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c. 900 - c. 1390
The Kingdom of Kanem flourishes near Lake Chad, Africa.
1067 - 1071
Reign of Hu (aka Hawwa), regarded as the first king (or possibly queen) to adopt Islam in the Kingdom of Kanem.
The Saifawa dynasty begins to rule in the Kingdom of Kanem.
c. 1221 - 1259
Reign of Mai Dunama Dibbalemi, ruler of the Kingdom of Kanem n
The Kingdom of Kanem takes control of the Fezzan oases in the Sahara Desert.
The Kingdom of Kanem near Lake Chad founds a Muslim educational institution (madrasa) at Fustat in Egypt.
The king of Kanem is forced to flee a Bulala invasion and establishes a new kingdom of Bornu further west.
Kanem–Bornu Empire Redirected from Kanem-Bornu Empire
The Kanem–Bornu Empire existed in areas which are now part of Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 8th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu (the Bornu Empire) until 1900. The Kanem Empire (c. 700–1380) was located in the present countries of Chad, Nigeria and Libya. ΐ] At its height it encompassed an area covering not only most of Chad, but also parts of southern Libya (Fezzan) and eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. The Bornu Empire (1380s–1893) was a state in what is now northeastern Nigeria, in time becoming even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger, Sudan, and Cameroon. The early history of the Empire is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth.
Kanem was located at the southern end of the trans-Saharan trade route between Tripoli and the region of Lake Chad. Besides its urban elite, it also included a confederation of nomadic peoples who spoke languages of the Teda–Daza (Toubou) group.
In the 8th century, Wahb ibn Munabbih used Zaghawa to describe the Teda-Tubu group, in the earliest use of the ethnic name. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi also mentions the Zaghawa in the 9th century, as did Ibn al-Nadim in his Kitāb al-Fihrist Α] in the 10th-century. Kanem comes from anem, meaning south in the Teda and Kanuri languages, and hence a geographic term. During the first millennium, as the Sahara underwent desiccation, people speaking the Kanembu language migrated to Kanem in the south. This group contributed to the formation of the Kanuri people. Kanuri traditions state the Zaghawa dynasty led a group of nomads called the Magumi. Β]
This desiccation of the Sahara resulted in two settlements, those speaking Teda-Daza northeast of Lake Chad, and those speaking Chadic west of the lake in Bornu and Hausa-land. Γ] : 164
Founding by local Kanembu (Dugua) c. 700 AD
The origins of Kanem are unclear. The first historical sources tend to show that the kingdom of Kanem began forming around 700 AD under the nomadic Tebu-speaking Kanembu. The Kanembu were supposedly forced southwest towards the fertile lands around Lake Chad by political pressure and desiccation in their former range. The area already possessed independent, walled city-states belonging to the Sao culture. Under the leadership of the Duguwa dynasty, the Kanembu would eventually dominate the Sao, but not before adopting many of their customs. Δ] War between the two continued up to the late 16th century.
One scholar, Dierk Lange, has proposed another theory based on a diffusionist ideology. This theory was much criticised by the scientific community, as it seriously lacks of direct and clear evidences. Lange connects the creation of Kanem–Bornu with exodus from the collapsed Assyrian Empire c. 600 BC to the northeast of Lake Chad. Ε] Ζ] He also proposes that the lost state of Agisymba (mentioned by Ptolemy in the middle of the 2nd century AD) was the antecedent of the Kanem Empire. Η]
BBC British Timeline:
Prehistoric Britain (5000 BC - c. 100 BC)
Britain before the Romans came: stone, bronze, iron ages, construction of stonehenge, earthworks, Druids, the Celts.
Roman Britain (55 BC - 410 AD)
From Julius Caesar's first attempt at conquest to the final days of Roman administration in Britain: rebellion, subjugation, advent of Christianity, barbarian invasions, withdrawal.
Early British Kingdoms (410 - 598)
After the Roman influence ceased, the activities of the British people: westward movement, intrigues & alliances, power struggles, explosion of missionary activities, plague, Saxon invasions.
Early British Kingdoms (599 - 937)
Continuing activities of the British people: further westward movement, more intrigues & alliances, more power struggles, more Saxon invasions, religious strife with Roman Catholicism.
Anglo Saxon England (597 - 687)
The coming of St. Augustine, triumph of Rome-oriented Christianity, Saxon control of island, rise of Mercia, Offa's Dyke.
Anglo Saxon England (688 - 801)
Rise of Wessex, King Ine establishes his law, Venerable Bede, Viking invasions.
Anglo Saxon England (802 - 898)
Triumph of Egbert, development of Wessex dynasty, Viking wars, Alfred the Great, St. Swithun, Peace of Wedmore, the Danelaw.
Anglo Saxon England (899 - 977)
Athelstan, St. Dunstan, growth of monasteries, more Viking wars, Battle of Brunanburh
Anglo Saxon England (978 - 1066)
Aethelred the Unready, Danegeld, Danes gain English crown, Edward the Confessor, rise of the Godwins, Westminster Abbey, Harold and William at Hastings.
Medieval Britain (1066 - 1487)
Conquest, consolidation, feudal system, Magna Carta, codification of laws, individual rights, Welsh & Scottish wars, murder of a king, Black Plague, Hundred Years War, Peasant's Revolt, religious unrest, Princes in the Tower, Wars of the Roses.
The Reformation & Restoration Period (1486 - 1689)
Emergence of Britain into modern era: rise of Tudors, Dissolution of Monasteries, religious struggles, discovery, Elizabeth 1, unification of Scottish & English crown, overthrow and restoration of monarchy.
The Age of Empire (1689 - 1901)
Bill of Rights, limits on monarchy, political awakening, war with colonies, expansion of empire, Gothic revival, industrial revolution, scientific development, literary & artistic golden age.
The 20th Century (1901-2000)
World War I, World War II - and so much more!
Kingdom of Kanem Timeline - History
Just Prior to the first arrival of Europeans in 1778, the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, social system, with a sophisticated language, culture, religion and a land tenure that bore a remarkable resemblance to the feudal system of ancient Europe.
The monarchical government of the Hawaiian Islands was established in 1810 by His Majesty King Kamehameha I (pictured right). He ruled the Hawaiian Islands from April 1810 until his death in May 1819. Upon the death of King Kamehameha I, his son King Kamehameha II was successor to the throne and ruled the Hawaiian Islands from May 8, 1819 to July 1824 when he died of measles in London. His Majesty King Kamehameha III, the second son of His Majesty King Kamehameha I, was successor to the throne upon the death of Kamehameha II in July 1824.
The Hawaiian Kingdom was governed until 1838, without legal enactments, and was based upon a system of common law, which consisted partly of the ancient kapu (taboo) and the practices of the celebrated Chiefs, that had been passed down by tradition since time immemorial. The Declaration of Rights, proposed and signed by His Majesty King Kamehameha III on June 7, 1839, was the first essential departure from the ancient ways.
Establishing a Constitutional form of Government
for the Hawaiian Kingdom (circa. 1839).
The Declaration of Rights of 1839 recognized three classes of persons having vested rights in the lands 1st, the Government 2nd, the Chiefs and 3rd, the native Tenants. It declared protection of these rights to both the Chiefly and native Tenant classes. These rights were not limited to the land, but included the right to ". life, limb, liberty, freedom from oppression the earnings of his hands and the productions of his mind, not however to those who act in violation of the laws."
One year later on October 8, 1840, His Majesty King Kamehameha III (pictured left) voluntarily relinquished his absolute powers and attributes, by promulgating a constitution that recognized three grand divisions of a civilized monarchy the King as the Chief Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary. The Legislative Department of the Kingdom was composed of the King, the House of Nobles, and the House of Representatives, each had a negative on the other. The King represented the vested right of the Government class, the House of Nobles represented the vested right of the Chiefly class, and the House of Representatives represented the vested rights of the Tenant class. The Government was established to protect and acknowledge the rights already declared by the 1839 Declaration of Rights.
The Constitution generally defined the duties of each branch of government. Civilly, the laws embraced the usual rights and duties of the social relations between the three classes of people, and initiated the internal development of the country with the promotion of industry and commerce. In these laws, the fundamental basis of landed tenure was declared, and cultivation of the soil, under a feudal tenancy not much differing that of ancient Europe, was encouraged by relaxing the vassal service of the Chiefly and Tenant classes.
Hawaiian Kingdom recognized as an Independent State in 1843.
To counter the strong possibility of foreign encroachment on Hawaiian territory, His Majesty King Kamehameha III dispatched a Hawaiian delegation to the United States and Europe with the power to settle difficulties with other nations, and negotiate treaties. This delegation's ultimate duty was to secure the recognition of Hawaiian Independence from the major powers of the world. In accordance with this goal, Timoteo Ha`alilio, William Richards and Sir George Simpson were commissioned as joint Ministers Plenipotentiary on April 8, 1842. Sir George Simpson, shortly thereafter, left for England, via Alaska and Siberia, while Mr. Ha`alilio and Mr. Richards departed for the United States, via Mexico, on July 8, 1842.
On December 19, 1842, the Hawaiian delegation, while in the United States of America, secured the assurance of United States President Tyler that the United States would recognize Hawaiian independence. The delegation then proceeded to meet their colleague, Sir George Simpson, in Europe and together they secured formal recognition from Great Britain and France. On April 1, 1843, Lord Aberdeen on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty Queen Victoria, assured the Hawaiian delegation that, "Her Majesty's Government was willing and had determined to recognize the independence of the Sandwich Islands under their present sovereign."
On November 28, 1843, at the Court of London, the British and French Governments entered into a formal agreement for the recognition of Hawaiian independence. The Proclamation read as follows:
"Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of the French, taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage, reciprocally, to consider the Sandwich Islands as an Independent State, and never to take possession, neither directly or under the title of Protectorate, or under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed.
The undersigned, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs, and the Ambassador Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the French, at the Court of London, being furnished with the necessary powers, hereby declare, in consequence, that their said Majesties take reciprocally that engagement."
As a result of the recognition of Hawaiian Independence in 1843 the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into Treaties and Conventions with the nations of Austria, Belgium, Bremen (presently Germany), Denmark, France, Germany, Hamburg (presently Germany), Italy, Hong Kong (former colony of England), Japan, Netherlands, New South Wales (former colony of England), Portugal, Russia, Samoa, the Swiss Confederation, Sweden, Norway, Tahiti (colony of France), United Kingdom, and the United States of America.
The Organic and Statutory Laws of the State (circa. 1845-1886).
On June 24, 1845, a Joint Resolution was enacted by the Legislature and signed into law. The Attorney General was called upon to draw up a complete set of the existing laws embracing the organic forms of the different departments, namely, the Executive and Judicial branches. These laws were to outline their duties and modes of procedure. This brought forth the First Act of Kamehameha III to Organize the Executive Ministries, the Second Act of Kamehameha III to Organize the Executive Departments, and the Third Act of Kamehameha III to Organize the Judiciary Department. These Acts came to be known as the Organic Acts of 1845-46.
On September 27, 1847, the Legislature passed a law calling upon Chief Justice William L. Lee to establish a Penal Code. In 1850, a Penal Code was submitted to the Legislature by Chief Justice Lee and signed into law by His Majesty King Kamehameha III. The Penal Code had adopted the principles of the English common law. On June 22, 1865, the Judges of the Supreme Court were directed, by an act of the Legislature, to compile and ready to publish the Penal Laws of the Kingdom. The matter required a compilation of the amendments and additions made to the Penal Code since 1850. In 1869 a revised Penal Code was published.
In 1851, the Hawaiian Kingdom Legislature passed a resolution calling for the appointment of three commissioners, one to be chosen by the King, one by the House of Nobles, and one by the House of Representatives. The duty of these commissioners was to revise the Constitution of 1840. The draft of the revised Constitution was submitted to the Legislature and approved by both the House of Nobles and the House of Representatives and signed into law by the King on June 14, 1852. By its terms, the Constitution would not take effect until December 6, 1852.
On April 6, 1853, Alexander Liholiho was named successor to the office of the Constitutional Monarch by His Majesty King Kamehameha III in accordance with Article 25 of the Constitution of 1852. Article 25 provides that the ". successor (of the Throne) shall be the person whom the King and the House of Nobles shall appoint and publicly proclaim as such, during the King's life. "
One year later on December 15th, His Majesty King Kamehameha III passed away and Alexander Liholiho ascended to the office of Constitutional Monarch. He was thereafter called King Kamehameha IV (pictured right).
Since the passage of the Organic Acts of 1845-46, a Joint Resolution was passed by the Legislature and signed into law in 1856, calling upon Prince Lot Kamehameha, Chief Justice William L. Lee, and Associate Justice George M. Robertson to form a committee and prepare a complete Civil Code and to report the same for the sanction of the Legislature in 1858. Pursuant to the resolution, on May 2, 1859, a Civil Code was finally passed by the Legislative Assembly and signed into law on May 17, 1859. Session laws subsequently enacted by the Legislature amended or added to the Civil and Penal Codes.
The nationality or political status of persons ancillary to the Hawaiian Kingdom are termed Hawaiian subjects. The native inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands became subjects of the Kingdom as a consequence of the unification of the islands by His Majesty King Kamehameha I at the turn of the 19th century. Since Hawai'i became constitutional, foreigners were capable of becoming Hawaiian nationals either through naturalization or denization. Under the naturalization laws of the Kingdom, foreigners who resided in the Hawaiian Islands for at least five years could apply to the Minister of Interior for naturalization, whereby "Every foreigner so naturalized, shall be deemed to all intents and purposes a native of the Hawaiian Islands, be amenable only to the laws of this Kingdom, and to the authority and control thereof, be entitled to the protection of said laws, and be no longer amenable to his native sovereign while residing in this Kingdom, nor entitled to resort to his native country for protection or intervention. He shall be amenable, for every such resort, to the pains and penalties annexed to rebellion by the Criminal Code. And every foreigner so naturalized, shall be entitled to all the rights, privileges and immunities of an Hawaiian subject."
Denization was a constitutional prerogative of the Office of the Monarch, whereby, a foreigner may have all the rights and privileges of a Hawaiian subject, but is not required to relinquish his allegiance to his native country as is required under naturalization. Denization was "dual citizenship," which was accompanied by an oath of allegiance to the Hawaiian Kingdom. It was reserved to those foreigners who may not have resided in the Kingdom for five years or more, but their services were necessary in the affairs of government both local and abroad. The children of Hawaiian denizens born on Hawaiian territory were considered Hawaiian subjects. Examples of Hawaiian denizens were special envoys who negotiated international treaties and officers serving in the Hawaiian government.
On November 30, 1863, His Majesty King Kamehameha IV passed away unexpectedly, and consequently, left the Kingdom without a publicly proclaimed successor. On the very same day, the Kuhina Nui (Premier) in Privy Council publicly proclaimed Lot Kapuaiwa the successor to the Throne, in accordance with Article 25 of the Constitution of 1852. He was thereafter called King Kamehameha V. Article 47, of the Constitution of 1852, provides that ". whenever the throne shall become vacant by reason of the King's death the Kuhina Nui (Premier) shall perform all the duties incumbent on the King, and shall have and exercise all the powers, which by this Constitution are vested in the King."
When His Majesty King Kamehameha V (pictured right) ascended to the throne, he had refused to take the oath of office until the Constitution was altered. This refusal was constitutionally authorized by Article 94 of the 1852 Constitution which provided that ". [t]he King, after approving this Constitution, shall take the following oath. "
This provision implied a choice to take or not take the oath, which His Majesty King Kamehameha V felt should be constitutionally altered. Another provision of the 1852 Constitution needing alteration was the sovereign prerogative provided in article 45 which stated that ". [a]ll important business of the Kingdom which the King chooses to transact in person, he may do, but not without the approbation of the Kuhina Nui (Premier). The King and Kuhina Nui (Premier) shall have a negative on each other's public acts."
This sovereign prerogative allowed the Monarch the constitutional authority to alter or amend laws without Legislative approval. These anomalous provisions needed to be altered along with the instituting of voter qualifications for the House of Representatives. His Majesty King Kamehameha V, in Privy Council, resolved to look into the legal means of convening the first Constitutional Convention.
On July 7, 1864, a Convention was called for by His Majesty King Kamehameha V in order to draft a new constitution. The Convention was not comprised of delegates elected by the people with the specific task of altering the constitution, but rather their elected officials serving in the House of Representatives, together with the House of Nobles and the King in Privy Council who would convene in special session. Between July 7 and August 8, 1864, each article in the proposed Constitution was read and discussed until they arrived at Article 62. Article 62 defined the qualification of voters for the House of Representatives. After days of debate over this article, the Convention arrived at an absolute deadlock. The House of Representatives was not able to agree on this article. As a result, His Majesty King Kamehameha V, in exercising his sovereign prerogative by virtue of Article 45 of the constitution, dissolved the convention and proclaimed a new constitution on August 20, 1864.
In His Majesty King Kamehameha V's speech at the opening of the Legislative Assembly of 1864, he explained his abovementioned action of dissolving the Convention and proclaiming a new constitution. He stated that the ". forty-fifth article (of the Constitution of 1852) reserved to the Sovereign the right to conduct personally, in cooperation with the Kuhina Nui (Premier), but without the intervention of a Ministry or the approval of the Legislature, such portions of the public business as he might choose to undertake. "
This public speech before the Legislative Assembly occurred without contest, and therefore must be construed as a positive statement of the approbation of the Kuhina Nui (Premier) as required by Article 45 of the said Constitution of 1852. However, this sovereign prerogative was removed from the 1864 Constitution, thereby preventing any future Monarch of the right to alter the constitution without the approval of two-thirds of all members of the Legislative Assembly. All articles of the constitution previously agreed upon in convention remained, except for the voter requirements for the House of Representatives. The property qualifications instituted in Articles 61 and 62 were repealed by the Legislature in 1874.
Contrary to recent historical scholars, the 1864 Constitution did not increase the authority of the Monarch, but rather limited the power of the Monarch formally held under the 1852 Constitution. Under what has been termed the Kamehameha Constitution (1864), the Monarch was now required to take the oath of office and the sovereign prerogative was removed. Also removed was the office of the Kuhina Nui (Premier), which was found to be overlapping with the duties of the Minister of Interior. The bi-cameral nature of the legislative body was also removed. Where once the legislature would formally sit in two distinct Houses (House of Nobles and the House of Representatives), it now was changed to a uni-cameral House where the ". [l]egislative power of the Three Estates of this Kingdom is vested in the King, and the Legislative Assembly which Assembly shall consist of the Nobles appointed by the King, and of the Representatives of the People, sitting together."
On December 11, 1872, His Majesty King Kamehameha V passed away without naming a successor to the office of Constitutional Monarch. As a consequence to the passing of the late King, the Legislative Assembly readied itself to exercise the constitutional authority it possessed to elect, by ballot, a native Chief to be the Constitutional Monarch. Article 22 of the Constitution of 1864 of the Hawaiian Kingdom provides such authority and states "..should the Throne become vacant, then the Cabinet Council, immediately after the occurring of such vacancy, shall cause a meeting of the Legislative Assembly, who shall elect by ballot some native Ali'i (Chief) of the Kingdom as Successor to the Throne. ".
On January 8, 1873, William Charles Lunalilo was elected as successor to the office of Constitutional Monarch in accordance with Article 22 of the Constitution of 1864. One year later on February 3rd, 1874, His Majesty King Lunalilo (pictured right) died without naming a successor. The Hawaiian Legislature once again met in special session and elected David Kalakaua to the office of Constitutional Monarch on February 12th, 1874. In accordance with the Constitution, His Majesty's first royal act was to nominate and confirm his younger brother, William P. Leleiohoku, as successor.
On April 10, 1877, following the death of heir-apparent William P. Leleiohoku, King David Kalakaua (pictured left) publicly proclaimed Lydia Kamaka'eha Dominis to be his successor to the office of Constitutional Monarch in accordance with Article 22 of the Constitution of 1864.
In 1880, the Legislative Assembly passed an Act to Provide for the Codification and revision of the Laws of the Kingdom. His Majesty's Ministers requested an opinion of the Justices of the Supreme Court, in regard to the 1880 Act, to determine what needed to be done. The Justices stated there was no need to establish another code, but rather a compilation be made of the laws, then in force, and as they stood amended, but without any changes in the words and phrases of statutes. Pursuant to the opinion of the Justices and in accordance with the 1880 Act, a book was published in 1884 entitled the "Compiled Laws of the Hawaiian Kingdom."
On October 16, 1886, the Hawaiian Legislature was adjourned by King David Kalakaua after it met in Legislative session for 129 days. This Legislature was not scheduled to reconvene in Legislative Session until April of 1888. Article 46 of the Constitution of 1864 provides that the ". Legislative Body shall assemble biennially, in the month of April, and at such other time as the King may judge necessary, for the purpose of seeking the welfare of the nation."
The Bayonet Constitution of 1887.
In 1887, while the Legislature remained out of session, a minority of subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom and foreign nationals, which included citizens of the United States, met in a mass meeting to organize a takeover of the political rights of the native population in the Kingdom. These individuals were organized under the name "Honolulu Rifles." On July 1, 1887, these individuals threatened His Majesty King David Kalakaua with bodily harm if he did not accept a new Cabinet Council. On July 7, 1887, a new constitution was forced upon the King by the members of this new cabinet. This new constitution did not obtain the consent nor ratification of the Legislative Assembly who had remained adjourned since October 16, 1886.
Under this so-called constitution deriving itself from the Executive branch and not the Legislative branch, a new Legislature was elected while the lawful Legislature remained out of session. The voters, which for the first time included aliens, had to swear an oath to support the so-called constitution before they could vote. The insurgents used the alien vote to offset the majority vote of the aboriginal Hawaiian population, in order to gain control of the Legislative Assembly, while the so-called 1887 constitution provided the self imposed Cabinet Council to control the Monarch. This new Legislature was not properly constituted under the Constitution of 1864, nor the lawfully executed Session Laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Hawaiian Kingdom.
In spite of the illegal efforts to promulgate this so-called constitution, the 1886 Legislative Assembly did not ratify this so-called constitution pursuant to Article 80 of the 1864 Constitution. Article 80 states "Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Legislative Assembly, and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members thereof, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on its journal, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the next Legislature which proposed amendment or the next election of Representatives and if in the next Legislature such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by two-thirds of all members of the Legislative Assembly, and be approved by the King, such amendment or amendments shall become part of the Constitution of this country."
Organized resistance by the native subjects of the country resulted in the creation of the Hawaiian Political Party, also known as the Hui Kalai'aina, who protested against the so-called constitution of 1887. Hui Kalai'aina consistently petitioned His Majesty King David Kalakaua to resort back to the 1864 constitution because it was the legal constitution of the Country.
Notwithstanding the extortion of the so-called constitution of 1887, commonly known as the "bayonet constitution," the Constitution of 1864 and the Session laws of the Legislative Assembly enacted since October 16, 1886, still remain in full force and have legal effect in the Hawaiian Kingdom until today. Article 78, of the Constitution of 1864, provides that all ". laws now in force in this Kingdom, shall continue and remain in full effect, until altered or repealed by the Legislature such parts only excepted as are repugnant to this Constitution. All laws heretofore enacted, or that may hereafter be enacted, which are contrary to this Constitution, shall be null and void."
On January 20, 1891, His Majesty King David Kalakaua passed away in San Francisco, while visiting the United States. His named successor, Lydia Kamaka'eha Dominis, ascended to the office of Constitutional Monarch and was thereafter called Queen Lili'uokalani (pictured left). On January 14, 1893, in an attempt to counter the effects of the so-called constitution of 1887, Her Majesty Queen Lili'uokalani, drafted a new constitution that embodied the principles and wording of the Constitution of 1864. This draft constitution was not Kingdom law, but remained subject to ratification by two-thirds of all members of the legitimate Legislative Assembly, that had been out of session since October 16, 1886.
The revolutionaries who actively participated in the extortion of the so-called 1887 constitution were also the same perpetrators affiliated with the unsuccessful revolution of January 17, 1893. Between 1887 and 1893, the self imposed government officials who were installed under the so-called 1887 constitution became an oligarchy, as they tried to combat the organized resistance within the Kingdom.
What Caused the Rise and Fall of the West African Kingdoms?
For the medieval West African kingdoms of Mali and Songhai, the rise and fall of power involved conquest, warfare and patterns of trade. Competition for wealth and the desire for independence from more powerful kingdoms shaped West African societies.
The empire of Mali endured from the early 13th century to the late 15th century. Once a state inside of the Ghanaian empire, Mali rose to power when Ghana collapsed due to invading forces and internal conflicts. When Mali began to wane in power, one of its trade centers, Songhai, established its independence and soon rose to power in its place, becoming the largest kingdom in medieval West Africa, according to Annenberg Learner. Songhai collapsed at the end of the 16th century when Moroccan invaders were drawn by the riches in gold and salt and conquered Timbuktu.
Trade heavily influenced the development of West African kingdoms. Long-distance trade increased wealth, which was used to build bigger kingdoms. To protect these kingdoms, bigger armies were amassed. In Songhai, under some rulers the armies were composed of slaves. According to South African History Online, the slave trade, both within Africa and with the Portuguese, played an important role in building kingdoms, as slave labor was relied upon to perform most of the heavy work and to provide agricultural labor that helped feed the growing populations.
The History of Nigeria can be traced to settlers trading across the middle East and Africa as early as 1100 BC. Numerous ancient African civilisations settled in the region that is known today as Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of Nri, the Benin Empire, and the Oyo Empire. Islam reached Nigeria through the Borno Empire between and Hausa States around during the 11th century, while Christianity came to Nigeria in the 15th century through Augustinian and Capuchin monks from Portugal. The Songhai Empire also occupied part of the region. The history of Nigeria has been crucially affected by the transatlantic slave trade, which started in Nigeria in the late 15th century. The first slave-trading post used by the British and Portuguese was Badagry, a coastal harbour. Local brokers provided them with slaves, escalating conflicts among the ethnic groups in the region and disrupting older trade patterns through the Trans-Saharan route.
The Bight of Biafra is a bight off the West African coast, in the easternmost part of the Gulf of Guinea.
Calabar is the capital of Cross River State, Nigeria. It was originally named Akwa Akpa, in Efik language. The city is adjacent to the Calabar and Great Kwa rivers and creeks of the Cross River.
The Women's War, or Aba Women's Riots, was a period of unrest in colonial Nigeria over November 1929. The protests broke out when thousands of Igbo women from the Bende District, Umuahia and other places in eastern Nigeria traveled to the town of Oloko to protest against the Warrant Chiefs, whom they accused of restricting the role of women in the government. The Aba Women's Riots of 1929, as it was falsely named in British records, is more aptly considered a strategically executed revolt and/or protest organised by women to redress social, political and economic grievances. The protest encompassed women from six ethnic groups.
Long before 1500, much of modern Nigeria was divided into states identified with contemporary ethnic groups. These early states included the Igbo Kingdom of Nri, the Benin Kingdom, the Yoruba city-states including the Kingdom of Ife, Igala Kingdom, the Hausa States, and Nupe. Numerous small states to the west and south of Lake Chad were absorbed or displaced in the course of the expansion of Kanem, which was centered to the northeast of Lake Chad. Bornu, initially the western province of Kanem, became independent in the late 14th century. Other states probably existed, but the absence of archaeological data prevents accurate dating.
Nigerians or the Nigerian people, are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria. Nigeria is composed of various ethnic groups and cultures and the term Nigerian refers to a citizenship-based civic nationality. Nigerians derive from over 250 ethnic groups and languages. Though there are multiple ethnic groups in Nigeria, economic factors result in significant mobility of Nigerians of multiple ethnic and religious backgrounds to reside in territories in Nigeria that are outside their ethnic or religious background, resulting in the mixing of the various ethnic and religious groups, especially in Nigeria's cities. The English language is the lingua franca of Nigerians. 50.6% of Nigerians are Muslims and about 47.9% are Christians. Considering the ever increase in the population of the country, it is now believed that the two major religions will soon be contending for figure supremacy in years to come.
This is a timeline of Sudanese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Sudan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Sudan. See that the list of governors of pre-independence Sudan and list of heads of state of Sudan.
The Yorubapeople are an ethnic group that inhabits western Africa, mainly the countries of Nigeria, Benin, and Togo. The Yoruba constitute around 35 million people in Africa. The vast majority of the Yoruba population is from Nigeria, where the Yoruba make up 15.5% of the country's population, making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. Most Yoruba people speak the Yoruba language, which is the Niger-Congo language with the largest number of native speakers.
Toyin Omoyeni Falola is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is currently the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin. Falola earned his B.A. and Ph.D. (1981) in History at the University of Ife, Ile-Ife, in Nigeria. He is a Fellow of the Historical Society of Nigeria and of the Nigerian Academy of Letters. Falola is author and editor of more than one hundred books, and he is the general editor of the Cambria African Studies Series. Falola served as the president of the African Studies Association in 2014 and 2015.
This timeline of Rwandan history is a chronological list of major events related to the human inhabitants of Rwanda.
This is a timeline of Burundian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Burundi and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Burundi. See also the list of Kings of Burundi, list of colonial governors of Burundi, and list of Presidents of Burundi.
The following is a timeline of the history of the metropolis of Lagos, Nigeria.
Apollos Okwuchi Nwauwa is a Nigerian-born historian and professor of Africana Studies. He is currently the Director of Africana Studies, College of Arts and Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. Nwauwa earned his Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree from the then Bendel State University Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. in History at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada, in 1989 and 1993 respectively. Nwauwa is a members of many learned societies and served as President of the Igbo Studies Association from 2010-2014. He is the current editor of OFO: Journal of Transatlantic Studies. Nwauwa is author and editor of many book and scholarly journal articles.
Ooni Luwoo was the 21st Ooni of Ife, a paramount traditional ruler of Ile Ife, the ancestral home of the Yorubas in the 10th century. She succeeded Ooni Giesi and was succeeded by Ooni Lumobi. Ooni Luwoo's reign remains the only one by a female in Ife till date.
The Ọwọrọ ethnic nationality represents a group of people around the Niger-Benue confluence speaking a Yoruba dialect called Oworo. They are generally classified as part of Northeast Yoruba (NEY) of the Yoruba people.
Akesan is the mythical founder of Iperu, an ancient town in Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria. Oral history has it that Akesan was a daughter to an Alaafin who along with her husband Ajagbe migrated from Ile Ife to finally settle in Iperu around the 13th or 14th century.
History of the Forgotten Realms
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Merrouroboros circa -35,000 DR
This earliest days of recorded history begins at the end of a great Ice Age, some 37,000 years ago, when the last glaciations largely ended and the great ocean receded to reveal dry land. In this ancient time before The Sundering, the lands which would one day be identified as Faerun, Kara-Tur, Maztica, and Zakhara were each but one part of a much larger super-continent named Merrouroboros.
While life spread quickly, none of the dozen or so common races which populate the world today existed in this distant era. Merrouroboros knew none of the civilized folk - elves, dwarves, halflings, or gnomes. Nor did the savage peoples - goblins, orcs, ogres and their kin - inhabit the land. Though humans did exist during this time, they were primitive and apelike, using only simple tools and living in caves. Unintelligent reptiles known as Thunderers ruled the land, sea, and sky. By the end of the first millennium post Ice Age, primitive bands of hunter-gatherer lizardfolk lived along the fertile waters of the Goldenwater in modern-day Durpar, exploiting game, lake-fish, and wild plants of all kinds. Unlike the Thunderers, the sauroids possessed superior intellect and tactical sense. In time they would become known as the sarrukh, the first of the mighty creator races, also known as Iqua-Tel'Quessir. »
Rise of the Sarrukh Empires (sauroid creator race)
The introduction of cattle, sheep, and goats revolutionizes farming in the Durpar region. Herdes are semi-nomadic, driving their animals between seasonal pastures. By -35,000 DR , desertifiation of Durpar begins perhaps in part because of overgrazing. The herders' respond by migrating northwest from The Goldenwater to a region of semi-arid savanna they name Okoth.
In Okoth, south of modern-day Mulhorand, the sarrukh found their first permanent settlements. Early sarrukh villages are dominated by temple complexes dedicated to the worship of the World Serpent. Most sarrukh settlements of this period have a population between two and eight thousand people, though Daar Mundigak itself, the largest city in Okoth, has over ten thousand.
Within a hundred years, most of Faerûn is theirs. »
The sarrukh establish the realm of Mhairshaulk, on the Chultan Peninsula westward from the Lhairghal to the Jungles of Chult. The Mhairshaulkans are believed to have created nagas, pterafolk, troglodytes, and yuan-ti, as well as numerous other races long since lost. »
The sarrukh establish the realm of Isstosseffifil, based in present-day Anauroch. »
The sarrukh empires, circa -34,200 DR
The sarrukh civilization enters a new troubled phase as they had conquered so many races that they had became the minority in their own empire.
Writing is invented as an aid to administration in communities that had grown so complex that sarrukh memory could no longer store all the information needed for efficient government. The earliest sarrukh signs are pictographs scribed on clay tablets then dried. The sarrukh writing systems are widely adopted by their slaves. »
Fall of Okoth
After a century of civil strife that drove many sarrukh of Okoth to the planes, the Okoth Empire collapses.
The clans of Sarrukh wandered the planes for millennia but never found a plane where they wished to remain for more than a generation. This nomadic existence hardens them, turning them inexorably toward evil.
As the sarrukh of Okoth increasingly embraced their darker natures, a few dissenters, despairing of their kindred's push toward evil, broke off from the main group. They entreated Jazirian, a fragment of the World Serpent, for succor, and it responded by transforming them into couatls. A bitter war ensued, but the couatls held their own against the more numerous Okothian sarrukh until Merrshaulk, a darker fragment of the World Serpent, finally slew Jazirian. At that point, the couatls were forced to flee to Abeir-Toril, where they eventually settled in Maztica. The god Qotal embraced them as his divine minions, and they acknowledged him as Jazirian reborn.
After the war with the couatls, the sarrukh begin to explore the Barrens of Doom and Despair, where they happened upon the khaastas. Believing these creatures to be inferior and weak reptilians, the sarrukh attempt to enslave them. Much to the invaders surprise, not only were the khaastas extremely resistant to serving, but they also had powerful demonic allies willing to aid them. Thus begins a centuries long war between the sarrukh and the khaastas, which the sarrukh eventually lose. To escape the wrath of the victorious khaastas, the sarrukh secretly return to Faerun and begin skulking around the ruins of Okoth, on the shores of the Azulduth. »
The otherworldly realm of Faerie is ruled by the fey (creators of korreds, sprites, and pixies). The fey continue to rule to the present day. »
It is believed that the first human appear in the northern savannas of Katashaka. They soon migrate outward to populate the rest of the world.
In the lands south of Mhairshaulk, human tribes depended on fishing, hunting and herding to sustain themselves. The tribes of Lopango, however, utilize irrigation techniques which allowed them to take up pastoral farming.
Unfortunately the proximity of primitive human tribes to Mhairshaulk proved disastrous. Sarrukh raiding parties routinely patrolled Thinguth lands returning to Mhairshaulk with humans for food or slavery. A few are experimented upon by their sarrukh captors. Tainted and augmented by sarrukh magic, these unfortunate individuals in time become known as vrael olo, the yuan-ti. »
Fall of Isstosseffifil:
In an effort to drown the phaerimm of Phaerlin (known today as the Buried Realms in the Underdark) and dispatch their enemies in one masterful stroke, Isstossef wizards rerouted the Narrow Sea so that it ran from east to west, inundating the land around the chain of hills known today as the Tagorlar with water. Although the Isstossef succeeded in driving the phaerimms deep into the Underdark, the massive ecological change resulting from their weavings of Art caused the Isstosseffifil empire to collapse.
Although most of the sarrukh of Isstosseffifil died with the city's decline, many survived. The survivors retreated into lichdom in the depths of Oreme where they are protected by the asabis they had created. »
Fall of Mhairshaulk
Sarrukh-ruled Mhairshaulk, faced with starvation, declines gradually, sinking slowly into somnolence. The sarrukhs begin a cycle in which thousand-year hibernations alternate with brief periods of activity, during which food gathering and procreation could take place. The empire becomes the domain of the yuan-ti.
With the fall of Isstosseffifil, this marks the Fall of the Sarrukh Empire . »
Rise of the Batrachi Empire
Early batrachi. Sarrukh empire remnants.
The batrachi (creator race) are also known as amphibioids or creators of the bullywugs, doppelgangers, kopru, kuo-toa, locathah, sivs, tako, and other shapeshifters, amphibious or piscine races. The first sea born batrachi begin to flourish in the mild northern currents of the Black Sea knwon as the Fertile Crescent. The supply of mussels and other shell fish are so rich that in some areas the hunter-gatherer population could settle in semi-permanent villages. During this time, many batrachi begins to undergo metamorphosis to walk upon the land. »
Under the wise leadership of Zhoukoudien, batrachi power reaches its zenith. The High One's reign ends when he is slain in battle with the titan thane Omo. »
The Batrachi empire, circa -31,500 DR
War between the Batrachi and the Giants.
Ostoria takes the offensive against the batrachi, supported by the titans of Lanaxis, they seize the fertile land between the Inner Seas. The batrachi battle the jotunbrud for centuries, neither side gaining an advantage. »
End of the Batrachi and Giants War
The conflict between the Batrachi and the giants of Ostoria comes to an abrupt end when the ice moon Zotha falls from the sky devastating much of the lands within central Merrouroboros. A large fragment of the moon carves a gorge so deep between the four Inner Seas, they merge together to form the Sea of Fallen Stars, an event the sarrukhs remark on as a "changing of the stars". Severe earthquakes rocked the region for weeks afterwards. The crystalline batrachi cities, though reinforced by magic, were unable to withstand the incessant aftershocks. Within a year, the Batrachi Empire had fallen into ruin.
The impact of the moon threw up a thick cloud of dust into the atmosphere obscuring the sun for seven years. Without the sun, plant-life began to die out across the land, soon followed by the herbivores and finally the carnivores. Only those peoples possessing great magic or divine protection survived the mass extinction. »
In the weeks following the Tearfall, tens of thousands of dragon eggs begin hatching across Merrouroboros. These precursor wyrms are not the mighty dragons known today for they possessed no wings, no magic, no dragon breath, and in the case of seawurms no legs. Nor are they a new species of the great thunderers common in Mhairshaulk, for they are warm blooded and possess greater intelligence. »
One thousand Aearee-Krocaa lose their lives to a much smaller force of lammasu. Later experiments with domesticated landwyrms produce the first winged wyrms, which the aearee name wyverns. Thanks to its new wyvern armies, the Aearee-Krocaa empire expands rapidly. »
Rise of the Aearee Empires (avian creator races).
Aearee Empire, circa -30,500 DR
The Aearee seize opportunity by occupying the fallen Batrachi lands.
In the west, the Aearee-Krocaa, followers of the All-Father Krocaa, establish the grand aerie of Viakoo on Mount Havraquoar, which becomes the capital of their great nation, which stretches from as far west as Maztica and as far south as the Lake of Steam. Mount Havroquoar stood far west of where the Sword Coast ends today (Mount Havroquoar and much of the lands of the Aearee-Krocaa is destroyed many centuries later in the Sundering). The great kokra aerie at Viakoo governed its lands fairly and forges lasting friendships with couatl, fey and other denizens of Anchorome.
In the north, the Aearee-Syran establish their capital at the aerie of Phwiukree, in the peaks of the Star Mounts and nested in the forests all around those mountains. A strong and majestic folk, their features were reminiscent of eagles and hawks. They enjoyed the special favor of Korcaa's daughter, Syranita, who they praised as their patron.
In the southeast, the Aearee-Quor carve out the domain of Shara from their rookery in the Orsraun Mountains. These aearees bore the features of crows and jays. The Aearee-Quor's patron was Quolinn, whose wits and cunning preserved their flocks through the worst times of the Batrachi domination and inspired in their hearts a fierce pride and determined self-reliance. Spreading out from the Shara rookery on the Orsraun Mountains, they grew into a loose affiliation of floating city-states that would eventually span the breadth of the continent. »
The Wasting Plague
In a conflict between the gnolls of Urgnarash and rookery of Kookrui-Shara, shamans of Yeenoghu summons marrashi - spirits of pestilence from the Barrens of Doom and Despair - to blight aearee crops and spread a wasting plague among the avians.
The Aearee War
An Aearee named Sieska Waewielonn of the Okwalok-Shara rookery over the shores of the Great Sea discovers the name of Pazreal, a demon lord. With the fiends aid, Sieska becomes lord of Okwalok-Shara. Soon all the rookeries of Aearee-Quor abandones the faith of Quorlin and turns to Pazreal (all except the rookery of Tiennkoo-Shara, which flees to the farthest peaks of Kara-Tur, where their descendants yet thrive today as the crow-headed race known as Tengu, they are the only branch of the Aearee-Quor who never lost their wings). Pazreal teaches the Aearee-Quor how to summon Vrocks, but at a great cost, he took from them their power of flight. The Aearee of Shara never again ride the winds, except by spell or steed.
Sieska then wages war on the other Aeraree nations to the north and west. Aearee-Krocaa is the first to fall. Aearee-Syran, defends with the aid of fey allies, winged treants, and soarwhales against Aearee-Quor's near-endless demon vrocks and battle rocs. In the end, Mornungongbarae (possibly the first treant), who had guarded the High Forest for nearly a thousand years, rises up and brings down the Quor floating city, but at the cost of his own life. His tragic sacrifice is still sung by treant skalds today, in a saga called The Lament of Mornungongbarae. »
-30000 DR to -24000 DR
The empires of the creator races fade into memory, ushering in the Time of Dragons and the Time of Giants. Individual dragons and dragon clans rule large swaths of territory and battle with their rivals for control of the lands, seas, and skies. During this period of devastating warfare among the dragons of Faerun, isolated pockets of formerly dragon-ruled territory fall under giant control. Over time, such giant-ruled kingdoms come to threaten the hegemony of dragonkind, leading to great battles between giant kingdoms such as Darchar, Grunfesting, Helligheim, Nedeheim, Ostoria, and Rangfjell, and dragon-ruled realms such as Argissthilliax, Caesinmalsvir, Darastriverthicha, and Tharkrixghontix.
This time of conflict plunges Merrourboros into a four-thousand-year-long "dark age". The fey are particularly active in Merrourboros during this period, using their small size and potent magic to aggrivate the wyrms at every opportunity. »
Fall of the Aearee Empires
The Time of Dragons is ushered in as dragons across Faerun swarm together in the first Flight of Dragons. They assail the avians in the air, on the land, and beneath the ground. They fall upon the home nest of Viakoo and burn the city from the sky.
In the caverns beneath the Orsraun Mountains, the wyrm-general Nagamat rampages through the ancestral hatcheries of Shara and claims the kingdom as his own. Using the found magic, Nagamat founds the first dragon kingdom. Sharan aearee survivors escape deeper into the Underdark, where the feral and twisted descendants of the Aearee-Quor become the dire corbies.
The survivors of Viakoo flee west across the ocean to the land called Anchorome. Five of their cities, all crafted from spelljamming helms, flee to the stars. Rulungwar, Donnakee, Phra'iskree, Oolatiel, and an unnamed fifth one, lost during the exodus, crosses the Sea of Night to the world of Coliar. These aeries float there still, among Coliar's manifold moons. Descendants of Aearee-Krocaa are known today as the aarakocra.
Some few repentant Aearee-Quor begs Quorlinn for his mercy, and he leads them to Kara-Tur to find refuge with their long lost cousins of Tiennkoo-Shara, the tengu. Descendants of these people call themselves kenku. »
The Ba'etith create the Golden Skins of the World Serpent, known today as the Nether Scrolls »
The different timelines are illustrated in Beyond the Kingdoms when the Sisters Grimm explain the occurrence of spontaneous portals: "Pretend the two dimensions are planets circling the sun. The green one is the fairy-tale world and the blue one is our world. Even though they move at different speeds somewhere in the cosmos, every so often their orbit crosses and they collide." Ζ]
The collisions, according to the Sisters Grimm, cause gateways between the worlds, explaining millennia of 'mythological' sightings, stories and beliefs.
While human inhabitation of Korea dates back to about 100000 BC, archaeologists have found remnants of ceramics that may belong to the Neolithic Period. It may be safely surmised that an advanced civilization made Korea its home in around 6000 BC.
Early Korean Empire
Legend has it that the earliest empire of Korea was founded by Dangun, a celestial being. This empire, called the Gojoseon, is said to have been founded in about 2333 BC. While the Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, a collection of Korean myths and legends, corroborate the date, the archaeological findings of the Gojoseon Empire have led historians to believe that the empire existed in around 1500 BC. What is certain is that between 800 BC and 300 BC, the Gojoseon Empire was a mighty kingdom in Korea with its capital in Liaoning until about 400 BC, when it moved to Pyongyang. References to the Gojoseon Empire are found in Chinese literature.
In about 300 BC, the Jin Kingdom rose to prominence in the southern parts of Korea. Though no historical records are available from the period, Japanese records of the Yayoi show that the Jin Kingdom was adept in metallurgy. The Jin also seem to have maintained healthy trade ties with the Han Empire in China.
In 108 BC, the Chinese king of the Han Dynasty defeated the Gojoseon Emperor, thus bringing about the fall of the empire. The period that followed is referred to as the Proto-Three Kingdoms Era. This period was characterized by the rise of many small independent states in Korea.
Proto-Three Kingdoms Era
King Jun of Gojoseon fled from his empire in 194 BC following a coup by Wiman Joseon, a Han refugee from China. His grandson, King Ugeo, in turn faced an attack of the Han Dynasty and was forced to abdicate. The Han lords of China established four commanderies in Korea, but these soon fell to the Goguryeo. Several states then replaced the erstwhile empire. Among them, Baekje, Buyeo, Dongye, Goguryeo, and Okjeo became prominent.
Three Kingdom Era
By the beginning of the first century AD most of the small states of the Proto-Three Kingdom Era were absorbed by three states that grew in political and economic clout. The kingdom of Baekje reached the peak of its extent by the fourth century AD. The state encompassed the Mahan states and occupied most of west Korea. The state is known to have had rich cultural and trade exchanges with Japan and south China. The kingdom of Baekje centered on modern day Seoul.
Dongye, Okjeo, and Buyeo were absorbed by the rising state of Goguryeo. Goguryeo was the most powerful of the three states of the Three Kingdom Era. The two kings who brought much pride and renown to the kingdom were Gwanggaeto and Jangsu of the fifth century AD.
Silla, the last of the three kingdoms, was located to the southeast of Korea. Developing in around 200 BC, Silla soon became a dominant power. Although often at war with Goguryeo or Baekje, Silla also had cultural exchanges with the two states. By 667 AD, Silla conquered both Goguryeo and Baekje and became the sole power in Korea. This state formed by Silla upon annexation of the other two kingdoms faced internal revolts. By 935 AD, the Goryeo state emerged under the leadership of King Gyeongsun and defeated Silla to achieve supremacy in the region.
The Goryeo Dynasty
The Goryeo Dynasty ruled Korea from 935 AD until about 1392 AD. By 1231 AD, the Korean Empire faced the onslaught of Mongol attacks by the Yuan Dynasty of China. The Yuan Dynasty was founded by Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, the renowned Mongol emperor. From 1231 to around 1350, the Goryeo Dynasty ruled Korea as a vassal state of the Chinese Empire. By 1350, King Gongmin was fairly independent, and dealt with the administration of his country as a sovereign ruler, but the end of the Goryeo Dynasty was near. In 1392, Taejo of Joseon dethroned the Goryeo king and took over the empire, thus founding the Joseon Dynasty.
The Joseon Empire
In 1392, having taken over the empire, Taejo set out to administer a number of reforms for the welfare of the people. With the movement of the capital to Hanyang, modern-day Seoul once again became the center of political power in Korea. During the reign of King Taejo the Gyeongbokgung Palace was built in Seoul.
The empire faced repeated invasions first Japan and then Manchu attacked and invaded Korea in 1592 and 1620. When King Yeongjo came to power in 1724, he brought the land much stability, but the kingdom again fell into corruption and social vices. The Joseon Kingdom followed a policy of isolation. After 1866, Korea was subject to a wave of colonial invasions by France and by Britain, leading up to an onslaught of Japanese invasions.