All concentrations include learning experiences with opportunities for civic learning--in several ways.

In order to form a base for civic learning, HCOM emphasizes ethical and effective communication. For most of the major’s history, students have completed Cooperative Argumentation to build a foundation in deliberative inquiry, analysis, and reasoning. The learning outcomes require students to consider multiple perspectives, evaluate multiple sources, and engage in deliberation and collaborative decision making across differences of ideas or identities. A commitment to ethical and effective oral and written communication, grounded in civility and mutual respect, is evidenced in the class rationale: The quality of communication affects the quality of the community and our ability to achieve the common good.

Beginning in fall 2018, students will complete not only Cooperative Argumentation, but also an additional course addressing Ethical and Effective Communication with options including Free Speech and Responsibility, Relational Ethics, or Rhetorical Traditions. Students then build on this foundation in the concentrations. For example, students who elect the Communication Studies concentration focus on curricular tracks including Public Communication, Communication Ethics, and Peace and Justice Studies. This curriculum covers democratic movements (e.g. Environmental Philosophy and Communication or Restorative Justice), identity and civic values (e.g. Leadership and Community), diverse cultures (e.g. Gender and Communication or Interracial Communication), and diverse religious traditions (e.g. Rhetoric of Religion). As this example illustrates, the MLO and concentration structure provides a unique and interdisciplinary approach to civic learning, highlighting the HCOM major’s foundational assumption that the “will and ability to think and communicate ethically, creatively, critically, and effectively are key to meaningful human existence.”

Other MLOs provide additional support for civic learning. For example, the core courses in Social and Cultural Analysis address “how social identities, including ethnicity, race, class, religion, gender, sexuality, and/or ability might influence [relate to] people's lived experiences, their cultural production and practices, and the social problems that shape their contexts.” These courses include Race and Gender Justice, Chicanx Life and Culture or African American Life and History. Courses in the Engaged Creative Practice MLO core help students to develop “competency in creative practice, such as creative writing, journalism, and/or media projects and community storytelling that responds to a social issue and engages the public.” Course options include Latina Life Stories, Auto/Biografias, Introduction to Creative Writing or Community Journalism Studies.

In addition, students will complete an upper division Service Learning course which has explicit service/social justice learning outcomes embedded in its design. These courses include: Social Impact of Mass Media Social Action Writing Topics in Social Movements and Oral History/Community Memory. Service Learning Outcomes focus on justice, compassion, diversity, and social responsibility, and encourage students to “develop a more complex understanding of the root causes of a critical social problem” “analyze how social stereotypes are formed and affect interaction in community settings” “develop skills as multicultural community builders, able to sensitively interact with diverse populations” and “examine the tensions between individual gain and social good in their career field.”

By the time students reach the end of their coursework in the major, they are poised to integrate what they have learned through the major in a Senior Capstone. In this course, students focus on a common theme (defined by the professor teaching each section), meet in discussion-based seminars to discuss shared readings, and develop a shared base of understanding. Recent themes include:

From that foundation each student then completes a senior project (a research essay, a creative project or an internship) which synthesizes not only their learning in terms of the section theme but also their learning in the major. Importantly, students can design a senior project that directly engages questions of civic concern, including in a project in partnership with local community organizations as appropriate.

Examples of HCOM Senior Capstone Projects
Browse the full archive of project titles

  • Yolanda Gutierrez’s video documentary, “Prisoners Without Trial” reclaimed the experiences of Japanese Americans in Monterey County during World War II--a project which won first place in the California State University Research Competition that year. (1998)
  • Silka Saavedra’s radio documentary “Cambodia: The Year Zero,” chronicled the killings by the Khmer Rouge of millions of Cambodians. (1999)
  • Tyller Williamson’s project, “Healthcare Town Hall for Young Adults” included research on the state of access to healthcare in the United States as well as a community forum bringing together local experts on health care that he moderated. (2013)
  • Frank Tyler Gidney’s creative project, “Community, Care, and Creativity in Chinatown, Salinas” not only provided a venue for his own creative work, but also chronicled his experience co-teaching creative writing classes in Salinas’s Chinatown. Students in those classes were typically drawn from the local homeless community. (2015)
  • Stefanie Berman’s project, “Social Media and the Political Image,” tracked her experience as an intern supporting the social media work with the California State Assembly campaign of Anna Caballero (2016)

While the HCOM major capstone model has shifted over the years, in their projects students have consistently addressed issues through a civic lens in engaging and creative ways. And most combine a variety of disciplinary approaches. As examples above suggest, the HCOM major has provided a foundation for students to engage questions of public concern in a myriad of ways, a product of the major’s interdisciplinary and integrative approach

Exemplary Courses That Highlight a Civic Lens
Legal Studies Internship
Course Summary: This 300-level course provides students in the pre-law concentration in the HCOM major (to be renamed Legal Studies in fall 2018) or the Pre-law minor (for students in other majors) to complete a 100-hour internship in the local community. The fall section is an independent study under the mentorship the HCOM faculty Pre-Law Concentration and Minor advisor. The spring version of this class focuses on legal aid in partnership with several local nonprofit organizations which provide legal services or referrals for low or no cost legal services to underserved members of local communities. Local partners have included Legal Services for Seniors, the Watsonville Law Center, the United Farm Workers Foundation, and California Rural Legal Assistance. In the revised HCOM major curriculum for fall 2018, a new standalone 400 level Legal Aid Internship course will replace the spring section of Legal Studies Internship reflecting a commitment to providing a more advanced learning experience for students while also continuing to support legal aid organizations in the local community.

Oral History & Community Memory SL
Course Summary: Through the intersection of oral history and service learning theories, methods, practices, and reflections, Oral History and Community Memory is designed to address the gathering, exploration, and representation of individual and collective memory. The course seeks to foster greater cross-cultural awareness and a more inclusive public appreciation of the past, present, and future of interconnected cultural communities. This class is part of a multi-year oral history project to record and preserve local history and memory. This course, which has been offered for over 20 years, has supported the collection of oral histories in the Salinas, CA Chinatown neighborhood, of first generation college students at CSUMB, of Chicano veterans of Fort Ord, and of the African-American community in Seaside, CA among many locations and communities. A recent partner has been the People’s Oral History Project of Monterey County, a local grassroots project documenting the histories of activism in the region. Recently, students have interviewed lawyers and community advocates from California Rural Legal Assistance, examining their groundbreaking work to tackle farmworker rights, housing, education, and gender discrimination issues.

The culminating event is a public showcase of the oral histories completed--where narrators and the community at large are invited to attend. This event has happened on campus and in the local community. Interviews are archived in HCOM as part of the Oral History and Community Memory Archive. As its mission describes, the archive “promotes oral history projects that build understanding of the Central Coast's multicultural past, present and future. Projects are generated in collaboration with community interests and needs, and investigation results are returned to the communities and individuals involved, in ethical and collaborative ways. As a public research repository, the Archive welcomes use by students, scholars, and interested community members.”

Exemplary Project Descriptions
Media for Social Change (Spring 2017)
Overview: This course examined alternatives and opportunities that disrupt dominant media trends, connecting communication, media and social transformation. The course addressed the complexity of social change and how media and communication initiatives can be allies in promoting social justice, teaching healthy lifestyles, inspiring sustainable living, fostering dialogues on diversity issues, mobilizing democratic movements, and fostering compassionate conversations on issues of social inclusion.

Sexuality, Law and History (Spring 2017)
Overview: This course focused on the histories of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) people and communities in what is now the United States, particularly the multicultural dimensions of those histories, the formation of identity and communities, the emergence of an LGBTQ political movement, and the intersections of LGBTQ people and communities with law and legal systems, mostly in the latter part of the 20th century. In spring 2017, five main themes framed the course as a whole: identity community power culture and government and law.

The Monterey Bay Justice Project originated as a section of Investigative Reporting and has continued with Independent Studies (2016- )

Overview: The Monterey Bay Justice Project originated with Professor Sam Robinson and an initial cohort of students. As the project’s mission statement notes, the organization works toward “fair treatment for all within the criminal justice system, while creating awareness of and advocating for change on issues of social injustice.”

Process for Adoption
When faculty designed the initial HCOM major, a major goal was to connect students to issues of social justice, equity and responsibility while cultivating ethical practice, dialogue, and deliberation. As founding faculty member Josina Makau recalled, “a significant share of HCOM’s curricular programming was crafted with a ‘civic lens’ at heart.” As Makau noted, early HCOM faculty members asked themselves, “What knowledge, skills, abilities, values and sensibilities would students need to live meaningful and successful lives?” Moreover, success was defined not in individual terms alone, but also in relation to community (J. Makau, personal interview, December 7, 2017). Early HCOM faculty member Rina Benmayor described this approach as “situated knowledge” (R. Benmayor, personal interview, December 8, 2017). A reciprocal connection to community was embedded in the very fabric of the major’s design.

One of the early catalogs (1997-98) described the major as preparing students with “the tools needed to participate meaningfully, ethically, and effectively in ever-changing local, national and global environments.” An example of this approach was how the HCOM major framed the study of communication. As a 1997 statement of the HCOM major’s philosophy suggested, the degree “prioritizes the values of equality and the practice of mutual respect through ethical inquiry and inclusive dialogue.”

Another aspect to embracing this civic lens in the major’s design is the commitment to service learning--from the first such course offered in spring 1996 until today. HCOM faculty were heavily involved in creating the Service Learning Program at CSUMB. In 1997, for example, HCOM’s approach to service learning was framed by the assumption that “knowledge is most meaningful when it is applied critically, ethically, and creatively toward concrete social goals and needs.” Early examples of this approach included oral histories conducted at Second Chance, a gang prevention program, Dorothy’s Kitchen, and the Center for Community Advocacy which assisted farmworkers and low-income groups regarding tenant’s rights. One project was a collaboration with the Service Learning Institute on documenting the history of Chinatown in Salinas, supported in part by a National Endowment for the Humanities grant. The project, which spanned 2008-2014, resulted in dozens of interviews and an online walking tour. And, Professor Benmayor published an article rooted in the interviews completed by students. This course--and oral histories within other communities around the region--continue.

Core elements of the Founding CSUMB Vision also informed the design of the HCOM major including ethical reflection and practice, multiculturalism, globalism, interdisciplinarity, and applied learning. A good example of how the HCOM major implemented these goals within the curriculum is the Creative Writing and Social Action (CWSA) concentration in the major. One early project was a collaboration with students at Monterey Peninsula College on a book of life stories, published as Education as Emancipation: Women on Welfare Speak Out (California State University Monterey Bay, 1998). Faculty member Frances Payne Adler, who created and shepherded the project, described it this way in Terry Ann Thaxton’s book Creative Writing in the Community (2014): “In response to the 1998 welfare reform laws, social action writing students collaborated on an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural project, involving research, creative writing, community involvement and service learning.” The collaboration with a EOPS/CARE program at MPC involved students there who were “single mothers receiving welfare assistance” who were looking to complete their associate’s degrees but whose ability to do so were being threatened by welfare reform. As Payne Adler reflected about the project in, the resulting collection--of stories, poems and photographs, “focused on the lived experiences and perspectives of women on welfare, placing the women most affected by welfare reform at the center of the public discussion.” The project reflects an ethos about creative writing and social action which informs the concentration to this day. As Frances Payne Adler, Diana Garcia and Debra Busman (2009) noted in an anthology of readings drawn from their teaching in HCOM, students “often do not see themselves reflected in the media, in public policy. They strive to break these silences with their poems and stories… they want to DO something” (p. vvii). Supporting students in moving from critical examination of issues to action has been central to the faculty’s process of curricular design.

Internal and External Influences
The institutional climate for the HCOM major’s development included both the CSUMB Founding Vision, informed by a commitment, in the words of a team of WASC visitors for the campus’s first eligibility for accreditation (1995) to ”break many molds and create an institution innovatively geared to the Twenty-first Century, and powerfully serving a generally underserved clientele dominated the motivations of the initial group of colleagues and local area collaborators.” As Colby et al (2003) note, “a concern for social justice” was central to CSUMB from its opening in 1995, especially the powerful Vision Statement which, especially in the campus’s early years, served “as a touchstone for decision-making and a template for shaping curricular and co-curricular life” (p. 67). They credit HCOM founding faculty member Josina Makau as influential in promoting a campus commitment to ethical communication practices which are “cooperative, responsible attempts to understand each other’s point of view.” This theory of “cooperative argumentation” that has informed the HCOM major’s approach as well.

As that Vision Statement noted, CSUMB graduates were not only expected to “have an understanding of interdependence and global competence, distinctive technical and educational skills” in order to contribute to the workforce, but also develop “the critical thinking abilities to be productive citizens, and the social responsibility and skills to be community builders.”

As the examples of HCOM courses above suggest, the nationally recognized Service Learning Institute at CSUMB has provided great support for the development of HCOM’s service learning courses--including partnership development, service learning student leaders (from the Student Leadership in Service Learning Program) to support instruction in particular courses, and trainings for faculty who teach service learning. Many HCOM majors have become Service Learning Student Leaders supporting service learning across the campus. Several HCOM faculty members have been recognized with awards for partnership development and each spring, every major, including HCOM, nominates a student to be recognized with an award for the work they have done with partners in the community.

CSUMB has also provided a variety of forms of support for HCOM faculty to explore projects focusing on engaging students in civic issues--locally, nationally and internationally. For example, Professors Ajit Abraham and Patrick Belanger’s project “Technology, Resilience, and Critical Engagement” (2015-16) explored how students in two different courses could use technology to engage in critical dialogue about crucial shared themes of public concern. As Professors Abraham and Belanger noted, the goal was to “bring together two classes in an interdisciplinary and global framework, bound by a set of shared themes at the interface of ideology and justice. Our objective was to help students strengthen their abilities to think carefully and communicate skillfully to peers in a parallel class. More specifically, we aimed to augment students’ technological literacies and capabilities.”

Finally, the recent creation of Institutional Learning Outcomes (ILOs) at CSUMB has provided yet another context in which to frame the HCOM major curriculum. For example, the recent HCOM major redesign considered the ILO in Personal, Professional and Social Responsibility, through which students are expected to “demonstrate ethical reasoning, global awareness, and civic and intercultural engagement in ways that promote sustainability, and social justice and equity across diverse communities.”

The HCOM major has completed several assessment projects over the years to measure student learning in its curriculum. And the program review process has provided opportunities to check in with alumni and current students about their experiences in the major through surveys and focus groups. Both types of assessment suggest areas of success and room for improvement. For example, one assessment project focused on assessing student abilities "to evaluate multiple perspectives." Through a close reading of random student work across multiple sections of Cooperative Argumentation, faculty discovered that, overall, students were able to support an argument that responds to multiple viewpoints and respectfully describe diverse points of view, an approach central to supporting HCOM’s approach to civic learning. Yet assessment suggested mixed success. While some students demonstrated a commendable ability to move beyond a simple pro or con stance, others presented opposing views that were not substantiated by specific sources. This tendency to set up a "straw man" argument suggested that more instructional time was needed to enhance these skills and abilities, particularly empathic listening. Faculty responded in our recent major redesign to enhance these skills. As such, students will not only complete Cooperative Argumentation, but also an additional course in the area of Ethical and Effective Communication.

The program review process has also provided a rich opportunity for HCOM faculty to think carefully about the effectiveness of the curriculum. One especially useful source of data has been alumni surveys--learning more about what aspects of the major’s design have had lasting impact. For example, in a 2014 survey for the last program review completed (N=161), HCOM alumni reported that the major prepared them “a great deal” or “considerably” for community participation (55%), social justice work (64%), moral and ethical reasoning (83%), and cross-cultural communication skills (85%). When faculty redesigned the curriculum in the wake of the program review, these findings helped framed priorities for any changes--to ensure that these elements of the major--as manifested in MLOs, courses, and in capstone, persisted. As these examples illustrate, evidence from assessment and program review suggests HCOM’s approach to civic learning has been effective.

Words of Advice

  • HCOM had some advantages that many established programs may not enjoy--being part of the creation of a new university from scratch. It made a big difference that the campus, early on, was committed to what we may call civic learning today--and its Vision Statement attests to some of those values. Service learning prompted many of those conversations within HCOM as it developed. And, having faculty committed to that shared vision made a difference as well.
  • As the major developed over time, it has been important that as faculty retire, the program bring in new tenure-line faculty who can support the major’s core values while bringing in new voices and new ideas. Making sure there is space for such development to happen is important. Additionally, faculty in HCOM have had to do the hard work of learning to work in an interdisciplinary and/or multidisciplinary way. Civic engagement has proved a useful glue that binds the faculty across disciplinary differences--a shared commitment that transcends any one disciplinary approach. Finally, the faculty’s commitment to high impact practices--including project-based learning, internships, service learning and capstone--creates conditions through which students can engage the complex issues facing local communities and the world through their learning experiences.
  • The experiment that became the HCOM major reflects in many ways a model of civic learning incorporating not only direct engagement with the community--through service learning, internships, community projects and the like--but also cultivation of the kinds of knowledge, skills and abilities that close study of the humanities and communication studies can bring. As Michael Smith, Rebecca Nowacek and Jeffrey Bernstein (2010) argue, educating students for citizenship is more than cultivating student engagement with the political process, local communities, and campus leadership opportunities, it also “embodies more abstract qualities: learning how to become more comfortable with ambiguity and complexity, how to disagree without being disagreeable, and, perhaps above all, how to be empathic.” This “expansive capacity for citizenship” requires, they urge, more than one course or instructor, but must be “conveyed throughout the college experience” (p. 2). The HCOM major provides one model for working toward such a goal. And, as the history of this program suggests, HCOM has developed a model which prepares students, as Caryn McTighe Musil (2015) hopes for the AAC&U Civic Prompts project, to “become informed, responsible civic participants in their local, national and global communities and in their workplaces” (p. 11).

Looking for more information on the courses and projects? Please return to the top of the page and click on the “Exemplary Course Specifics” and “Exemplary Project Details” buttons found under the campus logo.

Required Courses

Please note: Twelve of the units taken to complete a minor (6 of which are upper division) may not be used in fulfillment of other minors, concentrations, or major requirements.

Complete one of the following history/culture-based courses:

Complete two additional history/culture courses from the list above (not previously taken) or complete one history/culture course from the list above (not previously taken) and one course from the following list:


The university was established as State College for Alameda County (Alameda State College), with its primary mission to serve the higher education needs of both Alameda County and Contra Costa County. Its construction was part of the California Master Plan for Higher Education as proposed by Clark Kerr and the original site for the school was Pleasanton, California. The campus was moved to Hayward before plans were finalized due to the efforts of State Assembly member Carlos Bee and other boosters from the Hayward community, including S.E. Bond Jr, and E. Guy Warren, namesake of Warren Hall. [8] At the time of its opening in 1959, classes were first held on the campus of Sunset High School and then Hayward High School. With the addition of the school, higher education in the San Francisco Bay Area became more accessible. To the south was San Jose State College (now San Jose State University) serving the South Bay counties. To the west was San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University) serving San Francisco and San Mateo Counties. To the north is Sonoma State University, serving Marin, Napa and Sonoma counties. Chabot College, a part of the California Community College system, opened nearby in Hayward in 1961.

The university has undergone numerous transitions in its history, making name changes accordingly. In 1961, the school was moved to its present location in the Hayward Hills and renamed Alameda County State College. In 1963, the name was changed to California State College at Hayward. The school was granted university status in 1972, changing its name to California State University, Hayward. In 2005, the university implemented a new, broader mission to serve the eastern San Francisco Bay Area and adopted the name California State University, East Bay. The proposal to rename the campus to California State University, East Bay was approved by the California State University Board of Trustees on January 26, 2005. [9]

Presidents Edit

Cathy A. Sandeen was appointed president of CSU East Bay in October 2020. She previously served as chancellor of the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). Prior to her time at UAA, Sandeen served as chancellor of the University of Wisconsin Colleges and University of Wisconsin-Extension from 2014-18. In that role, she served as leader and chief administrator and was responsible for the academic, financial and administrative activities of two statewide higher education institutions. [10]

  • Fred F. Harcleroad (1959–1967)
  • Ellis E. McCune (1967–1990)
  • Norma S. Rees (1990–2006)
  • Mohammad Qayoumi (2006–2011)
  • Leroy M. Morishita (2011–2020)
  • Cathy A. Sandeen (2021– present)

California State University, East Bay's main campus is located in Hayward, California. It is situated on a plateau east of the Hayward fault overlooking the southeast part of the city. [11] CSUEB also has a campus in Concord, California in Contra Costa County, and a professional development center in Oakland. Continuing education programs are available at all three locations.

For 40 years, Warren Hall was CSUEB's signature building the building was visible from cities throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and served as a landmark for Hayward and the surrounding Eastern San Francisco Bay Area. Warren Hall was rated the least earthquake-safe building in the California State University system by the CSU Seismic Review Board. In January 2013 the CSU Board of Trustees authorized $50 million to demolish the former administrative building and replace it with a new structure. Warren Hall was demolished by implosion on August 17, 2013. Construction for the new 67,000 square foot-building began in November 2013, [12] and doors opened in December 2015 on the completed structure. [13] [14]

California State University, East Bay is also known for its Solar Energy Project. Solar panels were installed on four campus rooftops and are used to generate supplemental power during peak periods and is one of the largest photovoltaic systems in Northern California. Since its completion in 2004 the university has received recognition on a regional and national level for the project those include:

  • A $3.4 million rebate from PG&E, the largest rebate issued to date for solar power installation.
  • The 2004 Business Environmental Achievement Award from the Hayward City Council.
  • The 2004 Green Power Leadership Award at the National Green Power Marketing Conference.
  • A 2005 Exceptional Project Award from the Western Council of Construction Consumers.

On April 8, 2010, the California Public Utilities Commission approved a fuel cell project of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) allowing Cal State East Bay's Hayward campus to become one of the first college campuses in Northern California to have a fuel cell. Once installed, the waste heat generated by the fuel cell will be converted into hot water to be used in campus buildings. [15]

Since 2004, the Pioneer Amphitheatre on campus has been home of the KBLX Stone Soul Picnic, a day-long festival of R&B, soul and Urban Adult Contemporary music. Featured performers have included Ronald Isley, The Whispers, Teena Marie, Rick James, and The O'Jays. California State University, East Bay's Associated Student Incorporated also hosts concerts with artists like Lupe Fiasco and Goapele.

In 2005, Cal State East Bay began to build three new facilities: the Wayne and Gladys Valley Business and Technology Center (VBT), the Pioneer Heights student housing expansion and the University Union annex. The 67,000-square-foot (6,200 m 2 ) VBT center was dedicated on in February 2007, making it the first new academic building on the Hayward Campus in more than 30 years. The building houses programs in business, technology management, engineering, multimedia, science, and online degree programs. [16] An expansion to Pioneer Heights was dedicated in fall 2008. Student housing was able to accommodate more than 450 new residents and offer a 16,000-square-foot (1,500 m 2 ) dining commons. An annex to the existing University Union opened in January 2007. [17]

Construction continued with the anticipated dedication of the new Student Services and Administration building in summer 2010 [18] and the Recreation and Wellness Center in fall 2010. [19]

The campus is home to the C. E. Smith Museum of Anthropology, created in 1975. The museum, open to the public, has rotating exhibits, and archives including records of 18 Bay Area archaeological sites. [20] [21] [22]

2013 2012 2011 2010
Freshman Applicants 13,056 14,126 12,752 10,778 9,980
Admits 9,636 8,760 3,840 2,184
% Admitted 68.2 68.7 35.6 21.8
Enrolled 1,511 1,572 1,225 1,211
GPA 3.10 3.08 3.04 3.11
ACT Average 19 19 19
SAT Composite 921 912 922
*SAT out of 1600

The university is best known for its College of Business and Economics a strong Education Department, where a large percentage of California teachers receive their certification and the thriving Music Department where the California State University, East Bay Jazz Ensemble, directed by Dave Eshelman (retired June 2007), holds annual performances in Yoshi's at Jack London Square in Oakland and frequently tours Europe and parts of South America. The Biotechnology Program developed at California State University, East Bay affords the university a status as the center of research and development in the Life sciences, Bioinformatics and technologies for the Eastern San Francisco Bay Area.

California State University, East Bay also participates in the Internet2 project, a collaboration led by over 200 U.S. universities, private industries, and governments to develop advanced network technologies for research and higher education in the 21st century.

California State University, East Bay offers 52 undergraduate degree programs and 39 Master's degree programs in addition to its teacher education program. [29] The university also has a doctoral program in Educational Leadership (Ed. D.) held in cooperation with the University of California, Berkeley, San Francisco State University and San José State University. The most popular undergraduate majors are: Business, Psychology, Liberal Studies, Biological Sciences, Pre-Nursing, Human Development, Health Sciences, Criminal Justice, Communication, and Computer Science. [29]

The five most popular majors for 2019 graduates. [30]

    and Management, General at 21% Professions and Related Programs at 16% at 10% , General at 10% and Consumer Economics and Related Services, Other at 6%

The academic departments of the University are organized into four colleges. Two of these are Liberal Arts colleges,

and two of these are vocational colleges:

First year students are put into Freshman Learning Communities which help students to: [31]

The bachelor’s, and master’s degrees

California State University – Monterey Bay is accredited to grant bachelor’s, and master’s degrees. Offered bachelor degree programs include B.S. Biology, B.S. Business Administration, B.A. Collaborative Health and Human Services, B.S. Communication Design, B.S. Computer Science and Information Technology, B.S. Environmental Science/Technology and Policy, B.A. Environmental Studies, B.A. Global Studies, B.A. Human Communications, B.A. Integrated Studies, B.A. Japanese, B.S. Kinesiology, B.A. Liberal Studies, B.S. Marine Science, B.S. Mathematics, B.A. Music, B.A. Psychology, B.A. Social and Behavioral Sciences, B.A. Spanish, B.A. Teledramatic Arts and Technology, B.A. Visual and Public Art, and B.A. World Languages and Cultures. Offered Minors include Business, Biology, Chicana/o Studies, Communication Design, Computer Science, Creative Writing/Action, Earth Systems Science, Environmental Health Policy, Globe Studies, Health and Wellness, Hispanic Cultures, Human Communication, Human Development, International Health Policy, Japanese Culture, Japanese Language, Journalism/Media, Latin American Studies, Mathematics, Music, Non-Profit Management, Outdoor Recreation, Place Studies, Pre-Law, Psychology, Service Learning, Social Work, Sociology, Spanish Language, Sport Management, Teledramatic Arts, and Writing and Rhetoric.

Abandoned Warehouses Revitalized Tourism Grows

In the 1940s, for reasons still in dispute, the sardine population began a rapid decline. Theories explaining the sardines' disappearance range from water pollution to a change in currents to warmer climates or just being ȯished out." The once-thriving Cannery Row soon became a ghost town of empty warehouses.

In the second half of the twentieth century, tourism once again gained importance and the old abandoned warehouses were converted into shops, restaurants, and galleries. Today, tourism has become the number one industry in Monterey, growing out of the city's efforts to preserve its historic and natural resources. Monterey has gained a reputation for excellence in environmental protection and this has served to enhance its visitor industry. Visitors flock to the seaside town of Monterey to capture a glimpse of the city's past and enjoy the sounds and sights it has to offer.

Historical Information: Monterey County Historical Society, PO Box 3576, Salinas, CA 93912 telephone (831)757-8085

Watch the video: Welcome to Cal State Monterey Bay (May 2022).