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The Pantheon, Rome

The Pantheon, Rome


The Pantheon in Rome: history, curiosities and how to visit it

The Pantheon in Rome is with any doubt one of the most fascinating historical places of Rome. The Pantheon is in fact destination of thousands of tourists that come to Rome to see this mysterious building.

The Pantheon: what is it and how it can be visited

Today the Pantheon is a basilica consecrated to the Catholic religion with the name of Santa Maria ad Martyres and therefore Catholic religious ceremonies are celebrated here as in any other catholic church. It was consecrated to Catholic worship on the 13th May 609.

Pantheon mass time

Inside the Basilica mass is celebrated on Saturday and in pre-holiday days at 5pm, on Sundays and in holy days at 10,30 am.

Pantheon between history and legend

The term "pantheon" derives from two Greek words: “pan” which means everything and “theon” which means divine. In fact, originally the Pantheon in Rome was a temple dedicated to all the pagan deities of Rome.
On the façade, the frieze has a Latin inscription: "It was built by Marco Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time".
Consul Agrippa, under the reign of Augustus, originally built the building between 27 and 25 BC. After two fires, it was rebuilt in the form it is today thanks to the will of the emperor Hadrian.
The Pantheon carries many ancient legends that still make it the most mysterious monument in Rome, wrapped in legends and mysteries that fascinate all visitors.

One of the most famous legends regards Romolo, the founder of the Eternal City. In fact, it seems that inside the Pantheon an eagle grabbed the dead body of Romulus and brought him to heaven among the gods.

Another legend tells that the famous oculus (the circular opening just at the centre of the Dome) was created by the devil that escaped from the temple.

The shape itself of the Pantheon embodies a set of characteristics belonging to different cultures and worlds, merged in an unexpectedly harmonious and elegant solution. In fact, the Pantheon has elements that recall the taste of ancient Greece, of imperial Rome and typical elements of the first Christian basilicas. Its silhouette on the skyline of Rome is absolutely unmistakable, especially if photographed from above. The front view, very similar to the facade of a Greek temple as the Parthenon in Athens, contrasts unexpectedly with the hemispherical dome roof that overlooks it. The large apse-shaped body occupies the space behind the facade, where round geometric shapes contrasts with the classic linearity of the front.

The interior of the building is equally fascinating. The tromp l'oeil dome with the famous oculus, the 7 splendid niches placed between the Corinthian columns where the statues of the 7 divinities connected to the cult of the planets stay, the richly decorated floor inlaid with polychrome marble, the huge dimension of the structure, the enormous empty space inside… everything contributes to making this building a wonder that leaves visitors enchanted, enraptured and full of amazement.

A last curiosity: the rain does not reach the pavement despite the 9 meters of diameter of the oculus. The explanation lies in the fact that thanks to the special shape of the oculus, an upward current of air dematerialises the drops of rain. The floor of the monument remains dry even when it’s raining cat and dogs!

The surprising structure of the Pantheon

(Photo by Alessia Cocconi)

This unique building is composed by a circular structure surmounted by a large hemispherical dome. A portico forms the main façade: Corinthian columns surmount a pediment typical of Greek temples. The dome of the Pantheon is made of concrete and it is opened in the centre. The large hole on the top is called oculus. The light that enters the oculus illuminates the internal environment both during the day and evening, creating a spectacular play of dark light.

The internal space of the monument looks like a cylinder covered by a hemisphere. Along the curved walls there are various niches alternate with columns and pilasters. The large dome is made even more impressive by the coffered decoration that shrinks in size as they tighten towards the oculus.

The construction of the Pantheon dates back to 2000 years ago and it was an engineering masterpiece. The optical effect that gives the viewer is both of an extremely harmonious and imposing building with particularly suggestive light and shadow effects.

Who is buried inside the Pantheon?

The Pantheon is also a place of illustrious burials. Raffaello Sanzio, among the most famous artists, the musician Arcangelo Corelli, the two first kings of Italy Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I and also famous politicians such as Agostino Depretis and Francesco Crispi are buried there.

The Pantheon in Rome – where it is and how to reach it

The Pantheon is located in the centre of Rome, in the district (named Rione) Pigna, in Piazza della Rotonda. This square was projected by Giacomo della Porta in 1500.

Metro stop: the nearest is Barberini (line A), it is 700 meters far from the Pantheon.
Bus: n° 30, 40, 62, 64, 81, 87 and 492: they all stop in Largo di Torre Argentina, 400 meters away from Pantheon.

The Pantheon in Rome – how and what can be visited

(Photo by Christopher Czermak on Unsplash)

Entrance to the Pantheon is free. However, it is possible to rent an audio guide that costs 6.00 Euro. The audio guide is bookable and available in the following languages: English, Italian, French, Spanish, Chinese, German, Portuguese, Russian.

The explanation lasts about 35 minutes. The explanation of the official audio guide focuses on 15 points of interest of the monument and allows you to explore the Pantheon, its unique architecture and to learn about its fascinating history.
It is necessary to bring an identity document to be left in deposit for the audio guide. The document will be returned upon return of the device once the tour has ended.

Visitors are required to behave in a respectful and appropriate way, wear appropriate clothing, respect silence, do not consume food or drinks, do not introduce animals.

It is also forbidden to take photos and professional filming with a tripod or flash without unless authorized, touching the works exhibited and overcoming the cords that delimit the works inside the Pantheon.

Pantheon in Rome – guided tours

It is possible to organize a guided tour of the Pantheon during daytime, as it is not accessible in the evening. The guided tours can take place in several languages and lasts about 2 hours. It is often advisable to combine it with Piazza Navona, to admire one of the most important and suggestive squares of Rome and to appreciate Bernini's baroque work: the three fountains that decorate the large Roman square. In this case the tour lasts about 3 hours.

Alternatively, the visit to the Pantheon can be combined with Castel Sant’Angelo, which is also easily accessible and takes about 15 minutes on foot.

Pantheon area: what can be visited in the area, services, place to eat

The area surrounding the Pantheon is one of the most lively and atmospheric places of Rome. Bars and restaurants are open until late at night, they make this area one of the best entertainment places for both roman people and tourists during all seasons. The area of the Pantheon, Piazza Navona, Castel Sant'Angelo and the district of Campo dei Fiori are some of the most characteristic areas of Rome. The name of Campo dei Fiori comes from the colourful market set up every day with flowers and foodstuffs.

The cheerful, lively and very characteristic atmosphere of the alleys, squares and fountains that wind through the area make this part of Rome an unmissable stop for the visitors of the city.

Pantheon – entrance time

The Basilica is open weekdays from 8.30 am to 7.30 pm (last entry 7.15 pm)
On Sundays from 9.00 am to 6.00 pm (last entry 5.45 pm).
On public holidays that fall on a weekday the Basilica will stay open from 9,00 am to 13.00 pm.


A Brief History of the Pantheon

Originally the Pantheon was built by Agrippa between 27 and 25 BC and he dedicated it to the worship of all the Olympians. The word “Pantheon” in fact comes from the Greek and literally means (temple) “of all Gods” (“pan” = “all” and “theon” = “divine”).

However, Agrippa’s original construction was damaged by two fires, in 80 A.D. and 120 A.D. and was completely rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian between 118 and 125 A.D., preserved substantially intact to this day.

Hadrian remembered Agrippa with an inscription on the lintel, which is still clearly visible: “M. Agrippa L. F. Cos. Tertium fecit.” The inscription translates to: “Built by Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, the year of his third Consulate.”

In 608 A.D., the Pantheon had passed officially to Christianity, when Pope Boniface IV had the bones of many martyrs taken from the Christian catacombs placed inside. This pagan temple was thus converted into a Christian basilica, called Santa Maria ad Martyres.

Do you want to see how the Pantheon was in the past compared to its present state? Use our tool below.

Photo credits: Vision – Past & Present


Admission to the Pantheon is free . The visit usually lasts 10 to 20 minutes (yes, it is relatively small)!

What to see next? Try Campo Dei Fiori! Also, don’t forget that the area around the Pantheon has some of Rome’s best hotels and the spot is super central: it is one of the best neighborhoods in Rome! Before you leave check out these offers:

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Disclaimer: This post may contain affiliate links, which means if you click on a link and purchase something I will receive a small commission – without any extra cost for you -. By booking through one of these links, you help to keep this blog up and running!


What was the Pantheon used for?

This revolutionary monument in the history of architecture and engineering, is still a mystery.
The name Pantheon means “Temple dedicated to all gods”. Statues of gods were placed all around the central hall inside niches. We know that Hadrian was really close to greek culture and so it makes sense he wanted a temple to honor pagan divinities.
However we don’t know for sure why the pantheon was built. The emperor held hearings and gave judgment in the Pantheon. So what we can assert for sure is that this great construction was certainly a symbol of the power of the Emperor.


Look Who Is Buried in the Pantheon

The Pantheon is literally the place of everything divine. The large cement dome and massive entry columns are recognizable, even to those who have never been to Rome. The monument sits out of proportion to the Piazza della Rotonda, where it shares space with a popular fountain, surrounded by buildings that have grown to enclose the piazza in the almost two millennia since it was built and rebuilt. The site of the Pantheon is significant in Roman history as it marks the spot where the founder of Rome, Romulus, was carried off by eagles upon his death. Although the present building is the third incarnation, completed by the Emperor Hadrian in 125 CE, it remains true to its purpose as the final resting place of icons of history.
The seemingly simple building is an architectural marvel. The dome is the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome. At the center-top is an opening, which provides natural light into the chamber. The recipe for the concrete has been lost over the last 2,000 years. The exposed dome is part of a complete sphere within a cylinder, in which part of the sphere is hidden within the cylinder of the walls. The full measure of the circle is 142 feet in diameter. Those familiar with the calculations of Archimedes of Syracuse will recognize his sphere-within-a-cylinder design that the brilliant mathematician thought of as his supreme accomplishment in the 2nd century BCE.

Vintage photograph: Library of Congress

The dome of the Pantheon has become an architectural icon. The copies are made of reinforced concrete, although the proportions replicate the original. The dome of the United States capital and the Pantheon of Paris are modeled after the Pantheon of Rome.

Almost as amazing as the building’s construction is the preservation of the structure over two millennia. Pagan decoration placed in the niches of the interior during the time of Emperor Hadrian, were lost during the decline of the Roman Empire in the 4th century CE. In 663, Byzantine Emperor Constans II arrived in Rome to plunder the city to decorate Constantinople. He stripped the Pantheon of facie marble and decorative stonework. Miraculously, the interior was left intact.

In Medieval times old buildings, such as the Roman forum and Coliseum were sources of block for modest homes in the city. During the Renaissance grand structures were built repurposing parts of local ruins. Destruction of the entire Pantheon was avoided by its consecration as a church in 609. In the Pantheon iteration as the church of Saint Mary of the Martyrs, bell towers were added and the two Egyptian columns of the sun god, Ra, brought to Rome by Emperor Diocletian in the 3rd century CE, were lost.
During the papacy of the Barberini family pope, Urban VIII, from 1623 to 1644, bronze, ceiling tiles in the portico of the Pantheon, overlooked by Constans, were stripped away. Poets of Rome cried that what the barbarians did not do, the Barberini did. The bronze was repurposed by the sculptor Bernini, to the ceiling of St. Peter’s, where it can be visited today in the doves and angles above the altar.

Bernini sculpture in the Vatican using bronze from the Pantheon


The Paris Pantheon

Also an impressive building, the Paris Pantheon has a very different history than the one in Rome. Located on the south side of the river near the Luxembourg Gardens, the huge, extravagant 18th-century neoclassical structure that exists now was originally built as a church by Louis XV dedicated to St. Genevieve (her body was buried in a basilica that existed on the site in 512 AD) to give thanks for his recovery from a dire illness.

Though it was built to serve as a church, the construction was completed the year that the French Revolution broke out (1789), and two years later it was converted into a mausoleum.

It is the resting place of some very famous names — scientists Marie (the first woman to be interred in the Pantheon) and Pierre Curie, Voltaire, Jean-Jaques Rousseau, and Victor Hugo just to name a few.

The building's facade is clearly modelled after the Roman Pantheon, but the interior looks like a grand Gothic cathedral. Arched ceilings, stunning frescos, and imposing architecture make this spot well-worth the visit. It also hosts, arguably, one of the best views in the city from the exterior of the dome (you can visit it on a tour).


Mysteries of the Roman Pantheon

This is just a quick one because it has been bugging me for years.

The Pantheon (Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down.

I don't think I have seen any one bring up the purpose of such a beast. Any photographic angle of this building will bring new questions. Any angle will show you a new layer. So, I would like to point out some particulars and some facts.

  • Ok, I have a few issues here. This was built as a temple? I wonder how it's so simple know that. And, they brag about the idea that it's modern concrete?
  • My gosh, Romans were dumb. So, we don't know much of anything. They have created a fire story and for good measure they created a lightning-then-fire story. I'm pretty sure their gods were trying to tell them something.
  • Hah! "Your design is terrible, I must kill you now!". The Romans were just the best. And sidenote, this guy was passionate with architecture? Prove it. This beast is an ugly mess on the outside.
  • So, what is this eye? Surely this is prime for some electromagnetic testing, who doesn't love a portal.
  • I dunno, if I were the Emperor and the dude wanted to put a hole in the ceiling, I might be a little skeptical about his "passion" myself.
  • Ok, it's a temple with no windows and a hole in the ceiling. The ceiling itself was lined with bronze which was removed and melted down for cannons. Got it. It's what god would have wanted.
  • Now, what I find interesting is when you head over to it's Wiki page, it has this additional statement about bronze being removed in 663, one thousand years earlier. Just seems odd:

The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment, destruction, and the worst of the spoliation that befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early medieval period. However, Paul the Deacon records the spoliation of the building by the Emperor Constans II, who visited Rome in July 663:

  • Just like St. Petersburg, these goofs had no issues. But, why did they go to Egypt to get columns? That's like me going to a Home Depot on the other side of the country for a stack of 2x4s. I don't know, sounds dumb, sounds made up.

This etching below, why couldn't they get this engraving as it appears today?

Here is how it was shortly after the mud flood:

City of no people. Again, the discrepancies between how they depicted this in paintings and how it looks in real life. Where is that sweet egyptian obelisk. It sure doesn't look the same.

Now, here is what started my thoughts on the Pantheon way back. I remember Sylvie (NewEarth) made a comment a couple of years ago about this place. She was able to actually produce a painting that shows the Pantheon without this M. Agrippa engraving proving that the Agrippa attribution came much later. However, I can not find such a painting for the life of me and it bothers me. Am I going crazy, has anyone else heard of this?

  • Always a good zodiac in play. Here we have the Sun in Taurus. The bull.
  • Oh praise the catholic church for saving this wonderful pagan temple from gravity and time.
  • Right, 1500 years later the fountain arrives. "Sculpted out of marble". Sure.
  • Oh really.
  • Welp, when you create the years, you can make it as old as you want and break as many records as you can.
  • That's quite a thought coming from such a savant.

Right, so the Pope decides to put bell towers on this after 1500 years but then they meticulously remove them in 1883. There goes my electromagnetic bell going off in my head again.

Fact #16: The design of the Pantheon is so that a perfect sphere could sit inside symbolising the vault of heaven.

What does the vault of Heaven even mean? That's dumb.

The Rotunda, New York City, the images below are from 1827 and 1828. Apparently this was built beginning in 1818. 1818! Demolished in 1870. Because you know, what a piece of junk. I mean, Rome has been rocking their Pantheon for 2000 years, but we're just not interested in those types of things.

The Pantheon, Paris - Built in 1758

Romanian Athenaeum - Newbie. Built in 1888

Auditorium of Southeast University, Nanjing China - 1903

So, that will sum it up for the Pantheon. When I first saw it I thought to myself, this is a place that Jesus only heard of. Of course, 20 years later now I have vastly different opinions on all of it. I guess I'll take a stab that it's much more modern than we like to say and that it was most definitely a power station of some sort. It would just seem that a building like this from the Romans, you would find a handful of them in antiquity. Where are the other Pantheons if this hole-in-the-ceiling technique was so cutting edge?

My guess is the 'tempo' of this power "temple" is unique to where it sits.

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Oy! I've been out looking for stuff. When I ran across this. It's an in depth article about the Pantheon, mainstream stuff, and this gem of all gems.

I was just sayin how can you base a theory, or make a comparison to something that isn't even real, we all know Stonehenge was rebuilt, most likely just built, in the 1950s and who knows what it looked like originally, if indeed there was anything there to begin with. Just sayin.

Was Stonehenge rebuilt, or constructed in 1954?

Trismegistus

Moderator

It almost seems like it could be a stargate of some kind, no?

Those pesky pagans sure loved them some offworld contact.

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I found a drawing from 1606 and the dirt is quite high around The Pantheon. the steps are covered and the bottom of the columns are covered too.

The drawing and the engraving, mud flood evidence in 1606.

and an oil painting with no inscription attributing the Pantheon to Marcus Agrippa

Giovanni Migliara
ALESSANDRIA 1785 - 1837 MILAN
ROME, A VIEW OF THE PANTHEON


Anotherlayer

Member

I found a drawing from 1606 and the dirt is quite high around The Pantheon. the steps are covered and the bottom of the columns are covered too.

The drawing and the engraving, mud flood evidence in 1606.

and an oil painting with no inscription attributing the Pantheon to Marcus Agrippa

Razor2299

New member

In 1631 Pope Urban VIII Barberini took the bronze from the inside of the portico to make cannons

Very interesting coincidence: I was tought in school that Peter The Great of Russia also allegedly confiscated churches bells in Russia around the same time (late 1600s) to make the cannons. Could it be that these are the same events or is this an effort to collect the metal for another reason?.

KD Archive

Not actually KorbenDallas
  • Made entirely out of concrete, without the reinforcing support of structural steel, no modern engineer would dare attempt such a feat, says David Moore, author of The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete. “Modern codes of engineering practice would not permit such mischief.”
  • And yet for nearly 2,000 years the Pantheon has stood, weathering earthquakes, Barbarian invasions and the persistent onslaught of Mother Nature.
  • For years, researchers have figured there must be something special about the concrete used to build the Pantheon and other Roman monuments that lend them such longevity. Many scientists have pointed to the practice of including volcanic ash in the concrete mix.
  • In a new study, researchers drilled down into the chemistry of Roman concrete to find out what makes it so resilient. As suspected, the key ingredient is the specific blend of limestone and volcanic ash used in the mortar.
  • Mixing mortar according to the recipe of 1st century Roman architect Vitruvius, the scientists' analyses unveiled that the mortar included “dense clusters of a durable mineral called strätlingite.”
  • The crystals formed because of a reaction that took place over time between the lime and volcanic matter in the mortar,” says Sullivan, and “helped prevent the spread of microscopic cracks by reinforcing interfacial zones, which researchers called 'the weakest link of modern cement-based concrete.
    • Strätlingite crystals are similar to microfibers added to modern cement to reinforce the interfacial zone where it is prone to crack. However, the strätlingite crystals provide superior reinforcement and are resistant to corrosion.
    • Sure it did. Not to sound like what they call a "barbarian" but. I would love to see somebody setting a similar chunk of concrete on fire. It's just amazing how gullible we all were for such a long time.
    • Here we run into the 15th century again. Based on the tendency related to the emergence of the historical docs, the Pantheon was probably built around this 1436 date.

    • The ones like these always get me going. Historians are so full of crap on this, its not even funny any more. I think every historian who supports and advances this BS should be given a wooden sledge, an M1 Abrums and a green light to move it from Egypt to Italy.
    • And about those columns from some Egyptian quarry. they found some nice type of peeling material out there in Egypt. For these are obviously artificially made columns.



    Anotherlayer

    Member
    • The ones like these always get me going. Historians are so full of crap on this, its not even funny any more. I think every historian who supports and advances this BS should be given a wooden sledge, an M1 Abrums and a green light to move it from Egypt to Italy.

    Thank you! I really need to take more time when I make a new thread. I had a bit of hurry-up-n-wait moment today, so I wanted to get this out. Thanks for cleaning up my formatting.

    And about this wooden sledge, someone needs to answer to this. How on earth are you going to look me in the eye and claim this is possible. And on top of that, why would they even bother in the first place. And the answer is. "the Romans were a powerful empire full of slaves and their passion for salt". Ugh.

    Here are some pictures I took from way back when we were issued free potato cameras with our US passports.

    This guy looks more Viking than Roman. And the brick work is shite.

    Decent patchwork, because you know that marble, it just peels right off after 1000 years.

    The veneer is repaired at eye level, but I don't think any thinks much about it. I know I didn't. In fact, it made me feel as if it truly was 2000 years.

    It was pretty late when I made it to the Pantheon, and I may have had a little drinkie drink, but in this picture, you can see a missing chunk of veneer at the bottom this column.

    Some other interesting pictures. I had no real idea of what I was looking at-at the time.


    Check out the big brain on Brad

    This guy leaning up against absolutely delightful bathtub.

    The layers are strong with this one.

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    This is from a series of paintings done in the 16-17th century. They are an amalgamation of different scene found in Italy. Pieces such as the statue of Hercules reoccur in multiple versions.

    Although the over composition is fantasy, the individual elements that make up the scene are highly likely to be accurate.

    Wild heretic

    Staff Member

    Round buildings are a lot more earthquake proof than square ones apparently. Hence the Pantheon's survival I'd say.

    Its original purpose and doorway size raises eyebrows for sure. Looks like it got buried in Rome's late 16th century "mud flood".

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    @anotherlayer nice pictures you took. Sure are a lot of bricks, reminds me of a crumbling cake and they slap a layer of frosting over it to make it look fresh and new. but eventually the frosting gets all hard and starts to peel/fall off.
    Was everything made out of bricks, because then that begs the question, who was making all of these bricks. Also I can't tell, but are the bricks what we would consider normal size bricks, from the pictures they look look thinner and longer. Just wondering.

    Sylvanus777

    Member

    Awesome breakdown @anotherlayer! And hillarious to read.

    Maybe the bronze was removed from the ceiling to render this thing inoperable. I mean if it really was some kind of technological device or facility for harvesting atmospherical energy or whatever, the bronze platings would most likely have been an integral part of that. Church steeples could've been removed for similar reasons and/or to further cover up any original purpose of the dome structure.

    Also: Observe the very noticable difference in looks between the outer surface of the portico part and that of the dome part of the Pantheon (clearly seen in the very first photo shown by the OP). It almost looks like the veneer we are being sold as marble has been cleanly knocked off from the round dome part and we're seeing the rather ugly looking bricks.

    Whitewave

    Well-Known Member

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    The best I could do. I imagine they would have moved these the same way:
    The 16 massive Corinthian columns supporting the portico weigh 60 tons each. They are 39 feet (11.8 m) tall, five feet (1.5 m) in diameter and brought all the way from Egypt. These columns were dragged more than 100 km from the quarry to the Nile river on wooden sledges. They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. There, they were transferred back onto barges and pulled up the Tiber River to Rome.


    Whitewave

    Well-Known Member

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    I know! the whole scenario is ludicrous! I was always under the impression that they had, well great marble in Italy to use.

    "(The Romans harvested the stone with such manic intensity that it became the architectural signature of the empire’s power Augustus liked to boast that he inherited a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.) "

    Deleted member 65

    Guest

    I know! the whole scenario is ludicrous! I was always under the impression that they had, well great marble in Italy to use.

    "(The Romans harvested the stone with such manic intensity that it became the architectural signature of the empire’s power Augustus liked to boast that he inherited a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.) "

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    I've wondered that myself. I'm of the opinion that we're due for another, perhaps even stronger, Carrington Event.

    What happens to metal when exposed to electricity? Heat. After the we 'gilded' all of our structures with metal they became vulnerable. Perhaps the large scale removal from buildings was a realization. I've envisioned some of the wrought iron around the spires as an overload protection of sorts. If the atmosphere generated more current than the structure could use/transmit then it could be shunted to ground. Lightening being the obvious example.

    The same questions arise regarding the shape of the Pantheons. If our ancestors were using sound/energy for other purposes then what happens at the center/focus of the circular structure. Wavelengths might be let in via the hole in the top to be used by the building or occupants.

    JWW427

    Well-Known Member

    Id like to hear from a structural engineer how the above images and scaffolding may or may not work re: obelisk erection.
    No pun or tongue in cheek humor intended, but it aint bad.
    Do we have any professional engineers out there?

    The Rome Pantheon is all about geopolymer and concrete. I think its one of the oldest buildings on the planet.
    The inside dome has the square indented pyramid decoration which screams sound technology and resonance. Domes are said to gather telluric energy and store it like a battery. The oculus is about sunlight of course. A solar temple, yes, but probably much more than that originally. Just think how many times this lump has been restored.

    Thomas Jefferson (Mystic, secret Freemason, secret society dillweed) was obsessed with Palladian architecture. It was central to his design ethos. My alma mater UVA has at its core a Pantheon of sorts. What did he know that we do not? He was a crafty old salt. Sneaky.
    It has a nifty oculus. Rare books are kept there.
    I drew this thing a hundred times for architecture class, but I still got a C grade.
    JWW


    Kama Sutra: A Book of Two Histories

    There are few texts in the modern world that are more readily recognized than the Kama Sutra. The Kama Sutra is also one of the most misunderstood texts in modern times, that encompasses tremendous histories.

    The Kama Sutra is believed to have been written between 400BC and 300AD, however modern consensus suggests it was most likely written in the early 2nd century AD. It’s little known author Vātsyāyana was likely a Hindu ascetic, seeking to write a sutra – a boiled down summary text – to share his insights with mostly young men to guide their way into sexuality.

    The Kama Sutra is composed of seven books, covering a number of issues from romance, marriage, adultry and the most well known second book – covering exotic sexual positions.

    1,700 years after its initial writing, an original Sanskrit transcript was discovered by British Orientalist Sir Richard Burton. Burton in his determination to publish the translated copies of the Kama Sutra, was forced to circumvent British law of the era.

    To do so, he co-founded the Kama Shastra Society to secretly distribute copies to its members, and is directly responsible for why the Kama Sutra is so well known today.

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    Castel Sant' Angelo and Passetto

    TripSavvy / Christopher Larson

    Castel Sant' Angelo, built as a tomb for Emperor Hadrian in the second century, was used as a fortress until it became a papal residence in the 14th century. A secret passageway, the Passetto, connects it to the Vatican. In the movie, this is a secret ancient Illuminati spot used toward the end of the story. Today Castel Sant' Angelo hosts summer concerts. The Passetto, prison, and private rooms of Clement VII can also be visited.


    For Those Looking to Assign Blame: Point up!

    Many blame the rain in Rome, because in 2018 it was the wettest six months in living memory, and this may have had catastrophic effects on Rome's geology, as the city is founded upon a floodplain, and most of it still rests on a sandy, soft soil. Water finds no resistance in penetrating this permeable substrate, especially now that its gravitational path of destruction is assisted with the cracks caused by the vibrations of thousands of cars, trucks and scooters buzzing over the aquaplane.

    In an attempt to safeguard the city’s residents, or at least to appear to be doing something to support what is a catastrophically neglected city, in 2018, it was announced that a multi-million-euro plan would be launched to fix its streets, but what was reported as ‘slow progress’ has now ground to a halt as Italian emergency authorities are presently struggling to build scaffolding around the perimeters of a much more life threatening, medical sinkhole.

    Top image: An ancient imperial floor has been discovered in the latest Rome sinkhole, right in front of the Pantheon. Source: Virginia Raggi


    Watch the video: The Pantheon (January 2022).