History Podcasts

For who or what was Cojo Creek named?

For who or what was Cojo Creek named?

Cojo Creek (Cañada del cojo) is the boundary between the Rancho Punta de la Concepción and the Rancho Nuestra Señora del Refugio. The anchorage at the mouth of this creek was a prime smuggling spot in the Spanish era.

Cojo means lame, in the sense of having a bum leg or being an amputee.

For who or what was the creek named?


Cojo Creek was named for the lame chief of the Chumash Indian tribe, the first people that the Spanish met near what is now the Rancho Punta de la Concepción in August 1769.


Why do some Civil War battles have two names?

Antietam or Sharpsburg? Manassas or Bull Run? For many Americans, what you call a Civil War battle has nearly everything to do with where you or your Civil War-era ancestors grew up.

Northern soldiers, far more likely to hail from cities or urbanized areas, are believed to have been impressed with the geography of the south, including its mountains, valleys and abundant rivers and streams. In unfamiliar territory, they named many of their battles after these natural features. For Confederate troops, familiar with the rural, natural terrain, towns and buildings were more memorable, and in the south many of the same battles were referred to after the man-made structures nearby.

In all, there are more than a dozen Civil War battles (large and small) that often go by dual names. Here’s a look at some of the most famous examples.

Those reading northern newspaper accounts of the first major battle of the war heard of the Union defeat at Bull Run (a nearby stream), while those in the south celebrated their victory at Manassas (the local railroad station). In March 1862, the Union won a victory at the Battle of Pea Ridge (a nearby town) against Confederates fighting at the Battle of Elkhorn Tavern (a two-story structure that had been used as a trading post, mail stop, restaurant and inn in the years before the war). Today, the brutal April 1862 battle fought in southwestern Tennessee is most commonly known by its Confederate name, Shiloh (a small log church located on the battlefield) rather than the name Union commander Ulysses S. Grant used, Pittsburg Landing (his location on the Tennessee River). And the deadliest day in American history, September 17, 1862, is alternately known in the south as the Battle of Sharpsburg (the local Maryland village that witnessed much of the fighting) or as the Battle of Antietam in the north (thanks to its proximity to a nearby river).


Hangman or Latah Creek?

Spokane is steeped in Native American history, the name itself derived from the Spokan tribe, and many roads, creeks, and wildlife names also provide evidence of this native history.

The creek appears on the The area officially listed as Latah Creek with Spokane’s county commissioners and the Federal government is known locally by a name that bears witness to a particularly brutal time in Washington’s past.

Lewis and Clark learned about the creek from native informants and placed it on their map as the "Lau-taw River." The name derives from a Nez Perce word meaning roughly "place to fish," a tribute to the salmon that once swam up its reached. In 1858 Colonel George Wright recorded the creek name as Ned-Whauld or Lahtoo--though the actions he took on its banks would change the name for many.

In 1858 Wright hanged, without trial, the Yakima Chief Qualchan and several other Indians at a spot a few miles south of here. Locals began to call the creek Hangman Creek soon thereafter.

In 1899 the name was changed back to Latah Creek by a Federal Act but local people and mapmakers continued to list the area as both Latah and Hangman. Even when the Spokane county commissioners in 1997 declared all maps to now list the area as Latah, Federal USGS maps continued to show both names. This historic dual place name continues to elicit various opinions – while some people believe Latah should be used to honor the original name, some others, including many tribal members, believe that ‘Hangman’ should stay to remind people of the 1858 atrocities.


Origins of Place Names

ABBOTT. The first postmaster of the Abbott post office was Amanda Spangler Isaacs (1824-1903). Her first husband was John W. Abbott (1820-1849). She probably named the post office for her first husband or for her son Dr. Joseph M. Abbott (1844-1906). Some sources say the name was chosen by Simon J. Temple, who purchased the land in 1886. The name Abbott&rsquos Station appears in 1891 county commission minutes.

AMELIA was probably named for the wife of the first postmaster. The first postmaster was Robert J. Bradley. He married Amelia Amantha Knight (b. June 20, 1844 d. March 14, 1930) on Jan. 5, 1864.

ANCLOTE. According to Wilfred T. Neill in the Pasco Times of March 20, 1977: &ldquoThe name Anclote dates back to early Spanish times. The Spaniards called these islands Cabo de Anclote&mdashCape of the Kedge Anchor&mdashbecause ships had to use a kedge to winch their way through the shallow water or the winding channels. And early French sailors called the islands Cap d'Anclote, which, of course, has the same meaning as Cabo de Anclote.&rdquo According to Neill, Anclote is by far the oldest place name in Pasco County and one of the oldest in Florida. The name is found on a 1715 map which I have seen, and a 1545 map, according to a newspaper article. The Red Race of America (1847) by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft has:

However, an 1838 map has the spelling Ets-has-ho-tee River.

Some early maps label Anclote Keys as Haley&rsquos Keys this name was given by Capt. James Cook (1728-1779), and the islands were named for his mate. However, an 1854 gazetteer by John Hayward has:

ARIPEKA. Florida Place-Names of Indian Origin and Seminole Personal Names by William A. Read has:

Sam Jones died in 1866. His name is spelled Arpeik in a poem published in 1859. A 1908 map spells the town Aripeka. The Exiles of Florida by Joshua R. Giddings (1858) has &ldquoSam Jones, sometimes called Aripeka.&rdquo

BAILLIE. This settlement was located near what became Elfers and was named for the Baillie family who lived there. For an 1889 election the local precinct was called Bailey and school board minutes of July 7, 1892, refer to the area as &ldquothe Baillie settlement.&rdquo An 1897 survey of the Anclote River refers to Bailey Point about one mile north of the river. An 1897 newspaper article refers to &ldquoBailey&rsquos point.&rdquo

BAYONET POINT. According to Ash, &ldquoA big rock covered with Spanish bayonets (called yucca or yaka), inspired the name when State Road 52 was built to connect U. S. 19 to Dade City, about 1926.&rdquo However, the name Bayonet Point appears as a geographic feature on an 1888 coast survey. A 1922 newspaper article reported that a family had spent the day in Bayonet Point.

BEAR CREEK. The name is found on an 1880 map.

BLANTON was named for Jesse Blanton, an early settler from Screven County, Georgia. He and his wife, Martha Howell, built a log cabin east of what is now Blanton Lake.

BUDDY&rsquoS LAKE SETTLEMENT. An article in the Dade City Banner of Dec. 18, 1925, has:

The History of Zephyrhills 1821-1921 has:

An article in the spring 1984 Florida Genealogist says:

The lake is called Lake Buddy in a survey dated April 4, 1846. Buddy Lake is a place name in the 1850 census. In the 1880s, the name was changed to Lake Pasadena, although some maps show a small Lake Buddy next to a large Lake Pasadena.

On Dec. 18, 1897, The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer has a report titled &ldquoSyrup Making at the Skinner&rsquos Bend Central Factory, Pasco County, Florida.&rdquo The article carries the dateline Lake Buddy.

CARMEL. According to The Historic Places of Pasco County,:

CARVER HEIGHTS. Bill Dayton believes the subdivision near Dade City was probably named for George Washington Carver. According to a 1998 St. Petersburg Times article, Carver Heights was first subdivided in 1946 by Stanley Cochrane, a white businessman in Dade City who sold lots to black families.

CHIPCO was apparently named for Echo Emathla Chopco, whose name also variously appeared as Echo Emathla Chopka or Emathla Hadjo Chupco, but was generally known as Chipco, of the Tallahassee tribe of the Red Stick Upper Creeks. He was born between 1800 and 1805 in Alabama and died on Oct. 16, 1881.

CLINTON AVENUE in Dade City was named for Capt. Clinton Edward Spencer (1838-1924), according to Lucy Spencer Lock.

DADE CITY and the earlier FORT DADE were named for Maj. Francis Langhorne Dade, a U.S. Army officer killed by Seminoles at the start of the Second Seminole War.

DARBY was apparently named for John W. Darby, an early settler. He married Olinda Bradley. An earlier name for this area was Amelia.

DENHAM was named for Capt. W. B. Denham, general manager of the Tampa Northern Railroad. On Nov. 28, 1910, the Tampa Morning Tribune reported that Denham would soon resign that position he had held for four years. The article reported that he had bought all of the rolling stock and general equipment for that railroad, and that he had been a railroad builder since 1874. For 25 years he was connected with the properties of the old Plant System, for many years acting as general superintendent of the entire system south of Charleston and all over the South. The Tampa Morning Tribune called him H. B. Plant&rsquos right hand man in the building of the Plant railroads in Florida. At the time of his death in 1915 he was a resident of Jacksonville.

DREXEL. An 1895 New York Times article about the Sanford and St. Petersburg Railroad reports that &ldquoThe Drexels of New-York and Philadelphia have latterly been in control of it. . &rdquo Edward J. Herrmann believes this town was named by Edward T. Stotesbury in honor of Anthony Joseph Drexel (1826-1893), a financier and philanthropist for whom Drexel University is named. When the Orange Belt Railway failed, the financial interests that had backed the company, the international banking firm of Drexel, Morgan, & Co., formed a syndicate with Stotesbury as its president. [Information from MacManus]

EARNESTVILLE was named for Elijah Embree Earnest (1840-1908), who opened a store on Lake Buddy about 1875, according to one source. However, the obituary of Mrs. Earnest, who died in 1924, has: &ldquoIn the year 1881 Mr. and Mrs. Earnest moved to Florida and settled on the south side of Lake Buddy, as Pasadena Lake was then called. There Mr. Earnest had a farm and kept a store and, for several years, a postoffice. The station was called Earnestville.&rdquo (Mrs. Earnest was born in Atlanta, the eldest daughter of John Thrasher, an original pioneer of Atlanta.)

EHREN. A historical marker has: &ldquoEhren Community - Named by sawmill owners Frederick and Louis Müller. Ehren means &lsquoplace of honor&rsquo in their native German language.&rdquo According to MacManus, Frederick Ernest Müller named it for his hometown in Germany. According to genealogical research, Fredrick Ernst Mueller was born on Nov. 17, 1863, in Ehren, Lower Saxony, Germany. In 1905 he was manager of Gulf Cypress Lumber Mill. In 1912 he was president of Ehren Pine Co. He died on April 15, 1930, in Ehren. Jeff Cannon writes, &ldquoI believe the post office name was taken from the name of the Orange Belt Railroad Depot that was established in the area, as the original post office application says that the office took the name of the station depot in the area.&rdquo

ELFERS. The name Elfers was chosen by Frieda Marie (Bolling) Eiland (1884-1981), the wife of the first postmaster. Frieda&rsquos mother&rsquos maiden name was Maria Elfers and, according to Frieda&rsquos son, Frieda named the post office for her maternal grandfather. For more information, see the entry for Levi Daniel Eiland on the early residents page of this website.

ELLERSLIE is said to have been founded by James Goodwin Wallace, a doctor, as a health resort. Wallace claimed to be descended from the early Scottish historical figure William Wallace, who is known in history as the Knight of Ellerslie. This probably explains the origin of the name of the town.

FIVAY. A large saw mill about 5 miles northeast of New Port Richey was owned by five men whose names began with the letter A. The town was known as &ldquoFive A&rsquos,&rdquo or Fivay for short. The men were:

  • Martin Ford Amorous (1858-1947)
  • Preston Stanley Arkwright (1871-1946)
  • Henry Morrell Atkinson (1862-1939)
  • Gordon Abbott (1863-1937)
  • Charles Fanning Ayer (1865-1956)

Fivay appears on the 1904 application for a post office.

FORT BROOME was named for Florida Governor James E. Broome, who served from 1853 to 1857, according to Hendley.

GALL BOULEVARD is named for Walter R. Gall, who was able to influence the state to run the highway through Zephyrhills, according to a 2008 article in the Laker. Gall&rsquos son Owen, was a prominent resident of Zephyrhills who died in 2008 at age 96. The name Gall Boulevard is found in a 1951 newspaper.

GODWIN. According to a WPHS article on ghost towns in Florida, the post office was established in 1888 in the home of Jacob Godwin.

GOWERS CORNER was named for William Arthur Gower, who owned the property there. More information is here.

GREEN KEY. According to Wilfred T. Neill, J. G. &ldquoGib&rdquo Brown, who had homesteaded Deer Island, changed the name of the island to Green Key. He connected it to the mainland by a causeway and tried to promote it as a subdivision. Nothing came of this plan, but Green Key became New Port Richey&rsquos only public beach. According to a Tampa Tribune article by Carol Jeffares Hedman, Brown&rsquos wife Cora who renamed it Green Key Island. However, a 1929 reproduction of an 1886 map has &ldquoDeer Island or Green Key&rdquo the label appears to be from the 1886 map.

GREENFIELD. MacManus has: &ldquoMost likely it was named for the grassy, wide-open space around it.&rdquo

GREER was named for James L. Greer, who owned thousands of acres of timber in the area and established a sawmill.

HATTON was the name of a post office established in 1882 which a few years later was moved a few miles northwest and renamed Dade City. Hatton was named for Frank Hatton, the First Assistant Postmaster General of the United States in 1882. Applications for a new post office in 1882 when to him, and in 1882 at least three other post offices were named for him, in Missouri, North Dakota, and Ohio.

HEGMAN. The name of the Abbott post office (now Zephyrhills) was changed to Hegman in 1890, and back to Abbott in 1892. The post office might have been named for the person described in this excerpt from The History of Zephyrhills 1821-1921:

HICKORY HAMMOCK. An earlier name for New Port Richey may have been Hickory Hammock or Hickory Hammocks. In a 1951 newspaper article, Gerben DeVries wrote, &ldquoPresent location of New Port Richey was first known as &lsquoHickory Hammocks.&rsquo&rdquo In a letter to the New Port Richey Press published on Jan. 12, 1922, Mrs. J. O. T. Brown of Jacksonville, a daughter of Aaron Richey, wrote, &ldquoThere was, of course, no town of New Port Richey, but this locality was known as Hickory Hammock.&rdquo However, this name has not been found on any maps or on any old documents. Frances Clark Mallett believes the term Hickory Hammock may have referred to a large region and is not an earlier name for New Port Richey.

HIDDEN LAKE ESTATES. According to Ash, the name is derived from Whidden Lake, originally named for Tillet Thomas Whidden (1857-1914) and his wife Sarah (Sallie) Nancy Charlotte Luffman (1864-1940), who lived there. The name was changed in April 1971.

HOLIDAY. Interviewed for a newspaper article in 1977, William W. Boyd, president of First Federal Savings and Loan Association of Tarpon Springs since 1961, recalled that in the early 1960s when First Federal was looking to built its first branch in southwest Pasco County, he noted the name &ldquoHoliday Drive&rdquo on a map near the site of the proposed branch and asked his board of directors to give the name to the new branch. Later Boyd began drumming up support to name the community Holiday so that it would have some identity. By the end of 1967, First Federal&rsquos Holiday Branch was a thriving business, and the community&rsquos identity was well on its way to being established. Boyd stated, &ldquoThat was one of the highlights of my life. There are not too many people who have caused the name of a community to come into existence through their own efforts&mdashespecially one that has as much vitality.&rdquo At a board meeting of First Federal Savings and Loan Association of Tarpon Springs on Oct. 13, 1966, members discussed naming the new branch of the bank as the Holiday branch, since the post office had a substation on Holiday Drive nearby. In November 1967, board members suggested to local builders and newspaper reporters that future events in the area be referred to as occurring in Holiday. The bank gave away 1000 license plates for the front of automobiles reading &ldquoHoliday Florida.&rdquo A branch of the Tarpon Springs post office was established on Jan. 2, 1962. A 1968 newspaper article reported, &ldquoAccording to Eddie Earle, Tarpon Springs postmaster, the name Holiday was first given to the branch post office of the Tarpon Springs office, which was set up in 1961.&rdquo This does not seem to be the correct explanation for the origin of the name, however.

HOPEVILLE. A post office named Hopeville was established in 1878. Often, the first postmaster named the post office. The first postmaster was James Washington Clark. He is thought to have named the post office for the Hope family, early settlers. Clark married Frances Louise Hope. Frances Clark Mallett writes, &ldquoAlthough there are almost no written records on the early history of Port Richey and Hopeville area, oral history passed down through old-time residents and descendants, indicates that Hopeville was settled in the mid 1800s. It once was the site of a salt works that supplied local residents and the Confederate Army. . David and Henry Hope, two early settlers of the Chicuchatta (Brooksville) settlement, were two of the Hopes who established the tiny community of Hopeville at the salt springs.&rdquo

According to Jeff Cannon, AME Church records refer to a Hopesville Mission in Florida in 1871-72. It is not known where it was located.

HORSE ISLAND. On May 25, 1978, the New Port Richey Press reported: &ldquoKenneth Knowles recently recounted the story of how Horse Island got its name. He reported that after a bad hurricane, a white horse bearing a government brand was found on the island. It was believed that the horse had fallen off of a troop vessel during the storm, and had somehow made its way to the island.&rdquo

HUDSON was named for Isaac Washington Hudson. J. B. or J. W. Hudson wrote the following, as quoted in Hendley:

JESSAMINE. An article by Wilma Ellsworth in East Pasco&rsquos Heritage has:

LACOOCHEE is a shortened form of Withlacoochee, the river which runs past the town.

LAKE IOLA was named for Iola, Kansas, by Luther C. Reed and his wife Nancy A. Reed. The 1910 census shows them living in Iola, Kansas. An earlier name was Stake Pond, for a stake placed there by surveyors. Norman Carey writes, &ldquoI think the name Stake Pond goes back to the late, or even mid 1800s. Hubert Hancock, who told me more about this than anyone else, had family in this area in antebellum times. He had ancestors in this area who were involved with supplying beef cattle for the southern war effort. I think that sawmill that his grandfather ran on the north shore of Lake Iola was in operation around the 1870s, until when I don't know, I guess around the turn of the century. I believe that it was in the very early 1900s that Stake Pond was given the official name of Lake Iola.&rdquo In Sept. 1920 the Dade City Banner referred to &ldquoLake Iola or Stake pond.&rdquo In March 1922 it had &ldquoLake Iola, or Stake pond as it may be better known.&rdquo In Oct. 1918 it has &ldquoIola lake (Stake pond).&rdquo

LAKE JOVITA. On Feb. 15, 1882, Judge Edmund F. Dunne and Captain Hugh Dunne, his cousin, are said to have come upon this lake and named it Lake Jovita because the feast of Sts. Faustinus and Jovita is celebrated on Feb. 15, the traditional date of their martyrdom. This information appears to come from Un Français Dans la Floride (1889) by Edmond Johanet. In an article in the Dade City Banner in 1935, J. A. Hendley wrote, &ldquoAfter the Catholics took hold of this part of the country, the name of Clear Lake was changed to Lake Jovita.&rdquo On Nov. 1, 1926, San Antonio was renamed Lake Jovita, but the name reverted back to San Antonio on Aug. 1, 1931. The lake is called Clear Lake on maps.

LAND O&rsquo LAKES. The following is from MacManus:

According to The Historic Places of Pasco County, &ldquoThe town took the name Land O&rsquo Lakes from a popular brand of butter. At a 1950 community meeting to discuss prospective names, local real estate broker M. H. Sears brought one of the brightly colored packages and convinced the assembly to select the name. The Land O&rsquo Lakes butter company now supplies its product for the town&rsquos annual flapjack festival.&rdquo

[Although the Land O&rsquo Lakes historical marker and the St. Petersburg Times use the spelling Land O&rsquoLakes, the correct official spelling seems to be Land O&rsquo Lakes (with a space after the apostrophe). This spelling (with the space) is used by the U. S. Bureau of the Census, the U. S. Postal Service, the Pasco County School District, U. S. Geological Survey maps, the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, and this web site. It is also the spelling used by Land O&rsquo Lakes, Wisconsin.]

LEHEUP HILL. According to information provided by Loren Fry, this hill was named for William A. LeHeup (the elder), who was born in Kingston, Ontario. He came to Florida from Wisconsin in 1911. A son, William A. (Bill) LeHeup, died on April 13, 2003, at age 98. According to his obituary, the son was born in Wisconsin &ldquoand came here 93 years ago.&rdquo According to a local researcher, census records show the LeHeup family lived in the town of True, Rusk County, Wisconsin, in 1910 before moving to Pasco County with their 8 children.

LENARD may have been named for D. W. Leneard, an early settler.

LEO KIDD AVENUE was named for Leo Kidd (b. Sept. 3, 1925 d. Sept. 9, 1985), a former Port Richey constable. He was also a welder. He owned property where the street is now located. The name was adopted in 1987 to replace the name Madison Street as part of a program to eliminate duplicate street names. Leo Kidd was born in Frenchburg, Ky., and came here from Lawrenceburg, Ind., in 1953.

LITTLE ROAD was named for Desmond (Des) Little, who operated a paving company, according to several sources. He is one of the eight children of Samuel M. Little. According to a 1967 newspaper article based on an interview with him, Des Little came to Florida with his parents in 1917, settling in Sarasota, and moved to Tarpon Springs in 1924 and to New Port Richey in 1927. He married Mickey DeCubellis, a daughter of Peter DeCubellis. According to Pauline Stevenson Ash, the road was named for Walter and Eva Little. Walter Little supervised the construction of U. S. 19 south from Hudson.

LOCK STREET. A guest column in the St. Petersburg Times of March 3, 2009, by Dade City attorney William G. Dayton:

Your editorial supporting the proposal to change the name of Lock Street Calle de Milagros at the north side of Dade City to Street of Miracles commented that keeping the Lock name sends the wrong message. I suggest that the County Commission sent the right message by rejecting the proposal.

The name Lock Street commemorates a distinguished early family in the area. Christopher Lock immigrated to the United States and settled in Pasco County in the early 1890s. He became successful as a citrus grower, banker and owner of Pasco Abstract Co. From the time he arrived in this country, he devoted much of his time to improving Dade City and Pasco County. He led the establishment of the Board of Trade, a forerunner of today&rsquos chamber of commerce and was a charter member of the local Kiwanis Club. He was instrumental in moving St. Mary&rsquos Episcopal Church to Dade City from Pasadena after that town disappeared following the great freeze of 1895. He was a county commissioner at the time of his death in a traffic accident in the early 1930s.

His wife, Lucy Spencer Lock, was active in many civic organizations and, in 1920, was the first Pasco County woman to run for the Florida Legislature. His sister-in-law, Grace Lock, was a career teacher who played a significant role in organizing the school library system.

Christopher and Lucy&rsquos daughter, Dorothy Lock, is believed to have been the first teacher of Spanish in our local school system. After the father&rsquos death, she managed Pasco Abstract Co. with her mother.

A firm believer in the idea that a community is improved by home ownership and that decent, affordable housing should be available to working families, she worked with Tommy Barfield and others to develop Tommytown as an area where low-income people, especially workers at Pasco Packing Co., could become homeowners.

Because Pasco Abstract was the area&rsquos only title company in those days, she was in a unique position to iron out title problems and make the development work.

Dorothy&rsquos aunt, Laura Spencer Porter, persuaded the local bank where she controlled a large block of stock to make home loans available so that the working people who had made the citrus industry possible could own decent homes in the Lock Street area.

It is appropriate that the Lock family continue to be honored by a street name in the Dade City area. Dorothy Lock&rsquos involvement in the development of Tommytown is part of the significance of the name Lock Street. The Lock name can and should be a source of pride to those who live here and those who share Dorothy Lock&rsquos conviction that a community of homeowners is a strong and healthy community.

Several years ago, the Pasco County Commission added the name Calle de Milagros to Lock Street, recognizing the substantial Hispanic presence in Tommytown. To change the present double name to Street of Miracles would not be a show of inclusiveness, but a repudiation of both the historic identity of the street and of its present identity as a vibrant center of Pasco County&rsquos Spanish-speaking community.

As for the reference to the Lock Street Gang using the Lock name as part of its identity, it will not improve the community for some successor gang of juvenile delinquents to start calling themselves the Miracles.

LOYCE. Ruth Connor, formerly a resident of the town, believes it may have been named for a Mr. Loyce, perhaps associated with the railroad industry. Census records from the period seem not to show anyone with that last name in Florida.

McLEOD. According to an article by J. A. Hendley, this area was settled in 1879 by William McLeod and his sons Daniel, Eligah, William Jr., and Freeman. [The town was later renamed Macon and then Trilby.]

MERIDIAN AVENUE. According to Carol Jeffares Hedman, the surveyor platting the streets of Dade City named the avenue after his hometown of Meridian, Miss. The name was originally Meridian Street.

MILLER&rsquoS BAYOU was named for Samuel Edward Miller (see the early residents page) [WPH]. The term Miller&rsquos Bayou is found in a 1925 newspaper.

MOOG ROAD was probably named for Herman Moog, who died in 1951 at age 75. He wintered in Florida in the 1930s and 1940s and owned a home and grove on Moog Road. A source says it was named for Fred Moog, born 1887, although this person seems not to be in the census. Joe Knight, who was born in Elfers, recalls that the road was originally called Swartzel&rsquos Lane.

MOON LAKE. The name is found on an 1880 map.

MYRTLE was named for the myrtle trees that grew there, according to Elizabeth MacManus.

NEW PORT RICHEY. A Dec. 13, 1914, newspaper article written by Mrs. Gerben DeVries refers to the two parts of Port Richey as &ldquoold Port Richey&rdquo and &ldquonew Port Richey.&rdquo The name New Port Richey apparently originated with the establishment of the New Port Richey post office on Aug. 30, 1915. According to an article on the history of the New Port Richey Post Office by Gerben M. DeVries, it was U. S. Rep. Stephen Milancthon Sparkman (1849-1929), who served in Congress from 1895 to 1917, who suggested the name &ldquoNew Port Richey.&rdquo An explanation of why a separate post office was established for New Port Richey is here. DeVries&rsquo commission as postmaster was dated July 21, 1915. The name New Port Richey appears in the Dade City Banner on Feb. 26, 1915 and the Tampa Morning Tribune on Aug. 19, 1914.

OAKDALE. The History of Zephyrhills 1821-1921 by Rosemary W. Trottman has: &ldquoJohn Spivey filed for homestead land between Pretty Pond and what is now Lake Zephyr. He built a home and called the place Oakdale.&rdquo

OLD POST ROAD. According to a newspaper column by Ralph Bellwood, after Aaron M. Richey moved to Tarpon Springs, the post office was taken over by J. W. Clark, who moved the facilities to his home on the north bank of the Pithlachascotee River. &ldquoThen the mail was brought on horseback from Brooksville, over what was known as the old Post Road, remnants of which are still seen going north from the city and one of its streets still bears the name of Post Road. Later, mail was delivered to the Port Richey Post Office via horse and buggy from Tarpon Springs.&rdquo According to Bellwood, when Aaron Richey was postmaster, he brought the mail on his schooner from Anclote.

OLD SALT ROAD was so named &ldquobecause it was used during the Civil War by people who came to the beach to obtain salt from the sea water&rdquo [Stanaback].

PASADENA. A letter published in the Springfield Republican in 1897 has: &ldquoPasadena was settled only a few years ago, and was named from Pasadena, Cal.&rdquo

An article in the Dade City Banner of Dec. 18, 1925, has:

PASCO was named for Samuel Pasco (1834-1917). Information on him is here.

PERRINE RANCH ROAD was named for Lester Perrine, owner of the Perrine Dairy Ranch southeast of Elfers. He was a native of Kingston, N. Y. He died Sept. 6, 1965.

PITHLACHASCOTEE. Florida Place-Names of Indian Origin and Seminole Personal Names by William A. Read, Ph. D., has:

In 1917 local resident G. M. Randall, M. D., wrote in a Tampa Tribune article that the Seminole Indians named the river and &ldquohave been gone from it 50 years.&rdquo

In 1925, Dr. John R. Stanton, an ethnologist with the Smithsonian Institute, in response to a query stated that &ldquopithlo&rdquo meant &ldquocanoe&rdquo and the whole word appears to have some meaning like &ldquoplace where canoes are cut out&rdquo or &ldquowhere a canoe was cut out,&rdquo and that the language was Seminole.

Washington Hood&rsquos map of the Seat of War in Florida (1838) has the spelling Pithlochascotee.

An 1845 map has Pithlo-chaskotee R. and, in parentheses, Boatbuilding R.

An 1846 map has &ldquoPithlo-Chascotee River or Boat Building River.&rdquo

Other nineteenth-century maps have Eschaskotee River and Echashotee River. (However an 1839 map has the Anclote River labeled both as the Anclote River and Ets-has-hotee.)

The 1854 Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward has: &ldquoTagabona Bay, Fa., lies off the coast of Benton co., and receives several rivers, the principal of which are the Weekiwachee, the Pithlochastotoc, and the Anclote.&rdquo An 1855 map has &ldquoBoatbuilding River.&rdquo

Some maps show Haley&rsquos or Heley&rsquos River these seem to be names for the Pithlachascotee River.

In 1879, S. T. Walker of Clearwater studied Indian burial mounds near the Pithlachascotee River. In the Smithsonian Report, he wrote, &ldquoThis little stream is known by various names. The older maps designate it as the Achaskotie, others as the Pith-le-ches-kotie, but it is commonly known among the people as the Kootie.&rdquo

Camping and Cruising in Florida (1884) has: &ldquoFrom Anclote we proceeded ten miles northward, to Pithlachesticootie River, called &lsquoCootie&rsquo for short, a small stream, with its mouth completely blocked by oyster reefs.&rdquo

An 1884 newspaper article has Pittilawiscoochee River.

A Handbook of Florida by Charles Ledyard Norton (1891) has: &ldquoThe Indian name in full is Ach-as-koo-tee, or Pith-lo-ches-koo-tee, but custom has adopted 'Kootee' as sufficiently distinctive.&rdquo

An 1883 map has Cootie River.

A March 25, 1886, article in the Philadelphia Inquirer has &ldquo. on the Cootie River about ten miles from here [Tarpon Springs], there are bears, deer, wildcats, &c, to be found in profusion.&rdquo

An 1891 book, Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains, by Cyrus Thomas, has Kootie River.

On July 27, 1895, the Tampa Morning Tribune has Pithlacasoochee river.

An 1897 list of Pasco County schools includes a Cootie School.

In a 1905 letter, David Clark referred to the Cootie.

A 1912 Port Richey Co. brochure has Pithlachascotee and Cotee.

In 1913, the Tarpon Springs Leader called the river the Cootie River.

In 1916, the New Port Richey Post called it the Cotee River.

In 1917 Arthur Guy Empey used the word cooties for body lice in a popular book, Over the Top. [The Oxford English Dictionary shows his use of the word in a different publication in 1917 as the earliest known use of the word.]

In the 1920s the New Port Richey Press recommended Cotee over Cootie.

PLATHE ROAD was named for Louis B. Plathe (1891-1978), who lived on the road for about 60 years.

PLEASANT PLAINS. MacManus has: &ldquoSometimes stagecoach stops took the names of families that lived nearby. The Pleasant Plains stop, just south of Brooksville, probably got its name from all the people with the first name of Pleasant who lived nearby, like Pleasant Gold.&rdquo

PORT RICHEY was named for Aaron McLaughlin Richey. See the early settlers page of this website for information on him.

PROSPECT. According to Marvin Gaskin (1897-1977), the community took its name from Prospect Branch Arbor Church. His father recalled that Holiness, Methodist, and other Christians joined in community worship under a branch arbor near a large spring. [Information from East Pasco&rsquos Heritage]

RICHLAND. The Tuckertown post office was renamed Richland on July 17, 1886. The school property was deeded to the school board in 1887 by Thomas H. Evans of Pasco County and Albert T. Evans of Richland Parish, Louisiana. Perhaps Richland was named for the Louisiana parish.

ST. JOSEPH was probably named by the Barthle family, who settled here in 1883. They were from an area near St. Joseph, Minnesota. The area was first known as the Barthle Settlement, and, according to a later newspaper article, was known as St. Joseph by 1888. It certainly had that name by 1891, as school board minutes from 1891 show a school was granted for St. Joseph, with Andrew Barthle the supervisor.

ST. LEO. According to James J. Horgan:

SEVEN SPRINGS. An 1848 survey shows &ldquoSulpher Spring&rdquo and maps from 1880 to 1905 show &ldquoSulphur Springs&rdquo in this location. A few maps also have Sulphur Creek, apparently another name for the Anclote River. The name may have been changed from Sulphur Springs to Seven Springs to distinguish it from the Sulphur Springs in Tampa. The Seven Springs historical marker has: “Early residents of this area were Samuel H. Stevenson and his wife, Elizabeth, who believed in the therapeutic benefits of the mineral springs now known as Seven Springs. It became something of a health resort after Stevenson created a pool by installing a well pipe and diverting water from a spring. The pool overflowed into the Anclote River, where a small bath house was built for guests and mineral water was given to any who wanted it.” A Dec. 28, 1912, newspaper article reported, &ldquoC. Johnson, who owns half a section of land about four miles east of Elfers, was in the city today on business. Mr. Johnson has an elegant $5,000 residence on his place, and within a few rods there is a group of seven valuable springs, so that the location is known as the Seven Springs. Mr. Johnson really has a town site of his own and has one of the finest locations in West Florida, on the Anclote river. He has had the main spring concreted and piped, and it sends forth a water which is of great value to those suffering from rheumatism and other ills. Many people have visited his place and have spoken very highly of his spring and his location.&rdquo A plat map of Seven Springs appears to be filed Jan. 15, 1913.

SHINGLETON got its name from a large shingle-producing mill, according to MacManus.

SLAUGHTER was named for Harrison H. Slaughter, a pioneer settler who came to Florida from Virginia.

STAKE POND was the earlier name for Lake Iola. Norman Carey writes, &ldquoHubert Hancock told me that the old timers called it Stake Pond because in the western part of the lake, which is the shallowest part, there used to be trunks of dead trees rising above the surface, dating from a time when that area was not covered with water.&rdquo

TEN CENT ROAD. MacManus has: &ldquoDuring the Depression, WPA workers built a road about five miles long from Ehren near the well field to Pasco Station near I-75. The men were paid 10 cents an hour, according to Daisy Kersey whose husband Warren worked on the road. This explains how it became known as 'Ten Cent Road'&mdasha name it still retains.&rdquo

THYS ROAD was named for Leo Thys (1879-1966, b. in Belgium). My Pioneer Days in West Pasco by Julie J. Obenreder has:

TOADCHUDKA, which was an Indian village apparently located 2 to 3 miles northwest of what is now Blanton, means &ldquomuddy waters,&rdquo according to the My Blanton web site. The village name is also spelled Toachatka, Toachadka, Toacadka, Toachudka, Toachudor, Toachadco, and Toachadoo in various documents. Toadthodka Drive is a street near Blanton.

TOMMYTOWN. Tim Barfield writes, &ldquoTommytown was named after my father, Tommy Barfield, who owned much of the area in the period following World War 2. He, along with Dorothy Lock, purchased much of the property adjacent to what was then known as Pasco Packing Association, later to become Lykes Pasco. and the street to be eventually named Lock Street.&rdquo According to a 2003 St. Petersburg Times article, &ldquoIt was named for Tommy Barfield, the plant employee who helped build many of the block duplex apartments.&rdquo

TRILACOOCHEE or TRILCOOCHEE is apparently so named because it is located midway between Trilby and Lacoochee. The phrase &ldquoTrilcoochee Gardens&rdquo appears in the Dade City Banner beginning in 1926. On Feb. 25, 1927, the Banner reported that vol. 1, no. 1 of the Trilcoochee Methodist, edited by Rev. H. L. Graybeal, pastor of the Methodist churches in Trilby and Lacoochee, has been published. On June 29, 1928, the Banner reported, &ldquoG. E. Beach has opened a garage and service station located on the main road between Trilby and Lacoochee, to be known as the Trilcoochee Garage and Service Station.&rdquo On April 15, 1932, the Banner carried the headline, &ldquoCandidates to Speak at Trilcoochee Tomorrow.&rdquo This is first instance we have seen in the Banner of Trilcoochee as a place name. The earliest spelling of Trilacoochee we have seen in the Banner is in 1938. In the Dade City Banner of Sept. 13, 1940, it is spelled Trillacoochee. The name is still spelled Trilcoochee on published maps and lists of town names, but it is now usually spelled Trilacoochee locally.

TRILBY was named for George du Maurier&rsquos Trilby, which was published serially in Harper&rsquos Monthly in 1894. Its platted streets and square were named for characters in the novel. Upon publication, the novel caused a sensation in Britain and America. In its first year of publication, the book sold 200,000 copies in the U. S. According to a Tampa Tribune article, Henry Plant named the town after his wife&rsquos favorite book. On this page, Plant is quoted as saying that he wanted to name the town &ldquoafter the heroine of a story which has lately deeply moved me.&rdquo

TRINITY. Trinity Communities derives its name from the relocation of Trinity College of Florida to the first occupied site in the communities developed by Dr. James Gills.

TROUBLE CREEK &ldquogot its name from the fact that at low tide difficulty was encountered in getting in and out of the cove,&rdquo according to Bellwood.

The book West Pasco&rsquos Heritage, using information from Mrs. Will Baillie, has:

In a 1967 newspaper column, Ralph Bellwood wrote:

Many people ask why this inlet from the Gulf was called Trouble Creek. The reason, there is a ridge of oyster-covered rock between the small cove and the Gulf, which at low tide, the fishermen always had trouble getting their boats in and out of cove. The spot looks innocent enough when the tide is slack, but just a few inches under the surface of the water, are the ever present rocks.

Just a year or a little better ago, we were out at the little cove crabbing. A couple of men came with their boat and kicker and launched it from a trailer, got their rods and other equipment loaded in the boat, cranked up and took off with the motor wide open. As we watched them near the rocks we turned to our better half and said, &ldquothose fellows are heading for trouble&rdquo and though they couldn&rsquot hear us we yelled as loud as we could and waved our arms, but they had their minds set on going fishing and their eyes were on the open gulf. Sure enough, in a few seconds we heard the crash and bumping of the boat on the rocks. In the stillness which followed we could catch a few curse words and saw the men retrieving their motor from the water. We don't know the extent of damage done, but we are sure those men will never forget the name &ldquoTrouble Creek&rdquo if they ever found out its name.

The name Trouble Creek appears in an 1879 report on excavation of Indian burial mounds by S. T. Walker of Clearwater.

TUCKERTOWN. MacManus has: &ldquoDescendants of Thomas and Sarah Tucker moved to the mid-section of the county around 1842 and gave the area its name.&rdquo The historical marker at the Tucker Cemetery reads, &ldquoThomas and Sarah Tucker settled in the area about 1842 and in 1845 planted the county&rsquos first orange grove. Family history records an earlier generation of Tuckers lived in the vicinity about 1790. The surrounding community was called Tuckertown until the railroad came through and the name was changed to Richland.&rdquo

VEREEN. This town near Hudson was named by Abraham and Susanna Bellamy for her parents, Joseph and Susanna Vereen.

WESLEY CHAPEL. A historical marker has: &ldquoOriginally called Double Branch for the twin creeks that flowed across the Boyette land, the community was named for the Methodist chapel that stood on the northwest corner of SR 54 and Boyette Road.&rdquo The church itself was named for John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist movement. The name &ldquoWesley Chapel&rdquo appears in Hernando County school board records from 1877-1878. A post office operated here from 1897 to 1902. The post office was called &ldquoWesley,&rdquo and maps during that period have the shortened name &ldquoWesley&rdquo and some school board minutes also used the shortened name.

WIRE ROAD. An article in the Chicago Daily Tribune of Sept. 14, 1885, has:

According to a 1922 article by C. B. Taylor, &ldquoBy the way, the route which this first telegraph line took is known as &lsquoThe Wire Road&rsquo to this day, though the present Wire road does not quite follow the original route all the way.&rdquo A 1928 article based on a talk by Jasper Carter has: &ldquoTelegraph lines came through Dade City first because the U. S. government wanted to establish communication with Cuba where the Spanish government was buying supplies from the United States. Thus was the Wire Road named as the first telegraph line into Dade City partly traversed its way. This was a part of the system of communication with Cuba.&rdquo According to J. A. Hendley, &ldquoThe first telegraph office in this section was located at Tuckertown. The federal government built a line from Ocala to Tampa via Tuckertown along the public highway which is known to this day as the Wire road.&rdquo

The remaining information comes from Robert Dew. Maps from the period when Hendley wrote this show that Wire Road did not run to Richland (Tuckertown) but instead took the route of today&rsquos Fifth St. through Dade City from approximately its intersection north of town with River Road of today. Exiting Dade City to the south, Wire Road took the route of today&rsquos U. S. 301 from Dade City to Greer, with an eastward jog at Greer (off from 301 of today), then south into Zephyrhills. The latter part of this route is still today named Wire Road. The name Wire Road is found in County Commission minutes of Oct. 10, 1887, when commissioners approved a new road stretching from the Lanier Bridge to Wire Road. &ldquoPetition No. 2. Presented by J. R. Sumner for road from bridge on Withlacoochee River in Sec. 32, Tp 24, R22 to the Wire Road.&rdquo

ZEPHYRHILLS. The History of Zephyrhills 1821-1921 has:

The History of Zephyrhills 1821-1921 also has:

An article in the Zephyrhills News on April 21, 1933, reported on Jeffries' 90th birthday and apparently interviewed him. The newspaper reported, &ldquoIn naming the town, Zephyrhills, Captain Jeffries felt it would describe the town&rsquos desirable location and would tell the world in one word of its constant and gentle breezes and everlasting hills.&rdquo On the same date, the Dade City Banner reported, &ldquoIn naming the town Zephyrhills, Capt. Jeffries felt it would describe the location and would tell the world in one word of its constant, gentle breezes and everlasting hills.&rdquo

Another source has: &ldquoWhile showing the countryside to prospective residents from the top of LeHeup Hill on historic Fort King road, he [Capt. Howard B. Jeffries] overheard a chance remark about the rolling hills and zephyr-like breezes. Impressed by the melodic combination, he coined a new name for this colony company.&rdquo

A 1909 article in the Dade City Star apparently refers to &ldquoMrs. Hennington of Abbott&rdquo and &ldquoMr. and Mrs. Jeffries of Zephyr Hill.&rdquo This was before the name of Abbott was changed to Zephyrhills.

Some early residents believe the colony was originally called Jeffries Hills and that the name evolved from that to Zephyrhills.


Francois Lenard Gregoire de Roulhac de La Vergne

Francis Roulhac, who was born March 17, 1767 in Limoges, France, left France to go to the West Indies in the spring of 1787. He spent nearly 5 years there as a plantation manager for M. Guybert of St. Marks. Francis returned to France just as the French Revolution was beginning, so quickly left again heading to the West Indies. During the voyage, his ship was captured by two French privateers who sent the ship to America.

At that point, Roulhac made the decision to stay with his brother in Norfolk, Virginia. There he studied law and became an attorney at the age of 34 - a profession he never practiced. He also anglicized his name from Francois Lenard Gregoire de Roulhac de La Vergne to Francis Roulhac. He met Margaret Gray of Guilford County, North Carolina, but studied medicine and became a doctor prior to their marriage on December 6, 1804.

Margaret had a sister who had married “a Butler.” Her husband had apparently served in the Tennessee Militia with Andrew Jackson, but was killed in the Battle of New Orleans. She had been promised 100 acres of property in Rutherford County, so asked her sister and brother-in-law (Margaret and Francis Roulhac) to go with her to claim it. Although the couple did not immediately choose Rutherford County as their home (they lived in Robertson and Montgomery counties first), they eventually settled here.

Francis Roulhac died on August 23, 1852 at the age of 85 and was buried next to his wife in the Roulhac-Hill Cemetery on top of a hill facing “Old Butler Lane.” This is the cemetery on Waldron Road next to a couple of fast food restaurants. Roulhac often spoke on behalf of having a post office in the city he called “Buchananville” and “Mountain View,” so on the day of his death, the postmaster named us “La Vergne.”

A large, flat headstone on the Roulhac grave says, “Affection placed here this stone. Let no unfriendly and unfeeling hand remove.”


For who or what was Cojo Creek named? - History

by Ben Costello, January 2018

While doing some cleaning, I came across an old document and thought the information might be interesting to post. The information in the document was compiled by Stanley R. Case in June of 1992 for the Arapaho/Roosevelt National Forest folks. It outlines the name history of many sites in the Cache La Poudre River canyon. It reads as follows, enjoy!

ARROWHEAD LODGE
Named by C. Marion Brofford for a point across the Cache La Poudre River to the south which was once referred to as Arrowhead Point by early settlers.

ANSEL WATROUS CAMPGROUND
A cooperative agreement in 1918 between the city of Fort Collins and Roosevelt National Forest led to the creation of a mountain park in Poudre Canyon named for Ansel Watrous, the author of “Larimer County History- 1911”.

BALDWIN TUNNEL
This tunnel was holed through in the fall of 1916 and prior to this the road ended at Thompson’s Resort (Mishawaka). Travel to the upper reaches of the Poudre River was over Pingree Hill to Rustic.

BARNES MEADOW/RESERVOIR
Abraham LeFever, cattleman and homesteader of Indian Meadow Ranch, named this fro a relative, David Barnes. The reservoir was built in 1929 by the Mountain Plains Irrigation Company for July and August irrigation water for the Fort Collins-Greeley area.

BELLAIRE LAKE
In the 1880’s Jocelyn Bellairs homesteaded on South Lone Pine Creek, and in 1890 Malcolm Bellairs operated a ranch in the Weast Lake Area. The transfer of “e” for “s” was a typing error.

BENNETT CREEK
I.W. and E.J. Bennett were early sheepmen, ranchers, and community leaders in the Livermore area beginning in the late 1870’s.

BLUE LAKE
This Lake is located in the south end of the Rawahs, and was presumably named because of its color. The trailhead originally started on the west side of Chambers Lake, but is now located opposite the entrance of the Long Draw Reservoir Road.

BROWNS PARK and BROWNS PARK CAMPGROUND
During the mid 1920’s three boys, members of the Brown family, spent several winters camped while trapping in the beautiful little park on Jinks Creek. They did not build a cabin, and no further information is available as to their next destination.

CACHE LA POUDRE RIVER
Several events attempt to qualify as the historical basis for this river’s name. One concerns Major Stephen H. Long’s encampment on July 3, 1820 along the South Platte River near the entering points of three streams. Another in 1835 on July 18, was recorded during Colonel Henry Dodge’s march with a battalion of dragoons over Long’s same trail. As they rounded the great bend of the South Platte, they passed the mouth of the first stream and recorded it as the Cache de la Poudre. The guide was Captain John Gantt, a former army officer turned leader of free trappers who knew the country and called it by the mane. It’s meaning is “hide the powder”. Ansel Watrous recorded the date of the naming as 1836, but his date is disputed by Colonel Dodge’s record.

Several accounts related a trapper party carrying supplies to a rendezvous on the Green River in Wyoming getting caught in a snowstorm which forced them to bury (cache) supplies until they could return and retrieve them. There is also a story that William H. Ashley made a cache while trading in the area with the intention of retrieving the items when they resumed their journey to a rendezvous. The cache may have been left and dug up by the father of Antoine Janis mentioned by Watrous.

The date of the naming is not known, but trappers hid valuables by digging a small hole in the ground and then scooping out a chamber for storage. The hole was carefully filled in and concealed by replacing sod, disposing of excess dirt and tramping it down or even building a fire over it to hide it. The mane Cache la Poudre is probably a contracted form of “cachez la poudre” meaning “hide the powder”.

CAMERON PASS
Major General Robert A. Cameron, in the service of the Union from 1861 – 1865, and organizer of the Fort Collins, Colorado Agriculture Colony in 1872, was an important factor in the settlement of the Cache La Poudre Valley. On a trip to Chambers Lake, he and Dr. Lows discovered the pass through the Medicine Bow Mountains in North Park. Later the pass was named by the Union Pacific Engineering Department in memory of General Cameron.

CAMP LAKES
In the early days of settlement, a ditch was built to take water from these two lakes found in the Rawahs to the Skyline Ditch and to the Cache La Poudre River. Near the lakes a camp was erected for the ditch workers. Nothing today remains of the old cabins of this camp for which the lakes were named.

CASH MINE
This mine was originally called the Elkhorn Mine, which was located by John Zimmerman and his brother Mike in 1881. Mr. Zimmerman sold the mine to a brother-in-law in St. Louis who was with the Cash Mining Company. The old mine is located on the mountain across the road and to the east of the Poudre Canyon Chapel. It was later worked by a “hard-rock” miner named Roy O Conner and called the Cash Mine or O Conner Mine. After Mr. O Conner’s death, Ed Cox and Andie Longston filed on the claim and named it the Cash and Carry Mine. The claim was never patented, however, new claims have been registered in 1989 and 1990.

CHAMBERS LAKE
In 1858 Robert Chambers and his son, Robert Jr., set up a rapping camp near the lake. During an absence by his son, Indians attacked and killed the elder Chambers. Later in 1867 while the Union Pacific railroad was working on its route west of Cheyenne, Robert Jr. told a tie contractor about the plentiful timber on the upper Poudre River. A tie as established by the lake and the workers named the lake in honor of the slain trapper. A small dam was built at the lake to raise the water level under the first water decree in 1887. The first dam washed out on June 9, 1891, and has been rebuilt twice since. The lake is now partially owned and operated by Water Supply and Storage Company.

CLARK PEAK
The highest mountain in the Chambers Lake region takes its name from William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition. It’s Native American name was Elk Horn. Originally the peak was called Cameron for nearby Cameron Pass.

COLUMBINE
The prevalence of these flowers gave this settlement its name.

CRATER LAKE
This lake is one of twin lakes feeding a small tributary of the West Branch of the Laramie River. It was named by Red Vernon, a guide in the Rawahs, because to him it looked like a crater had formed in the high peaks.

CROWN POINT
Crown Point was a mining claim, but the origin of the name is unknown.

DADD GULCH
Named for an elderly Afro-American known as “Dad” who had a cabin in the gulch. The second “d” in the name is unaccounted for.

DUTCH GEORGE FLATS
The area at the junction of Elkhorn Creek with the Poudre River was once inhabited by an old trapper/hunter named George Neare, known as “Dutch”. He protected his hunting preserve, Elkhorn Creek Canyon, with a passion. Legend says his own loaded riffle fell down and shot him as he skinned a bear. Another legend says he was killed by a bear on this site in the late 1800’s. A still-growing apple tree marks the site of his cabin.

EGGERS
The summer post office, resort, and bridge was named for the Fred Eggers family, the original settlers of the site.

EGGERS SCHOOL
Originally located on the hill behind Eggers Post OFfice for which it was named, this school was a WPA project with construction in the early spring and summer of 1934. Logs were cut and hauled from the Chambers Lake area and layed up by WPA workers along with local residents. The school opened that fall and closed after the completion of the Poudre Canyon School in 1959. The old log school has been moved to a location just east of the Poudre Canyon School and may be converted into a museum.

FOR COLLINS MOUNTAIN PARK
A USFS campground taking its name from the city of Fort Collins.

GLENN ECHO (RESORT)
The land was purchased from Norman Fry by a Mr. Cooke, who built the first camp in 1920. It consisted of a small store, and across the road at the present Glen Echo site, several tent frames with wooden floors. The name comes from a spot just west of the site where one can hear voice echoes from across the canyon.

GLENDEVEY
Old Glendevey (accent on the last syllable) was originally named after Thomas H. Dovey who owned a ranch in the glen. It once served as a Post Office.

HOHNHOLTZ LAKE
The lakes were named after the E. and E. Honholz family because of their extensive holdings in the Slugh (?) and Grace Creek area in the Laramie River Valley. Their US land patents went back to 1904 and 1916-17.

HOME
The Home Post Office was first located in a small cabin at the Kinikinik Ranch with John R. Brown as postmaster. Brown had been a blacksmith for Old Camp Collins. About 1880 Brown applied for a post office under the name of “Mountain Home” but was told that there were too many Mountain Homes in the United States, so the name was shortened to Home. In 1896 after John Zimmerman built the Keystone Hotel, he was appointed postmaster of Home and the post office.

HOME MORAINE
This terminal moraine was the result of an episode of glaciation. The name was taken from the Home Post Office.

HOME MORAINE TRAILER PARK
Located in the general area of the Zimmerman Hotel and livery stables, it takes its name from the Home Moraine.

HOURGLASS RESERVOIR
Originally called the Big Beaver, this reservoir located up the Little South River is now named for its shape.

HULEATT (Hewlett’s) GULCH
Horace Huleatt settled in the gulch which bears his name, but not its spelling, in the late 1870’s. it is reported that an old Ute Trial followed the gulch, located nor of Columbine (Poudre) Park. Huleatt eventually moved on to California, and left a stone cabin in the gulch.

INDIAN MEADOWS
Early Euro-Americans coming into this area located on the Poudre River found Arapaho, Cheyenne, and Ute Indians camping, hinting, and fishing in the area.

INDIAN MEADOWS RESORT/STORE
Probably named for the meadow, but may have been a requirement when Guy Slenecker purchased the business rights from the Indian Meadows Corporation in 1925. he built and operated the camp until 1934 when the operation was taken over by Archie and Neva Langston. Neva is the daughter of Guy. It is not known when the name was changed to Indian Meadows Resort.

ISLAND LAKE
Found in the Rawahs, this lake was named by the Sholine family due to the jagged rock island that stands in the middle of the lake.

JOE WRIGHT CREEK
The creek that feeds Chambers Lake from the south was named for a beaver trapper that spent a winter collecting pelts along the stream in the 1800’s.

JOE WRIGHT RESERVOIR
The reservoir takes its name from the Creek. It was built in 1904 by foreman John McNabb and engineer William Rist working for a Mr. F.C. Crable. This was a part of the Michigan River Ditch system, and later purchased from them by the North Poudre Irrigation Company, now owned by the City of Fort Collins. Fort Collins has recently built a new dam to increase the reservoir capacity.

KELLY FLATS
A tie cutter named Jim Kelly, and a man named Jack Dunn, built a cabin on these flats.

KELLY FLATS CAMPGROUND
A USFS campground that took the name of the flats upon which it was constructed.

KINIKINIK
Named by Charles B. Andrews because of the abundance of the evergreen plant growing in the area. There is no explanation for the incorrect spelling on maps. The plant name is spelled kinnikinnick. Andrews was a prominent cattleman who invested in land on the Poudre River in the 1880’s to raise Shetland ponies and cattle for the eastern market. The cabin that housed the first Home Post Office was located on his land.

Over the years the ranch was called Shady Lane Ranch. The Shetland Ranch, the Cup Williams Ranch, and since the purchase by Clarance Bliss in 1941, the name Kinikinik has prevailed.

LAKE LOUISE (Bench)
This lake was named for Louise Sholine (Mrs. F.W. McWilliams), daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Louis Sholine, earliest ranch owners on the West Branch of the upper Laramie River. Today it is shown as Bench Lake on USFS maps.

LARAMIE RIVER
Jacques LaRamee (LaRamie), a French Canadian in the employment of the Northwest Fur Company came into the upper headwaters of the Missouri about 1819. In 1820, h with several other trappers trapped on the headwaters of the North Platte. Later that same year, LaRamee against the advice of the fellow trappers, decided to trap the Laramie River and its tributaries. The area was a battleground among several tribes of Native Americans, but LaRamee believed he would be safe because he was on friendly terms with most of the tribes. At the next rendezvous, LaRamee was missing. His friends organized a party to hunt for the trapper and in a few days found his cabin. Unfortunately, there are no confirmed reports that they located his body, but they did call the river Laramie’s River later shortened to Laramie River. his name with the different spelling has been given to several locations in the region.

LARAMIE-POUDRE TUNNEL
The tunnel connects the two rivers and transfers water from the Laramie River to the Poudre River. The plans were drawn up in 1907 and the tunnel completed in the fall.

LINK LAKES
This chain of lakes, located in the Rawah area on the eastern side of the Medicine Bow Mountains, was discovered by Willis A. Link in 1901.

LIVERMORE
Livermore is derived from a combination of the names of Adolphus Livernash and Stephen Moore, two of the area’s earliest permanent settlers. The name has been used for stage stops, a hotel, store, post office, school, and livery stable in the area over the years.

LOG CABIN
A name given to the hotel and post office built and operated by Mrs. Elizabeth St. Clair. Mrs. St. Clair originally homesteaded 320 acres on the site. It became an official U.S. Post Office in 1903. The original building caught fire and burned in November of 1931 but the post office was continued until 1941 when it was closed. Nothing remains on the site now except a historical marker that was dedicated August 6, 1983. The location is at the intersection of the Livermore and Red Feather Lakes Road and the Elkhorn Road to the Poudre River.

LONG DRAW RESERVOIR
The reservoir is located in Long Draw, above the northwest corner of Rocky Mountain National Park. The draw was named by early tie cutters that set up camp in the draw and maned it for its length, which ran from the top of Poudre Pass to the Big South of the Cache la Poudre River. The reservoir was built by Water Supply and Storage Company in 1931 to regulate water diverted from the Grand River Ditch.

The dam as recently expanded for additional storage, and at that time the company was required to include campground and picnic facilities to USPS specification, and a holding pond for fish. The agreement included turning the facilities over to the Roosevelt National Forest.

LULU CITY
Founded and platted by Benjamin Burnett in 1879 along the upper reaches of the Colorado River, then called the Grand River, this once bustling, but short-lived gold boom town lasted, but four years. Burnett named the site after one of his daughters, and his log building was the first constructed in the town, becoming the area store. For Several years the site grew and housed many miners and prospectors, but the gold ore was of such low quality the town was soon abandoned.

The decaying buildings were later removed after the establishment of Rocky Mountain National Park in 1915 and included the area within its boundaries. A historical marker has been placed at the site along the hiking trail int to the area.

LULU PASS
The old haul-road to Lulu City included the Log Cabin to Manhattan road west through the Bald Mountains and then followed what is now known as the Green Ridge Trail to Chambers Lake. The route then went on to Cameron Pass and the Michigan River, up past American Lake to Lulu Pass (now called Thunder Pass) at Thunder Mountain (named by local Indians) and then dropped into the Grand River Valley. The first freighting teams consisted of sex large mules to pull the heavy wagons.

McINTIRE LAKES
This small chain of lakes is located at the head of one of the branches of McIntyre Creek in the north end of the Rawah Mountains. The lakes were named for Norman c. Mcintyre. McIntyre acquired land in the Laramie River Valley in the Early 1900’s for the promotion of lakes and reservoirs.

MANHATTAN
Established as a gold mining town on Elkhorn Creek in 1886, the site is located north of the town of Rustic. Two theories exist as to the origin of the name. The first story has a man called Cap Hattan establishing the camp. The miners spoke of him as “that man Hattan” and the newcomers began calling the camp Manhattan. The second theory involves homesick miner naming it for Manhattan Borough, New York. Whatever the origin, it was surveyed for a town and named by John Deaver and the Du Bois brothers.

By 1901, the buildings were being moved away and little was left in 1905 when the school was moved one quarter mile east of Goodell Corner.

MISHAWAKA/THOMPSON’S MISHAWAKA RESORT
This was homesteaded, but not known by whom perhaps it was Walter Thompson. The meaning of Mishawaka is unknown.

MITCHELL LAKE
Prior to 1923, the Redfeather Lakes were called the Mitchell Lakes for Jack Mitchell. Mitchell developed irrigation ditches in the area in October, 1888.

MONTGOMERY PASS (TRAIL)
The trail starts west of Joe Wright Reservoir, across Highway 14, and was named for an early day miner. The remains of several mine shafts and cabins, some of which were Montgomery’s, can be found at tree limit along this trail.

MUMMY MOUNTAIN
Part of the Mummy Range in Rocky Mountain National Park, the mountains resemble an Egyptian mummy lying on its back as viewed from the Pingree Park Road and the Estes Park area. The head of the “mummy” points southeast.

MUMMY RANGE
The chain of mountains that includes Chapin, Chiquita, Ypsilon, Fairchild, Mummy, Hague, Rowe, Dunraven, and Dickerson were called the White Owls by the Native Americans, who may have found the snowy owl or the great horned owl, which can look very pale, in the vicinity of the mountains.

NEOTA CREEK, NEOTA MOUNTAIN
Neota was the mane of an Arapaho Indian girl who was captured by a Ute Chief. A young warrior of her own tribe later rescued her.

OLD FLOWERS ROAD
In 1894-1895, Jacob Flowers built a trail from Hourglass Reservoir to Walden. A second trail was built from Buckhorn Creek to Cameron Pass and Michigan Creek, and then to Lulu City. It was a poorly built trail and took considerable effort to negotiate. Jacob Flowers was offered on thousand dollars by the state and the county if he could manage to haul a load of oats in a two-wheeled cart over the trail. He accomplished the mission and was paid. In 1938 the Flowers Gulch flood washed his cabin out.

OLD MAN’S FACE
This rock feature was named by “old-timers” because it formed a perfect profile of a man’s face looking from either direction. Found just east of the Arrowhead Lodge, early postcards list this as the “Old Man’s Face” by the Forest Service in later years changed its designation to “Profile Rock”.

OLD POUDRE CITY
Located west of Rustic on the south side of the Poudre River, the site was named for the mining settlement where John and Mike Zimmerman built and started a stamp mill in 1890. On June 9, 1891, a flood caused by a break in the Chambers Lake Dam destroyed everything on the site except on cabin and the old chimney of the stamp mill. It was reported in later years by Stella Christianson, the then three-year-old daughter of John McNabb, that John Zimmerman rode his horse to death galloping a warning to the residents of Poudre City. Because of that warning, local residents made it safely to higher ground. Supposedly, thirteen families lived in Poudre City at the time.

The stamp mill chimney has been painted and repaired, and a historical marker approved by the State Historical Society has been placed on the chimney. A trail leads to the site fro the Poudre Canyon Chapel parking lot. Besides the chapel, the Poudre Canyon School and the old Eggers Log School are also on the site. The school was moved up form its Eggers site to be used as a museum.

OWL CANYON
This area was settled in 1875 by Miss Sarah Ayres and family. Located south of Livermore and east of Highway 287, the canyon was named by the Ayres for the numerous owls that lived in the area.

PARVIN LAKE
The reservoir was named for a Colorado Game & Fish Commissioner, R.E. (Rolly) Parvin. Ther Reservoir is located next to the Red Feather Lakes.

PENNOCK CREEK PASS
Charles E. Pennock planned a road over the mountains to Walden, but ran out of money before the project could be completed. The stream and Pennock Pass along the Buckhorn road were named for him.

PETERSON CREEK
peterson Creek comes down a mountain and into the Cache la Poudre River on the north side of the road between the State Fish Hatchery and Kinikinik. It was named for Henry C. Peterson who homesteaded the area in 1882.

PINGREE HILL
George W. Pingree spent winters in the late 1860’s in the upper reaches of the Poudre trapping beavers and hunting wild game. He built a camp at what is now Rustic and built the first trail up the gulch north of Rustic over which he packed his supplies, game, and furs. He went to work for Issac Coe and Levi Carter of Nebraska, the contractors for the UPRR.In 1970 he built a narrow gauge 3 foot road down the Pingree trail and up the Canyon to Cameron Pass. The cutters and haulers helped in the widening of his trail and gave it his name.

PINGREE PARK
George Pingree located trees for ties at the headwaters of the Little South Fork of the Poudre River and this park area was named for him.

POUDRE CITY
The name given to the area where the Zimmerman Brothers erected a five stamp mill following 1887 gold finds along the Poudre above Rustic. When Bob and Margaret Lewis started their resort and subdivision at the old U bar U Ranch. They chose this name over the objections of many old timers who felt that this would add confusion about the old historical site which now has been called “Old Poudre City”. The name of Poudre City Resort has now been changed by new owners to Mountain Greenery, but the subdivision which is located 1 1/4 miles east of Old Poudre City still retains the name of Poudre City.

POUDRE PARK
Named for the river.

POUDRE PASS
Separated the Colorado River and Poudre River watersheds and is located on the Continental Divide south of Long Draw Reservoir. This was originally known as Mountain Meadow Pass.

PROFILE ROCK
(See Old Mans Face)

RAWAH
The name given to a peak, a wild area, and several lakes. It was the name given the area east of the Medicine Bow Mountains of northern Colorado by the Ute Indians long before the coming of the white man. It means “wilderness”.

RED FEATHER
The lakes making up /red Feather were developed by Jake Mitchell and know as Mitchell Lakes until later changed. Prior to that they were referred to as West Lake.

In 1923 Princes Chinena, a professional singer from the Cherokee Indian Nation, came to the area for a promotional celebration. Her costume included a red feather which she wore in her hair denoting the meaning of her name. The community took the name ager her visit. Red Feather Lakes Days celebrated on the 4th of July week-end usually includes the choosing and crowing of Princess Red Feather.

A second story states that Red Feather Lakes was named for Chief Red Feather, hero of an American Indian legend, by a Mr. Princell who funded the resort in the summer of 1923.

In a dream, the young Red Feather saw the Great Spirit who revealed the location of a fishing and hinting paradise toward the north start. Red Feather found the place, claimed it for the Cherokees and was made a chief.

RIST CANYON
Augustine Mason bought the Rist Canyon road from Joe Rist in 1866 for $75. Joseph Mason owned the bridge over the Poudre River in Pleasant Valley at the time. The two men found the bridge and road too expensive to maintain and turned them over to the county.

ROCK HOLE LAKE
A small lake in the Rawahs that is located in solid rock was named by Red Vernon, an early guide in the Rawah area.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK
Established in 1915 through the efforts of local conservationist Enos Mills, it was named for the Rocky Mountains.

ROOSEVELT NATIONAL FOREST
In 1891, the Forest Reserve Act was passed, enabling the President to establish reserves on national lands. A petition filed by the Colorado State Forestry Association resulted in the formation of the Medicine Bow National Forest Preserve in 1902, and included lands in Wyoming and Colorado. The Colorado portion became the Colorado National Forest in 1910 and was named for President Theodore Roosevelt in 1932. The headquarters were first located in Wyoming, then moved to Estes Park Colorado, and finally to Fort Collins in 1908 when given space in the post office building in 1911.

RUSTIC
Samuel B. Stewart, foreman of the “tie boys” homesteaded the area and in 1891, built the Rustic Hotel. The origin of the mane is unknown, but was possibly named for the type of accommodations. The hotel had its ups and downs and was demolished.

SAWTOOTH/MOUNT RICHTHOFEN/NOKHU CRAGS
Early postcards list this area as Sawtooth. Ansel Watrous’ Larimer Country History – 1911 shows a picture labeled as Sawtooth. Some maps show it as Mount Richthofen. Other maps show Nokhu Crags, supposedly named by the Indians. The meaning is unknown. Some believe Nokhu to mean “seven Utes”, but Seven Utes is the name also given to the peaks surrounding the next basin to the west, and closer to the 7 Utes Lodge. The basin is also the site of the proposed 7 Utes Ski Area.

SEVEN MILE CREEK
The stream that is seven miles long empties into the Poudre River at Rustic.

SHIPMAN PARK
Old man Shipman fished, trapped and comped for many years in the park that bears his name. At the beginning of World War I he disappeared. He never claimed a homestead, but the remains of the Shipman Babin are still visible. The area was later added to the Rawah Wilderness. The old state road over the Pass going to North Park passed through Shipman Park and was Sometimes used by Jeeps, but of course was discontinued after inclusion in the Wilderness area.

SINAL MOUNTAIN
The Signals and the ridge that runs between them was called Wolf Ridge by the Arapahos. Early settlers thought they saw smoke signals coming from the peaks, but the Arapahos could not remember using the peaks for signaling.

SLEEPING ELEPHANT
A rock formation taht resembles a sleeping elephant.

SLEEPING ELEPHANT CAMPGROUND
Named by USFS for the nearby rock formation.

SPENCER HEIGHTS
Named for a man named Spencer who homesteaded the first ranch at that location. Lyle (son of Guy Slonecker, of Indian Meadows) and Helen L. Slonecker purchased rights from Dr. Harmer and Lew Stimpson in the Greeley Colony and built the Resort in 1928, operating it until 1936 when they traded it to Harry Garlick. Garlick later sold the resort to Mr. and Mrs. Guy Kirk.

SPORTMAN (SPORTSMANS LODGE)
The lodge was originally named Gladstones by its builder Bryce Gladstone in 1931. When Bill and Clara Schorman purchased the property in 1946 the changed the name to Sportsmans – probably for the many game and fish trophies used to decorate the place. Later owners, the McIsaacs, added the word lodge.

STOVE PRAIRIE
Supposedly a campers old stave was found near the present school. The school district was organized in 1893 and a school house was built in 1894.

STUB CREEK
A very short creek that may have been called Stub by early visitors, but there is no verification.

STUB CREEK WORK CENTER
A USFS facility in the Laramie River Valley named for the creek. It formally was called the Stub Creek Ranger Station.

TED’S PLACE
E.I. (Ted) Herring and his brother came and built a store and station at the intersection of US 287 and Colorado 14 in the early 1920’s which they called the Poudre Canyon Dilling Station. Their grand opening was held on May 25, 192. It wasn’t long before everyone was calling the store Ted’s Place and the name stuck. Ted served many terms as a Larimer County Representative and Senator in the Colorado Legislature. He died in 1963 and his wife Nellie in 1976. Conoco demolished Ted’s Place in 1989.

TELLER CITY
Established in 1879, the mining town was named for Henry M. Teller who for 10 years served in the U.S. Senate representing the State of Colorado. Several early accounts listed the area rich in silver and the population soon reached 400 and peaked in 1882 at 1300.Teller started to collapse in 1883 and was nearly deserted by 1885, with only three or four individuals that would not acknowledge defeat. The post office was abandoned in 1886. “North Park History” by Haxel Greshman lists all of the businesses, people, and professions that were at Teller City.

THUNDER PASS
See Lulu Pass

TRADING POST
Built by “Tex” Extrom in 1938 and 1939, he named it Tex’s Place. When Melvin and Jaclyn Peterson purchased the property they changed the name to the Trading Post. All owners since have stuck with the name for the resort located about 9 1/2 miles west of Arrowhead.

TOM BENNETT CAMPGROUND
In the 1920’s Tom Bennett built a resort and campground on his ranch near the Little South Fork of the Poudre River. He is not connected with the earlier settler for whom Bennett Creek is named. Ther campground is now the property of USFS.

TUNNEL CAMPGROUND
The west portal of the Laramie – Poudre Tunnel is located near this USFS campground.

WASHOUT GULCH
This gulch comes in from the north two miles above Arrowhead.

WINTERSTEEN PARK
reached by Jeep Road going east from the top of Pingree Hill, and named for L.L. Wintersteen, a local rancher. He was postmaster at Manhattan in 1894.

YAUGER RANCH/YAUGER RESORT
Operated by Alvi Yauger.

ZIMMERMAN LAKE – TRAIL
John Zimmerman first settled in the Poudre area near the fenced enclosure just south of the trailhead parking lot. It is a one mile hike to the lake.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cache la Poudre – the river as seen from 1898, Norman W. Fry
Fort Collins yesterdays, Evadene Burris Swanson
History of Larimer County – 1911, Ansel Watrous
History of Larimer County – 1985
Larimer County place names, Etholine Aycock and Mary Hagen, 1984
Larimer County Stock Growers Association – 1884-1956


YorksPast

1908 Topographic Map of Barshinger Creek in York County, PA (Creek and Tributary Enhancements by S. H. Smith)

The York Daily Record article on Saturday about Red Lion Area High School alums and students spearheading an effort to protect the Barshinger Creek freshwater ecosystem caused me to dust off some information in my files about the creek name. This information was gathered for my book Barshingers in America, and is sourced therein.

Through the end of the 1800s the currently named Barshinger Creek was a tributary of the Little Codorus Creek in York County. I have also seen Barshinger Creek identified as the Little Codorus Creek this might have been just after the Little Codorus Creek in the area was renamed East Branch of the Codorus Creek.

The first extensive United States Geodetic Survey Topographic Maps were done in York County during the early 1900s. There were several Little Codorus Creeks in York County at that time. I suspect during the time of the first U.S.G.S. surveys is when all of the Little Codorus Creeks received unique names. Many of the newly named creeks had an association with a mill on the creek hence the name Barshinger Creek. This post explores the man behind Barshinger’s Mill.

The earliest map with the Barshinger Creek name is the topographic map shown at the beginning of this post. This United States Geodetic Survey’s York, PA Quadrangle Topographic Map was surveyed in 1908, engraved in 1909 and printed in 1910. Therefore by the 1908 survey, Barshinger Creek had its name. A few years later, a 1915 Map of Public Roads of York County, PA by the Pennsylvania State Highway Department reaffirms the waterway name Barshinger Creek.

Barshinger Creek originates on the grounds of the Red Lion Area High School. The creek flows south-west past the villages of Arbor and Adamsville, before passing the site of the former Barshinger’s Mill. Arbor Drive parallels most of the creek’s length. Barshinger Creek flows into the East Branch of the Codorus Creek at a point 1-1/2 miles upstream of where the East Branch forms York Water Company’s Lake Redman.

Jacob Kohler established the first mill along the creek in 1853. For many years, the oldest son George Kohler ran the mill for his father. After Jacob died, his executors sold the mill property to Michael Grim during 1875. Michael Grim operated the mill until he reach the age of 63 at that time the mill property was sold to 29 year old Simon A. Barshinger in 1892.

Simon A. Barshinger [1863-1945] Photo ca. 1895 (S. H. Smith Collection) For 28 years, Simon Barshinger expanded and operated the mill now known as Barshinger’s Mill. This mill was located on the south side of the creek as indicated on the 1908 Map. In this area, the creek is the boundary between York Township, on the north side of the creek, and North Hopewell Township, on the south side of the creek.

Mill construction was frame on a stone foundation. When Simon purchased the mill, it was powered by a 16-foot diameter by 3-1/2 feet wide wooden overshot waterwheel. The mill had several run of stones when it was purchased in 1892 Simon continued to use two to make cornmeal & buckwheat flour.

Stone milling started to give way to roller milling in the mid-1880’s. Simon Barshinger might have been among the first mill operators in York County, PA to make the transition. He had 3 sets of Flour Rolls of 40 barrels per day capacity flour in 40 barrels would weigh 7,840 pounds produced daily.

Simon eventually added a second waterwheel to power 2 more sets of Flour Rolls to increase his white flour production to 100 barrels per day equivalent to 19,600 pounds of flour daily. The second waterwheel was a 16-foot diameter by 3-1/2 feet wide steel overshot design manufactured by Fitz Waterwheel Company of Hanover, PA. It is unknown if the mill building had to be enlarged to accommodate the second waterwheel.

Much of the flour from Barshinger’s Mill was being used in another business venture that Simon Barshinger was involved with. In 1914, the York Pretzel Bakery was begun by Simon and six other individuals: Harry B. Anstine, G. W. Reider, Jacob Beitzel, Horace E. Reider, Harry W. Schaberg and Luther Meckley. The obituary of Harry B. Anstine noted:

[This was a business] venture which in only a few years was due to prosper to a degree beyond the dreams of even the most optimistic of them. The company built its new pretzel bakery on Pattison Street [in York, Pennsylvania] where both factory and business enjoyed continued growth and increasing prosperity. In 1924 the National Biscuit Company made overtures for the purchase of the properties and business of the York Pretzel Bakery and the deal was consummated on January 1, 1925, when the National Biscuit Company [NABISCO] took possession.

Simon was active in politics. He unsuccessfully ran for the State Legislature in 1904. In 1919, at the age of 56, Simon A. Barshinger was elected one of three York County Commissioners. York County is governed by a board of three commissioners serving four-year terms. He served four years 1920 through 1923. The Commissioners that served with Simon Barshinger were D. Eugene Frey and Dr. Charles A. Keagy.

When Simon A. Barshinger decided to further expand milling operations, he was not tied to waterpower any longer. Again, he might have been among the first flour mills in York County to be totally powered by electric motors. Simon Barshinger chose to move milling operations to Red Lion, PA actually not very far from where the headwaters of Barshinger Creek originate. He choose property at the end of Taylor Avenue a very convenient transportation location because it was adjacent to the Maryland and Pennsylvania [Ma & Pa] Railroad tracks.

Being adjacent to the Ma & Pa Railroad made it easy to ship the mill’s flour from Red Lion to York and process it into pretzels. The York Pretzel Bakery was located on Pattison Street where it crosses the Ma & Pa Railroad. The former bakery building burnt down during July 2000, it had previously been vacant for a number of years.

The Red Lion Milling Company was granted its charter January 12th 1920. Original stockholders were Simon A. Barshinger his two sons Clarence F. Barshinger and Charles E. Barshinger Samuel A. Roseman and Samuel S. Laucks. Its principle milling equipment consisted of the five stands of Flour Rolls previously at Barshinger’s Mill along Arbor Drive plus a new stand of Flour Rolls. During the first year of operation in 1920, the Red Lion Milling Company had an overall production of 150 barrels per day equivalent to 29,400 pounds of flour per day.

The original 1920 Red Lion Milling plant consisted of a stone building in which the flour milling equipment was placed, a frame building used as a feed mill and warehouse, and a frame grain elevator of 50,000 bushels capacity. The following 1930 photo shows that the Red Lion Milling plant had already expanded with additional buildings and storage silos when it was 10 years old.

Red Lion Milling Company from 1930 Golden Jubilee Pictorial Souvenir of Red Lion, PA

After Simon A. Barshinger passed away during 1945, the Red Lion Milling Company was primarily under the control of Simon’s son, Charles E. Barshinger. Nebraska Consolidated Mills Company, (currently ConAgra) acquired Red Lion Milling Company in 1968. The mill officers at the time were Charles Emanuel Barshinger, President Richard Simon Barshinger (Charles’ son), Vice President – Treasurer and Harry I. Trout (Charles’ son-in-law) Vice President & Production Manager. In 1968, daily mill production was at 110,000 pounds of flour.

At the time of the acquisition, Simon Barshinger’s son Charles E. Barshinger was 75 years old, however he remained on in an advisory capacity per Grant Voaden’s 1972 interview with Charles. Harry I. Trout continued on as Production Manager of the plant until retiring from ConAgra in 1979. Richard S. Barshinger became Eastern Regional Manager for ConAgra stationed at the Martins Creek Plant in Easton, PA.

Richard S. Barshinger, the grandson of Simon A. Barshinger, was an alum of Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, PA. Following his retirement from ConAgra, Richard and his wife Ann provided the leadership gift for extensive renovations to Hensel Hall on F&M’s campus. The building was renamed The Barshinger Center for Musical Arts. Richard Barshinger noted:

I remember the many inspiring speakers I heard in that building while I was a college student. It’s gratifying to me that Ann and I will have this opportunity to rejuvenate this beautiful building for future generations of Franklin & Marshall students.

Following the death of her husband in 2001, Ann Barshinger has carried on the F&M philanthropic work through scholarships and the leadership gift in constructing The Ann and Richard Barshinger Life Sciences Building. Ann has also been involved in many facets of public service in the community, including a leadership gift towards construction now underway on Lancaster General Health’s Ann B. Barshinger Cancer Center.

Next Week, I’ll post more on the Barshinger Mill site along Barshinger Creek.


For who or what was Cojo Creek named? - History

The Creek Indians are more properly called the Muscogee, alternatively spelled Mvskoke. Creek oral tradition, recorded in the eighteenth century, told a legend of migration of one group of ancestral Creeks who established a colony at the Ocmulgee site near present Macon, Georgia. From that colony grew the pivotal towns of Cusseta and Coweta, in the period of A.D. 900–1000. The historic Creek Confederacy eventually was widespread and influential. Early-twentieth-century scientists speculated that Mississippian migrants had left their homeland in the central Mississippi Valley and journeyed onto the Macon Plateau, settling at Ocmulgee before beginning their regional expansion. Archaeologists corroborated that Ocmulgee Mounds was one of the ancestral Creek residences.

Subsequent archaeological investigations indicated that Creek Indians derived from prehistoric southern Appalachian Woodland cultures such as the Western Lamar in the region of present Georgia and Alabama. While there were local variations, all were believed to share what is termed Mississippian culture. They resided in fortified towns that had flat-topped pyramidal temple mounds surrounding a central plaza. The Mississippian culture declined after A.D. 1400, and the sites then became single-mound ceremonial centers among separate towns that were either related or allied. Perhaps half of them used the Mvskoke language, which was spoken along the Coosa and Tallapoosa watercourses, but those who lived along the Chattahoochee River perhaps spoke Hitchiti and Euchee. Although the people spoke different languages, they shared basic traits and beliefs with other Southeastern Indians. The arrival of Europeans accelerated cultural decline and had a devastating demographic impact upon the natives.

Coosa had been an influential paramount chiefdom prior to the Hernando de Soto expedition's visit in the 1540s but rapidly declined in the aftermath. The diseases introduced by those Spaniards devastated the Creek towns, and the survivors coalesced as populations shifted. Refugees from Coosa along the Coosawattee River at the headwaters of the Coosa River in northwestern Georgia moved downstream to Alabama. There they merged with other town survivors such as Abika. The towns of Abika, Coosa, Coweta, and Tuckabatchee are considered the four "mother" towns of the Creek Confederacy and are featured in oral migration stories.

Each Creek town had a ceremonial center like the former Mississippian plaza. At one edge was a rotunda or council house in which elders transacted town business. Nearby were a chunkey yard and a ball-play ground. Maternal clans determined membership in the society, but members also held loyalty to a town beyond the clan, unlike many other Indian tribes. The confederacy's towns were divided into red/war and white/peace groups. With the assistance of advisors, a meko ruled each town. Creek clans and towns met once every year. During the early eighteenth century the Creek population of more than twenty thousand occupied at least fifty towns.

Population shifts, amalgamation of town survivors, pressure from slave traders, and changes in trade practices all combined to accelerate a long-term trend toward merging groups aimed at stability. This led to the formation of what Europeans termed the Creek Confederacy, especially under Alexander McGillivray in the late eighteenth century. British traders labeled the Indians along the Ochese Creek by that geographic name, and eventually it was simplified to "Creeks." The Indian slave trade, which transformed the interior of the Southeast to 1717, was replaced by the deerskin trade through the first half of the eighteenth century. Trade helped transform Indian society.

After the pivotal Yamasee War (1715–16) ended, the influence of the Creek Confederacy peaked while the Upper Creek division of the Creek Nation coalesced. The emerging division of the confederacy led Upper Creeks to reside along the Tallapoosa River in northwestern Georgia. Lower Creeks lived along the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries in southeastern Alabama. Rival European desires, combined with shrewd native diplomatic and survival skills, made the Creek predominant in the region. They maintained a delicate balance of French, Spanish, and British colonial interests until the British emerged in 1763 as the sole European power. The American influence succeeded the British after 1783.

McGillivray's death in 1793 left Creek interests under the guidance of U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins in that decade. He implemented an assimilation policy that emphasized missions, education, and individualized farming. His policy made inroads among Lower Creek towns. Eventually, the changes that became visible, such as ownership of slaves, Anglo clothing and lifestyle, and restructured government, lent the assumption and label "civilized" to the tribe.

The "Red Stick War" of 1812–14 climaxed in what is known as the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, among the Upper Creeks. A punitive land cession resulted. The treaty led to increased Anglo settler pressure and to the growing prominence of William McIntosh of the Lower Creeks. The latter removed west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s. Thereafter, Opothleyahola's leadership of the Upper Creeks increased. The majority of the Creeks, along with their slaves, were removed over their Trail of Tears to a new Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, through the late 1830s.

Lower Creeks settled in the Three Forks area of the Arkansas River in Indian Territory, and the Upper Creeks lived along the North Fork, Deep Fork, and Canadian river valleys in their new homeland. They still showed the ancient divisions of their old confederacy. The disparate groups, numbering perhaps only thirteen thousand by then, agreed in 1840 to a new national government, located at both Upper and Lower Creek sites of Council Hill, in present Tulsa. A new golden age of independent development ensued but was short lived. The Civil War destroyed much that had been built up in the Creek Nation, but another new national government, modeled on a bicameral legislative system similar to that of the United States, emerged after 1866. It was located at the newly selected national capital in Okmulgee. The nation formulated a new constitution the following year.

A period of rebuilding began again while the tribe was left to its own influences, and the Creek Nation prospered. Schools, churches, and public houses were built as the tribe reestablished itself as a working government. At Okmulgee a national capitol building was constructed in 1867, and it was enlarged in 1878. Now a National Historic Landmark, the Creek National Capitol (the present Creek Council House Museum) is listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NR 66000632).

The rebuilding of the tribe continued. Its florescence was marred by changes on the United States level that were all too familiar—land envy. Beginning in the 1880s an outburst of violence from a bloody political turmoil of resistance greeted the renewal of allotment and assimilation policies that climaxed with Oklahoma statehood in 1907. The Creeks lost more than two million acres of allotted domain. Through the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries mainstream pressures gradually transformed many of the forty-seven tribal towns from ceremonial grounds into rural agricultural communities. Each of these centered on the Baptist Indian church, among Upper Creeks, or the Methodist Indian church, among descendants of Lower Creeks. The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act (1936) helped establish the former Creek tribal towns of Kialegee, Thlopthlocco, and Alabama-Quassarte as sovereign nations.

Beginning in 1970 the federal government permitted the Creek Nation to elect its own principal chief. The Harjo v. Kleppe (1976) case marked the end of federal paternalism and the start of a new era for a revitalized Indian nation. The elected government supports three branches of tribal governmental and ongoing economic development. There are presently more than fifty-eight thousand tribe members, based on a descendancy roll stemming from the Dawes allotment rolls. Some tribal citizens are spread throughout the eleven Oklahoma counties that formed the historic Creek Nation boundaries as well as throughout the world. A mix of gaming, farming, and other business income has been combined with federal expenditures to support a wide range of Creek Nation programs and services. These have included tribal government offices, a national council, a tribal court system, a police force, business enterprises, health care, housing, education, and expenditures on infrastructure within the boundaries of the historic Creek Nation. A new constitution in 1975 replaced the 1867 document. A series of federal court decisions through the 1980s helped bolster Creek Nation sovereignty.

Creek claimants that are scattered across the Southeast have sought federal recognition. The Poarch Band of Eastern Creeks in southern Alabama gained recognition in 1984. More than two thousand of them reside near Atmore, a town in the ancient Creek homeland. Still other Creeks are spread throughout the nation in an urban diaspora, with Creek families seeking employment in Dallas, Los Angeles, Phoenix, and other cities. There are also descendants among most ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, who are called freedmen, although the latter have no tribal rights.

Despite tragedies and drastic changes over the years, the Muscogee survived. Through a series of rebuilding stages, the culture, the language, the hymns, the medicine songs, and the traditions were still enjoyed into the early twenty-first century. The people have continued to celebrate their cultural heritage. They still danced around the sacred fire and sang sacred songs to their Creator, and they still offered hymns to their Savior. They have continued to transact tribal business in the Mvskoke language. New stories of contemporary life have joined ancient oral literature to chronicle cultural activities, including the high jinks of the trickster Rabbit, the traditional culture hero. As in those stories, the Mvskoke people have learned lessons of perseverance and overcoming adversity, which is the hallmark of the Este Mvskokvlke (Creek people) of the old Southeast.

Theodore Isham and Blue Clark

Bibliography

Angie Debo, The Road to Disappearance: A History of the Creek Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1941).

Michael D. Green, The Creeks (New York: Chelsea House, 1990).

Douglas A. Hurt, "'The Indian Home is Undone: Anglo Intrusion, Colonization, and the Creek Nation, 1867–1907," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 83 (Summer 2005).

John R. Swanton, Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors (1922 reprint, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998).

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The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Theodore Isham and Blue Clark, &ldquoCreek (Mvskoke),&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=CR006.

© Oklahoma Historical Society.


List Of Creek Towns

In this alphabetic list of ancient Creek towns and villages I have included all the names of inhabited places which I have found recorded before the emigration of the people to the Indian Territory. The description of their sites is chiefly taken from Hawkins “Sketch” one of the most instructive books which we possess on the Creeks in their earlier homes. Some of these town names are still existing in Alabama and Georgia, although the site has not infrequently changed. I have interspersed into the list a few names of the larger rivers. The etymologies added to the names contain the opinions of the Creek delegates visiting Washington every year, and they seldom differed among each other on any name. The local names are written according to my scientific system of phonetics, the only change introduced being that of the palatal tch for ch.

Ábi’hka, one of the oldest among the Upper Creek towns the oldest chiefs were in the habit of naming the Creek nation after it. Hawkins speaks of Abikúdshi only, not of Abi’hka. It certainly lay somewhere near the Upper Coosa River, where some old maps have it. Emanuel Bowen, “A new map of Georgia,” has only “Abacouse,” and this in the wrong place, below Kusa and above Great Talasse, on the western side of Coosa River. A town Abi’hka now exists in the Indian Territory. The name of the ancient town was pronounced Abi’hka, Apiχka and written Obika, Abeka, Abeicas, Abecka, Beicas, Becaes, etc. its people are called Apiχkanági. Some writers have identified them with the Kusa and also with the Conshacs, e. g. du Pratz. 1 D. Coxe, Carolana, p. 25, states that “the Becaes or Abecaes have thirteen towns, and the Ewemalas, between the Becaes and the Chattas, can raise five hundred fighting men” (1741). A part of the most ancient Creek customs originated here, as, for instance, the law for regulating marriages and for punishing adultery. The Creek term ábi hka signifies “pile at the base, heap at the root” (ábi stem, pole), and was imparted to this tribe, “because in the contest for supremacy its warriors heaped up a pile of scalps, covering the base of the war-pole only. Before this achievement the tribe was called sak’hútga door, shutter, or simat’hútga itálua shutter, door of the towns or tribes” Cf. ak’hútäs I close a door, sak hútga hawídshäs I open a door.

Abikú’dshi, an Upper Creek town on the right bank of Natche (now Tallahatchi) Creek, five miles east of Coosa River, on a small plain. Settled from Abika, and by some Indians from Natche, q. v. Bartram (1775) states, that they spoke a dialect of Chicasa which can be true of a part of the inhabitants only. A spacious cave exists in the neighborhood.

Ahiki Creek, Hitchiti name of the upper course of Hitchiti Creek, an eastern tributary of Chatahuchi River. Hawkins (p. 60) writes it Ouhe-gee Creek. The name signifies “sweet potato-mother” (áhi, íki), from the circumstance that when planting sweet potatoes (ahi), the fruit sown remains in the ground until the new crop comes to maturity.

Alabama River is formed by the junction of Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers pursues a winding course between banks about fifty feet high, and joins Tombigbee River about thirty miles above Mobile Bay, when it assumes the name of Mobile River. Its waters are pure, its current gentle it runs about two miles an hour, and has 15-18 feet depth in the driest season of the year. Boats travel from the junction to Mobile Bay in about nine days, through a fertile country, with high, cleared fields and romantic landscapes (Hawkins). The hunting grounds of the Creeks extended to the watershed between the Tombigbee and the Coosa and Alabama Rivers.

Amakalli, Lower Creek town, planted by Chiaha Indians on a creek of that name, which is the main watercourse of Kitchofuni creek, a northern affluent of Flint river, Georgia. Inhabited by sixty men in 1799. The name is not Creek it seems identical with Amacalola, the Cheroki name of a picturesque cascade on Amacalola creek, a northern affluent of Etowa River, Dawson County, Georgia. The derivation given for it is: ama water, kalola sliding, tumbling.

Anáti tchápko or “Long Swamp,” a Hillabi village, ten miles above that town, on a northern tributary of Hillabi Creek. A battle occurred there during the Creek or Red Stick war, January 24th, 1814. Usually written Enotochopko. The Creek term anáti means a brushy, swampy place, where persons can secrete themselves.

Apalatchúkla, a Lower Creek town on the west bank of Chatahuchi River, 1½ miles below Chiaha. In Hawkins time it was in a state of decay, but in former times had been a white or peace town, called (even now) Itálua’láko ” large town,” and the principal community among the Lower Creek settlements. The name was abbreviated into Palúatchkla, and has also been transferred to the Chatahuchi River that river is now called Apalachicola below its confluence with the Flint River. Cf. Sawokli-údshi. Bartram (Travels, p. 522) states: The Indians have a tradition that the vast four-square ter races, chunk yards, etc., at Apalachucla, old town, were “the ruins of an ancient Indian town and fortress.” This “old town” lay one mile and a half down the river from the new town, and was abandoned about 1750 on account of unhealthy location. Bartram viewed the “terraces, on which formerly stood their town-house or rotunda and square or areopagus,” and gives a lucid description of them. About fifty years before his visit a general killing of the white traders occurred in this town, though these had placed themselves under the protection of the chiefs (Travels, pp. 388-390). Concerning the former importance of this “white” town, W. Bartram (Travels, p. 387) states, that “this town is esteemed the mother town or capital of the Creek con federacy sacred to peace no captives are put to death or human blood spilt there deputies from all Creek towns assemble there when a general peace is proposed.” He refers to the town existing at the time of his visit, but implicitly also to the “old Apalachucla town.” The ancient and correct form of this name is Apalaχtchukla, and of the extinct tribe east of it, on Apalache bay, Apalaχtchi. Judge G. W. Stidham heard of the fol lowing etymology of the name: In cleaning the ground for the town square and making it even, the ground and sweeping finally formed a ridge on the outside of the chunk-yard or play-ground from this ridge the town was called apalaχtch’-ukla. More upon this subject, cf. Apalachi. An Apalachicola Fort on Savannah River is mentioned on p. 20.

Apata-i, a village of the Lower Creeks, settled by Kasí’hta people on Big creek or Hátchi ‘láko, twenty miles east of Chatahuchi River, in Georgia. The name refers to a sheet-like covering, from apatáyäs I cover cf. patákäs I spread out the Creek word apatá-i signifies any covering comparable to wall-papers, carpets, etc. The town of Upotoy now lies on Upotoy creek, Muscogee county, Alabama, in 32 38 Lat.

Ássi-lánapi, an Upper Creek town, called Oselanopy in the Census list of 1832. It probably lay on Yellow Leaf creek, which joins Coosa River from the west about five miles below Talladega creek. From it sprang Green-leaf Town in the Indian Territory, since láni means yellow and green at the same time. Green is now more frequently expressed by páhi-láni.

Atasi, or Átassi, an Upper Creek town on the east side of Tallapoosa River, below and adjoining Kalibi hátchi Creek. It was a miserable-looking place in Hawkins time, with about 43 warriors in 1766. Like that of all the other towns built on Tallapoosa River, below its falls, the site is low and unhealthy. The name is derived from the war-club (ă tăssa), and was written Autossee, Ottossee, Otasse, Ot-tis-se, etc. Battle on November 29th, 1813. A town in the Indian Territory is called after it A’tĕsi, its inhabitants Atĕsálgi. “A post or column of pine, forty feet high, stood in the town of Autassee, on a low, circular, artificial hill.” Bartram, Travels, p. 456. Cf. Hu’li-Wá’hli.

Atchina-álgi, or “Cedar Grove,” the northernmost of all the Creek settlements, near the Hillabi-Etowa trail, on a side creek of Tallapoosa River and forty miles above Niuya’áχa. Settled from Lutchapóga.

Atchina Hátchi, or “Cedar Creek,” a village settled by Indians from Ka-iläídshi, q. v. on a creek of the same name.

Chatahuchi, a former town of the Lower Creeks, on the headwaters of Chatahuchi River. Probably abandoned in Hawkins time he calls it “old town Chatahutchi” cf. Chatahuchi River. Called Chata Uche by Bartram (1775) Chatahoosie by Swan (1791).

Chatahuchi River is the watercourse dividing, in its lower portion, the State of Alabama from that of Georgia. On its banks were settled the towns and villages of the Lower Creeks. Its name is composed of tchátu rock, stone and hútchi marked, provided with signs, and hence means: “Pictured Rocks.” Rocks of this description are in the bed of the river, at the “old town Chatahuchi,” above Hú’li-täíka (Hawkins, p. 52). Other names for this river were: Apalachukla River (Wm. Bartram), Cahouita or Apalachoocoly River (Jefferys’ map in John Bartram’s report).

Che’láko Nini, or “Horse-Trail,” a Lower Creek town on the headwaters of Chatahuchi River, settled by Okfuski Indians. Mentioned in 1832 as Chelucco-ninny. Probably identical with Okfuski-Nini see Okfuskúdshi, and: Indian Pathways.

Chiaha, or Tchíaha, Chehaw, a Lower Creek town just below Ósotchi town and contiguous to it, on western bank of Chatahuchi River. The Chiaha Indians had in 1799 spread out in villages on the Flint River, of which Hawkins names Amakalli, Hótali-huyána and at Chiahú-dshi. Here a trail crossed the Chatahuchi River (Swan, 1791). A town of the same name, “where otters live,” existed among the Cheroki. An Upper Creek town of this name, with twenty-nine heads of families, is mentioned in the Census list of 1832 (Schoolcraft IV, 578).

Chiahū dshi, or “Little Chiaha,” a Lower Creek town planted by Chiaha Indians in a pine forest one mile and a half west of Hitchiti town. Cf. Hitchiti, pp. 77. sqq.

Chiska talófa, a Lower Creek town on the west side of Chatahuchi River. Morse, Report, p. 364, refers to it under the name of “Cheskitalowas” as belonging to the Seminole villages. Is it Chisca, or “Chisi provincia”, visited by the army of H. de Soto in 1540? Hawkins states that Chiske talófa hatche was the name given to Savannah River (from tchíska base of tree).

Coosa River, (1) an affluent of Alabama river in Eastern Alabama, in Creek Kusa-hátchi, runs through the roughest and most hilly district formerly held by the Creek Indians. “It is rapid, and so full of rocks and shoals that it is hardly navigable even for canoes”: Swan, in Schoolcraft V, 257. Cusawati is an affluent of Upper Coosa River, in northwestern Georgia, a tract where Cheroki local names may be expected.

(2) A watercourse of the same name, Coosawhatchie, passes southeast of Savannah City, South Carolina, into the Atlantic Ocean. For the etymology, see Kusa.

Fin’-hálui, a town of the Lower Creeks or Seminoles. The name signifies a high bridge, or a high foot-log, and the traders name was “High Log” (1832).

A swamp having the same name, Finholoway Swamp, lies in Wayne County, between the lower Altamaha and Satilla rivers, Georgia.

Fish-Ponds, or Fish-Pond Town cf. Lá’lo-kálka.

Flint River, in Creek ‘Lonotíska hátchi, an eastern Georgian affluent of Chatahuchi River, and almost of the same length. Creeks, Yuchi and Seminole Indians were settled on it and on its numerous tributaries, one of which is Lónoto Creek, also called Indian Creek, Dooley County, Georgia. From ‘lónoto flint.

Fort Toulouse cf. Taskigi. This fort was also called, from the tribe settled around it, Fort Alibamu, Fort Albamo, Fort Alebahmah, Forteresse des Alibamons. Abandoned by the French in 1762.

Fusi-hátehi, Fus’-hátchi, or “Birdcreek,” a town of the Upper Creeks, built on the right or northern bank of Tallapoosa River, two miles below Hu’li-Wáli. Remains of a walled town on the opposite shore.

Hátehi tchápa, or “Half-way Creek,” a small village settled in a pine forest by Ka-iläidshi Indians, q. v.

Hickory Ground cf. Odshi-apófa.

Hillabi, pronounced Hi’lapi, an Upper Creek town on Ko-ufadi Creek, which runs into Hillabi Creek one mile from the village. Hillabi Creek is a western tributary of Tallapoosa River, and joins it eight miles below Niuyáχa. The majority of the Hillabi people had settled in four villages of the vicinity in 1799, which were: ‘Lánudshi apála, Anáti tchápko, Ístudshi-läika, Úktaha ‘lási.

A battle took place in the vicinity on November 18th, 1813. Though the name is of difficult analysis, it is said to refer to quickness, velocity (of the watercourse?)

Hitchiti, a Lower Creek town with branch villages cf. Hitchiti, p. 77 sqq.

Hitchitū’dshi cf. Hitchiti, p. 77.

Hótali-huyána, a Lower Creek town, planted by Chiaha Indians on the eastern bank of Flint river, six miles below the Kitchofuni creek junction. Ósotchi settlers had mingled with the twenty families of the village. The name means: “Hurricane Town,” for Hútali in Creek is wind, huyána passing it therefore marks a locality once devastated by a passing hurricane. Called Tallewheanas, in Seminole list, p. 72.

Hu’li-täiga, a Lower Creek village on Chatahuchi River, planted by Okfuski Indians. Bartram calls it Hothtetoga, C. Swan: Hohtatoga (Schoolcraft, Indians V, 262) the name signifies “war-ford,” military river-passage.

Hul’i-Wa’hli, an Upper Creek town on the right bank of Tallapoosa River, five miles below Atasi. This town obtained its name from the privilege of declaring war (hú’li war, awá’hlita to share out, divide) the declaration was first sent to Tukabatchi, and from there among the other tribes. The town bordered west on Atas’-hátchi creek. The name is written Clewauley (1791), Ho-ithle-Wau-lee (Hawkins), Cleu-wath-ta (1832), Cluale, Clewulla, etc.

Ikanatcháka, or Holy Ground, a town on the southern side of Alabama River, built on holy ground, and there fore said to be exempt from any possible inroads of the white people. Weatherford, the leader of the insurgent Creeks, and their prophet Hilis’-háko resided there the forces gathered at this place by them were defeated December 23d, 1813. From íkana ground, atcháka be loved, sacred.

Ikan’-hátki, or “white ground,” a Shawano town just below Kulumi, and on the same side of Tallapoosa River. “Cunhutki speaks the Muscogulge tongue” W. Bar-tram (1775).

Imúkfa, an Upper Creek town on Imukfa Creek, west of Tallapoosa river. Near this place, in a bend or peninsula formed by the Tallapoosa River, called Horse Shoe by the whites, the American troops achieved a decisive victory over the Red Stick party of the Creek Indians on March 25th, 1814, which resulted in the surrender of Weatherford, their leader, and put an end to this bloody campaign. Not less than five hundred and fifty-seven Creek warriors lost their lives in this battle. The term Imúkfa is Hitchiti, for (1) shell (2) metallic ornament of concave shape Hawkins interprets the name by “gorget made of a conch.” In Hitchiti, bend of river is hátchi paχutchki ha’htchafáshki, hatsafáski is river-bend in Creek. Tohopeka is another name for this battlefield, but does not belong to the Creek language.

Intatchkálgi, or “collection of beaver dams,” a Yuchi town of Georgia settled twenty-eight miles up Opil-‘láko Creek, a tributary of Flint River. A square was built by the fourteen families of this town in 1798. Tátchki means anything straight, as a dam, beaver dam, line, boundary line, etc., íkan’-tátchka survey-line the above creek was probably Beaver- dam creek, an eastern tributary of Flint river, joining it about 32° 15’ Lat.

Ipisógi, an Upper Creek town upon Ipisógi Creek, a large eastern tributary of Tallapoosa river, joining it opposite Okfuski. Forty settlers in 1799. Cf. Pin-hóti.

Istapóga, an Upper Creek settlement not recorded in the earlier documents a place of this name exists now east of Coosa river, Talladega county, Alabama. The name, usually written Eastaboga, signifies: “where people reside ” (isti people apókita to reside).

Ístudshi-läika, or “child lying there,” a Hillabi village, on Hillabi creek, four miles below Hillabi town. It owes its name to the circumstance that a child was found on its site.

Ka-iläidshi, an Upper Creek town, on a creek of the same name, which joins Oktchóyi Creek, a western tributary of Tallapoosa River, joining it fifteen miles above Tukabatchi. The two villages, Atchina Hátchi and Hátchi tchápa, branched off from this town. The name was variously written Ki-a-li-ge, Kiliga, Killeegko, Kio-lege, and probably referred to a warrior’s head dress: íka his head, iläídshäs I kill.

Kan’-tcháti, Kansháde, “Red dirt,” “Red earth,” an Upper Creek town, mentioned in 1835 as “Conchant-ti.” Conchardee is a place a few miles north west of Talladega.

Kasí’hta, a Lower Creek town on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi River, two and a half miles below Kawíta Talahássi Kasí’hta once claimed the lands above the falls of the Chatahuchi river on its eastern bank. In this town and tribe our migration legend has taken its origin. Its branch settlements spread out on the right side of the river, the number of the warriors of the town and branches being estimated at 180 in 1799 it was considered the largest among the Lower Creeks. The natives were friendly to the whites and fond of visiting them the old chiefs were orderly men, desirous and active in restraining the young “braves” from the licentiousness which they had contracted through their intercourse with the scum of the white colonists. Hawkins makes some strictures at their incompetency for farming “they do not know the season for planting, or, if they do, they never avail themselves of what they know, as they always plant one month too late” (p. 59). A large conical mound is described by him as standing on the Kasí’hta fields, forty-five yards in diameter at its base, and flat on the top. Below the town was the “old Cussetuh town,” on a high flat, and afterwards “a Chicasaw town ” occupied this site (p. 58). A branch village of Kasí’hta is Apata-i, q. v. The name Kasí’hta, Kasíχta, is popularly explained as “coming from the sun” (ha si) and being identical with hasí’hta. The Creeks infer, from the parallel Creek form hasóti, “sunshine,” that Kasí’hta really meant “light,” or “bright splendor of the sun” anciently, this term was used for the sun him self, “as the old people say.” The inhabitants of the town believed that they came from the sun. Cf. Yuchi. A place Cusseta is now in Chatahuchi County, Georgia, 32° 20’ Lat.

Kawäiki, a town of the Lower Creeks, having forty-five heads of families in 1832. Kawäiki Creek is named after quails.

Kawíta, a Lower Creek town on the high western bank of Chatahuchi River, three miles below its falls. The fishery in the western channel of the river, below the falls, belonged to Kawíta, that in the eastern channel to Kasi hta. In Hawkins time (1799) many Indians had settled on streams in the vicinity, as at Hátchi íka, “Creek-Head.” Probably a colony of Kawíta Talahássi.

Kawíta Talahássi, “old Kawíta Town,” a Lower Creek town two miles and a half below Kawíta, on the western side of the river, and half a mile from it. Old Kawíta town was the “public establishment” of the Lower Creeks, and in 1799 could raise sixty-five warriors it was also the seat of the United States agent. Kawita Talahássi had branched off by segmentation from Kasi’hta, as shown in the migration legend, and itself has given origin to a village called Witumka, on Big Yuchi Creek. The town was a political centre for the nation, and is referred to by the traveler Wm. Bartram (1775), p. 389. 463, in the following terms: “The great Coweta town, on Chatahuchi or Apalachucly River, twelve miles above Apalachucla town, is called the bloody town, where the micos, chiefs and warriors assemble, when a general war is proposed, and here captives and state malefactors are put to death. Coweta speaks the Muscogulgee tongue.” Colden, Five Nations, p. 5, mentions an alliance concluded between the Iroquois of New York and the Cowetas but here the name Cowetas is used in the wider sense of Creek Indians or Lower Creek Indians. The Creek form is Kawítagi, or ísti Kawítagi. Written Caouita by French authors. Cf. Apalatchúkla.

Kitcha-patáki, an Upper Creek town, now name of a Creek settlement in the Indian Territory. From kítcha “maize-pounding block of wood” patáki “spreading out” Kitcha-patáki creek joins Tallapoosa River from the west a few miles below Okfuskee, in Randolph county, Alabama.

Koassáti, an Upper Creek town. Cf. special article on this tribe, pp. 89. 90.

Kulumi, Upper Creek town on right side of Tallapoosa River, small and compact, below Fusi-hátehi and contiguous to it. A conical mound, thirty feet in diameter, was seen by Hawkins, opposite the “town-house.” A part of the inhabitants had settled on Likasa Creek. The signification of the name is unknown, but it may have connection with a ‘hkolúmās clinch (prefix a- for ani I). Of the “old Coolome town,” which stood on the opposite shore of Tallapoosa River, a few houses were left at the time of Bartram’s visit, c. 1775 (Travels, P- 395).

Kúsa, (1) an old capital of the Creek people, referred to as Coca by the historians of de Soto s expedition, on the eastern bank of Coosa River, between Yufala and Natche Creeks, which join Coosa River from the east, a quarter of a mile apart. 2 The town stood on a high hill in the midst of a rich limestone country, forty miles above Pakan-Talahássi and sixty above Taskigi, q. v. Bartram saw it (1775), half deserted and in ruins. “The great and old beloved town of refuge, Koosah, which stands high on the eastern side of a bold river, about two hundred and fifty yards broad, that runs by the late dangerous Alebahma fort, down to the black poisoning Mobille, and so into the gulf of Mexico:” Adair, History, p. 395. This town, which was also, as it seems, the sojourning place of Tristan de Luna s expedition (1559), must have been one of the earliest centers of the Maskoki people, though it does not appear among its “four leading towns”. Its inhabitants may at one time have been comprised under the people of the neighboring Abi hka town, q. v. Kosa is the name of a small forest-bird, resembling a sparrow but the name of the town and river could possibly be an ancient form of ō’sa, ōsá, ‘osá poke or pokeweed, a plant with red berries, which grows plentifully and to an enormous height throughout the South. Cf. Coosa River. It is more probable, however, that the name is of Cha’hta origin cf. (3).

(2) A town, “Old Kusa” or “Coussas old village,” is reported a short distance below Fort Toulouse, on the northern shore of Alabama River, between Taskigi and Koassáti. It was, perhaps, from this place that the Alabama River was, in earlier times, called Coosa or Coussa River, but since Hawkins and others make no mention of this town, I surmise that it was identical with Koassáti, the name being an abbreviation from the latter.

(3) The Kusa, Cusha or Coosa towns, on the Kusa Creeks, formed a group of the eastern Cha’hta settlements. From Cha’hta kush reed, cane which corresponds to the kóa, kóe of Creek. Cf. p. 108.

Lá’lo-kálka, “Fish- Pond Town,” or “Fish-Ponds,” an Upper Creek town on a small creek forming ponds, fourteen miles above its junction with Alkohátchi, a stream running into Tallapoosa River from the west, four miles above Okfuski. The name is abbreviated from ‘lá’lo-akálka fish separated, placed apart from lá’lo fish, akálgas I am separated from. This was a colony planted by Oktcháyi Indians, q. v.

‘Lánudshi apála, or “beyond a little mountain,” a Hillabi place fifteen miles from that town and on the northwest branch of Hillabi creek had a “town-house” or public square.

Láp’láko, or “Tall Cane,” “Big Reed,” the name of two villages of the Upper Creeks, mentioned in 1832. Lap is a tall cane, from which sarbacanes or blow-guns are made.

‘Le-kátchka, ‘Li-i-kátchka, or “Broken Arrow,” a Lower Creek town on a ford of the southern trail, which crossed Chatahuchi river at this point, twelve miles below Kasihta and Kawíta (Swan, 1791). Bartram calls it Tukauska, Swan: Chalagatsca. Called so because reeds were obtained there for manufacturing arrow shafts.

Lutchapóga, or “Terrapin-Resort,” an Upper Creek town, probably near Tallapoosa River. The village Atchina-álgi was settled by natives of this town (Hawkins, p. 47), but afterwards incorporated with Okfuski. Also mentioned in the Census list of 1832. A place called Loachapoka is now in Lee County, Alabama, about halfway between Montgomery and West Point. From lútcha terrapin, póka killing-place póyäs I destroy, kill póka occurs only in compound words.

H. S. Tanner’s map (1827) marks an Indian town Luchepoga on west bank of Tallapoosa River, about ten miles above Tukabatchi Talahássi also Luchanpogan Creek, as a western tributary of Chatahuchi River, in 33° 8’ Lat., just below Chatahuchi town.

Muklása, a small Upper Creek town one mile below Sawanógi and on the same side of Tallapoosa River. In times of freshet the river spreads here nearly eight miles from bank to bank. Bartram states, that Mucclasse speaks the “Stincard tongue,” and the list of 1832 writes “Muckeleses.” They are Alibamu, and a town of that name is in the Indian Territory. ” The Wolf-king, our old, steady friend of the Amooklasah Town, near the late Alebahma” (Adair, History, p. 277). The name points to the Imuklásha, a division of the Cha’hta people imúkla is the “opposite people,” referring to the two iksa, Kasháp-ukla and Ukla inhula’hta. Cf. Cha’hta, p. 104, and Mugulasha, p. in. 112.

Natche (better Náktche), on “Natche Creek, five miles above Abikú’dshi, scattering for two miles on a rich flat below the fork of the creek, which is an eastern tributary of Upper Coosa river.” 3 Peopled by the remainder of the Naktche tribe on Mississippi River, and containing from fifty to one hundred warriors in 1799. The root tálua was dug by them in this vicinity. Bartram states, that “Natchez speak Muscogee and Chicasaw” (1775).

Niuyáχa, village of the Upper Creeks, settled by Tukpáf ka Indians in 1777, twenty miles above Okfuski, on the east bank of Tallapoosa River. It was called so after the Treaty of New York, concluded between the United States Government and the Creek confederacy, at a date posterior to the settlement of this town, August 7th, 1790.

Nofápi Creek, an affluent of Yufábi creek. Cf. Yufábi, and Annotations to the Legend.

Odshi-apófa, or “Hickory-Ground,” an Upper Creek town on the eastern bank of Coosa River, two miles above the fork of the river from ō’dshi hickory, ápi tree, stem, trunk, -ófi, -ófan, a suffix pointing to locality. The falls of Coosa River, one mile above the town, can be easily passed in canoes, either up or down. The town had forty warriors at the time of Hawkins visit (1799). Identical with Little Tálisi Milfort, p. 27: “le petit Talessy ou village des Noyers.” A map of this section will be found in Schoolcraft, Indians, V, 255. Literally: “in the hickory grove.”

Okfuski (better Akáska), an Upper Creek town, erected on both sides of Tallapoosa River, about thirty-five miles above Tukabatchi. The Indians settled on the eastern side came from Chatahuchi River, and had founded on it three villages, Che’láko-Ni’ni, Hu’li-täiga, Tchúka láko, q. v. In 1799 Okfuski (one hundred and eighty warriors) with its seven branch villages on Tallapoosa River (two hundred and seventy warriors) was considered the largest community of the confederacy. The shrub Ilex cassine was growing there in clumps. These seven villages were: Niuyáχa, Tukábatchi Talahássi, Imúkfa, Tuχtokági, Atchina-álgi, Ipisógi, Suka-ispóka. The Creek term akáska, akfúski signifies point, tongue of a confluence, promontory, from ak- down in, fáski sharp, pointed. Tallapoosa River was also called Okfuski river.

Okfuskú’dshi, or “Little Okfuski,” a part of a small village four miles above Niuyáχa. Some of these people formerly inhabited Okfuski-Níni, on Chatahuchi River, but were driven from there by Georgian volunteers in 1793. Cf. Che’láko-Níni.

Oki-tiyákni, a lower Creek village on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi River, eight miles below Yufála. Hawkins writes it O-ke-teyoc-en-ni, and Morse, Report, p. 364, mentions among the Seminole settlements, “Oka-tiokinans, near Fort Gaines.” Oki-tiyakni, a Hitchiti term, means either whirlpool, or river-bend.

Okmúlgi (i), a Lower Creek town on the east side of Flint River, near Hótali huyána. The name signifies bubbling, boiling water,” from H. oki water múlgis it is boiling, in Creek and Hitchiti.

(2) East of Flint River is Okmulgi River, which, after joining Little Okmulgi and Okoni Rivers, forms Altamaha River.

Okóni, a small Lower Creek town, six miles below Apalachukla, on the western bank of Chatahuchi River settled by immigrants from a locality below the Rock Landing on Okoni River, Georgia. They spoke the “Stincard tongue,” and probably were Apalachians of the Hitchiti-Mikasuki dialect. Cf. Cuscowilla, under the head of: Seminole. The name is the Cheroki term ekuóni river, from ékua great, large, viz.: “great water.” Bartram, who encamped on the site of the old Okoni town on Okoni River, states (Travels, p. 378), that the Indians abandoned that place about 1710, on account of the vicinity of the white colonists, and built a town among the Upper Creeks. Their roving disposition impelled them to leave this settlement also, and to migrate to the fertile Alachua plains, where they built Cuscowilla on the banks of a lake, and had to defend it against the attacks of the Tomocos, Utinas, Calloosas (?), Yamases and other remnant tribes of Florida, and the more northern refugees from Carolina, all of whom were helped by the Spaniards. Being reinforced by other Indians from the Upper Creek towns, “their uncles,” they repulsed the aggressors and destroyed their villages, as well as those of the Spaniards. This notice probably refers to the Indian troubles with the Yamassi, which occurred long before 1710, since inroads are recorded as early as 1687. Hawkins, p. 65, states that the town they formerly occupied on Okoni river stood just below the Rock Landing, once the site of a British post about four miles below Milledgeville, Georgia.

Oktcháyi, an Upper Creek town built along Oktchayi Creek, a western tributary of Tallapoosa River. The town, mentioned as Oak-tchoy in 1791, lay three miles below K iläidshi, in the central district. Cf. ‘La’lo-kálka. Milfort, Memoire, p. 266. 267, calls the tribe: les Oxiailles.

Oktchayú dshi , a “little compact town” of the Upper Creek Indians, on the eastern bank of Coosa River, between Otchi-apófa and Taskigi, its cabins joining those of the latter town. Their maize fields lay on the same side of the river, on the Sambelo grounds, below Sambelo Creek. They removed their village to the eastern side of Tallapoosa River on account of former Chicasa raids. The name of the town, “Little Oktchayi,” proves it to be a colony or branch of Oktchayi, q. v. PI. Porter says it is a branch of Okfuski.

Opi’–‘láko, or “Big Swamp,” from opílua swamp, ‘láko large, (1) An Upper Creek town on a stream of the same name, which joins Pákan-‘Talahássi creek on its left side. The town was twenty miles from Coosa River its tribe is called Pinclatchas by C. Swan (1791).

(2) A locality west of Kasi’hta cf. Tálisi.

(3) A stream running into Flint River, Georgia. Cf. Intatchkálgi.

Ósotchi, Ósotchi, Ósudshi, or Úsutcki, a Lower Creek town about two miles below Yuchi town, on the western bank of Chatahuchi River, whose inhabitants migrated to this place in 1794 from Flint River. The town adjoins that of Chiaha Bartram calls it Hoositchi. The descendants of it and of Chiaha have consolidated into one town in the Creek Nation, Indian Territory. Cf. Hawkins, p. 63.

Padshiläika, or ” Pigeon Roost” (1) a Yuchi town on the junction of Padshiläika creek with Flint River, Macon County, Georgia, about 32° 38’ Lat. The village suffered heavily by the loss of sixteen warriors, who were murdered by Benjamin Harrison and his associates cf. Hawkins, p. 62 sq.

(2) Padshiläika River was the name of the western branch of Conecuh river, in Southern Alabama, Covington County, which runs into Escambia River and Pensacola bay. From pádshi pigeon, and láikäs I sit down, am sitting.

Pakan’-Talahássi, Upper Creek town on a creek of the same name, which joins Coosa River from the east, forty miles below Kusa town. From ipákana, may apple, itálua town, hássi ancient, in the sense of waste. G. W. Stidham interprets the name: “Old Peach Orchard Town.”

Pin’-hóti, or “Turkey-Home,” an Upper Creek town on the right side of a small tributary of Ipisógi creek cf. Ipisógi. The trail from Niuyáχa to Kawita Talahássi passed through this settlement. From pínua turkey, húti, hóti home.

Pótchus’-hátchi , Upper Creek town in the central district, on a stream of the same name, which joins Coosa River from the northeast, four miles below Pákan’-Tala-hássi. The town was in Coosa or Talladega County, Alabama, forty miles above the junction the name signifies “Hatchet-Stream”: potchúsua hatchet, ax hátchi water-course.

Sakapatáyi, Upper Creek town in the central district, now Socopatoy, on a small eastern tributary of Pótchus’-hátchi, or Hatchet Creek, Coosa County, Alabama pronounced also Sakapató-i by Creek Indians. Probably refers to water-lilies covering the surface of a pond, the seeds of them being eaten by the natives from sak-patákäs I lie inside (a covering, blanket, etc.) A legend, which evidently originated from the name already existing, relates that wayfarers passing there had left a large provision -basket (sáka) at this locality, which was upset and left rotting, so that finally it became flattened out: from patäidshäs I spread out something patáyi, partic. pass., shaken out.

Sauga Hátchi, Upper Creek town on a stream of the same name, which runs into Tallapoosa River from the east, ten miles below Yufala. In 1799 the thirty young men of this place had joined Tálisi town. Hawkins, p. 49, renders the name by “cymbal creek.” Sauga is a hard-shelled fruit or gourd, similar to a cocoanut, used for making rattles saúkäs I am rattling.

Sawanógi, or “Sháwano,” a town settled by Shawano-Algonkins, but belonging to the Creek confederacy. It stood on the left or southern side of Tallapoosa River, three miles below Likasa creek. The inhabitants (in 1799) retained the customs and language of their countrymen in the northwest, and had joined them in their late war against the United States. Some Yuchi Indians lived among them. The “town-house” was an oblong square cabin, roof “eight feet pitch,” sides and roof covered with pine-bark. Cf. Ikan’-hátki.

Sawokli, or Great Sáwokli, Sá-ukli, a Lower Creek town, six miles below Okoni, on the west bank of Chatahuchi River, and four miles and a half above Wiláni (“Yellow Water”) Creek junction. The Hitchiti word sáwi means racoon, úkli town and both Sawokli towns spoke the “Stincard tongue” (Bartram). Called Chewakala in 1791 Swaglaw, etc. Among the Hitchiti the míkalgi were appointed from the racoon gens only.

Sawokli-ti dshi, or “Little Sawokli,” a Lower Creek town on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi river, four miles below Okoni town contained about twenty families in 1799. About 1865 both Sawokli towns in the Indian Territory have disbanded into the Tálua ‘láko cf. Apalatchúkla.

Suka-ispóka, or Suka-ispóka, called “Hog Range” by the traders, a small Upper Creek village situated on the western bank of Upper Tallapoosa River, twelve miles above Okfuski its inhabitants had in 1799 moved, for the larger part, to Imukfa. It is the place called else where Soguspogus, Sokaspoge, Hog Resort, the name meaning literally: “hog-killing place.” Cf. Lutchapóga.

Talatigi, now Talladega, an Upper Creek settlement in the central district east of Coosa River. A battle was fought there November 7th, 1813. The name signifies “border town,” from itálua town and atígi at the end, on the border cf. atígi “it is the last one, it forms the extremity.” Cf. Kúsa (i).

Tálisi, abbrev. Tálisi, or: “Old Town,” a contraction of the term itálua hássi a town of the Upper Creeks on the eastern bank of Tallapoosa River, opposite Tukabatchi, in the fork of Yufábi Creek. In Hawkins time the natives of this place had for the larger part left the town and settled up Yufábi Creek, and the chief, Hobo-i li miko, was at variance with the United States and Spanish colonial authorities. The traders trail from Kasi’hta to the Upper Creek settlements crossed Yufábi Creek twice at the “Big Swamp,” Opil’-‘láko. The Census of 1832 calls Tálisi: “Big Tallassie or the Halfway House.”

Tálisi, Little, a town of the Upper Creeks, identical with Odshi-apófa, q. v.

Tallapoosa River, a considerable tributary of Alabama River, full of rocks, shoals and falls down to Tukabatchi town for thirty miles from here to its junction with the Coosa, it becomes deep and quiet. The Hitchiti form of the name is Talepúsi cf. Okfuski. A little village named Tallapoosa lies on the headwaters of Tallapoosa River, from which the river perhaps received its name cf. talepúli stranger (in Creek).

Tálua ‘láko, properly Itálua ‘láko, “the Great Town,” the popular name of Apalatchúkla, q. v., the latter being no longer heard at the present time.

Tálua mútchási, (1) The new name for Tukabatchi Talahássi, q. v. It is commonly abbreviated into Tal-modshási ” Newtown. From itálua town, mutchási new. (2) A Lower Creek town, on west shore of Chatahuchi River, mentioned by Morse (1822) as: Telmocresses, among the Seminole towns.

Támá’li, a Lower Creek town on Chatahuchi River, seven miles from Odshísi (Morse, Report, p. 364). Hawkins writes it Tum-mult-lau, and makes it a Seminole town. Probably a Cheroki name there was on the southern shore of Tennessee River, between Ballplay Creek and Toskegee, a settlement called Tom motley town in early maps cf. Jefferys Atlas of N. America (map of 1762).

Taskigi or Tuskiki, a little, ancient Upper Creek town, built near the site of the former French Fort Toulouse, at the confluence of Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers. It stood on the high shore of Coosa Civer, forty-six feet above its waters, where the two rivers approach each other within a quarter of a mile, to curve out again. On this bluff are also five conic mounds, the largest thirty yards in diameter at the base. The town, of 35 warriors, had lost its ancient language and spoke the Creek (1799). The noted A. MacGillivray, head chief of the Creeks in the latter part of the eighteenth century, or as he was styled, “Emperor of the Creek Nation,” lived at Taskigi, where he owned a house and property along Coosa River, half a league from Fort Toulouse Milfort, Memoire, p. 27. On the immigration of the tribe, cf. Milfort, pp. 266. 267.

The name of the town may be explained as: “jumping men, jumpers” from Cr. tāska-is, tā’skäs I jump (tulúp-kalis in Hitchiti) or be considered an abbreviated form of táskalgi warriors cf. taskáya citizen (Creek), and Hawkins, Sketch, p. 70. But since the town formerly spoke another language, it is, in view of the frequency of Cheroki names in the Creek country, appropriate to regard Taskigi as linguistically identical with “Toskegee,” a Cheroki town on Great Tennessee River, southern shore, mentioned by several authors, and appearing on Lieutenant H. Timberlake’s map in his Memoir, reproduced in Jefferys Topography (Atlas) of North America, dated March, 1762.

Tchúka ‘láko, or “Great Cabin” of the public square,

(1) A Lower Creek town on Chatahuchi river, settled by Okfuski Indians.

(2) A place of the same name is mentioned in the Census of 1832 as an Upper Creek town.

Tokogálgi, or “tadpole place,” a small Yuchi settlement on Kitchofuni Creek, a northern affluent of Flint River, Georgia, which joins it about 31° 40’ Lat. Beaver dams existed on branches of Kitchofuni creek cf. Hawkins, p. 63. The present Creeks call a tadpole tokiúlga.

Tukabatchi, an Upper Creek town built upon the western bank of Tallapoosa River, and two miles and a half below its falls, which are forty feet in fifty yards. Opposite was Tálisi town, q. v. Tukabatchi was an ancient capital, decreasing in population in Hawkins time, but still able to raise one hundred and sixteen warriors. The town suffered much in its later wars with the Chicasa. Cf. Hú’li-Wáli. The traders trail crossed the Tallapoosa River at this place. Bartram (1775) states that Tuccabatche spoke Muscogulge, and the Census of 1832 considers it the largest town among the Creeks, with three hundred and eighty-six houses. Here, as at a national centre, the Shawano leader, Tecumseh, held his exciting orations against the United States Government, which prompted the Upper Creeks to rise in arms (1813). Tugibaχtchi, Tukipá’htchi, and Tukipáχtchi are the ancient forms of the name (Stidham), which is of foreign origin. The inhabitants believe that their ancestors fell from the sky, or according to others, came from the sun. Another tale is, that they did not originate on this continent that when they arrived from their country they landed at the “Jagged Rock,” Tcháto tchaχaχa ‘láko, and brought the metallic plates with them, which they preserve to the present day with anxious care. In Adair s time (cf. Adair, History, pp. 178. 179, in Note) they consisted of five copper and two brass plates, and were, according to Old Bracket s ac count, preserved under the “beloved cabbin in Tuccabatchey Square” (A. D. 1759). Bracket’s forefathers told him that they were given to the tribe “by the man we call God,” and that the Tukabatchi were a people different from the Creeks. The plates are mentioned in Schoolcraft s Indians, V, 283 (C. Swan’s account), and rough sketches of them are given in Adair, 1. 1. They appear to be of Spanish origin, and are produced at the busk. The town anciently was known under two other names: Ispokógi, Itálua ispokógi, said to mean “town of survivors,” or “surviving town, remnant of a town” and Itálua fátcha-sígo, “incorrect town, town deviating from strictness.” With this last appellation we may compare the Spanish village-name Villa Viciosa.

On national councils held there, cf. Hawkins, Sketch, p. 51 (in the year 1799) and Milfort, p. 40 (in the year 1780) and p. 266.

Tukabátchi Talahássi, or “old town of Tukabatchi,” an Upper Creek town on west side of Tallapoosa River, four miles above Niuyáχa. Since 1797 it received a second name, that of Tálua mutchási or “new town.” The Census list of 1832 calls it Talmachussa, Swan in 1791: Tuckabatchee Teehassa.

Tukpáfka, “Spunk-knot,” a village on Chatahuchi River, Tukpáfka in 1832, from which was settled the town of Niuyáχa, q. v. A creek of the same name is a tributary of Potchus’ -Hátchi, q. v. Tukpáfka, not Tutpáfka, is the correct form it means punky wood, spunky rotten wood, tinder.

Tuχtokági, or “Corn cribs set up” by the Okfuski natives to support themselves during the hunting season, was an Upper Creek town on the western bank of Tallapoosa River, twenty miles above Niuyáχa. The trail from Hillabi to Etowa in the Cheroki Country passed this town, which is near a spur of mountains. Mentioned as “Corn House” in the Census list of 1832, as Totokaga in 1791. Tuχtu means a crib kági is the past participle of kákīs, q. v.

Tutalósi , a branch village of Hitchiti town. Cf. Hitchiti, p. 77. The Creek word Tutalósi means chicken, in Hitchiti tatayáhi its inhabitants, who had no town square, are called by the people speaking Hitchiti: Tatayáhukli.

Úktaha-sási, or “Sand-Heap,” two miles from Hillabi town, of which it was a branch or colony. Cf. Hillabi. If the name was pronounced Úktaha lási, it is “sand-lick.”

U-i-ukúfki, Uyukúfki, an Upper Creek town, on a creek of the same name, a tributary of Hatchet Creek (Hawkins, p. 42) Wiogúfka (1832). The name points to muddy water: o-íwa water, ukúfki muddy and is also the Creek name for the Mississippi River. Exists now in Indian Territory. Cf. Potchus’-hátchi.

Wako-káyi, Waχoka-i, or “Blow-horn Nest,” an Upper Creek town on Tukpáfka creek, a branch of Potchus -Hátchi, a water-course which joins Coosa River from the east. Also written Wolkukay by cartographers Wacacoys, in Census List of 1832 Wiccakaw by Bartram (1775). Wako is a species of heron, bluish-grey, 2’ high káyi breeding-place. Another “Wacacoys” is mentioned, in 1832, as situated on Lower Coosa River, below Witumka.

Watúla Hóka hátchi. The location of this stream is marked by Watoola village, which is situated on a run joining Big Yuchi Creek in a southern course, about eighteen miles west of Chatahuchi river, on the road between Columbus, Ga., and Montgomery, Ala.

Wi-kai láko, or “Large Spring,” a Lower Creek or Seminole town, referred to by Morse under the name Wekivas. From u-íwa, abbrev. ú-i water, káyi rising, ‘láko great, large. A Creek town in the Indian Territory bears the same name.

Witumka, (1) Upper Creek town on the rapids of Coosa River, east side, near its junction with Tallapoosa. Hawkins does not mention this old settlement, but Bartram, who traveled from 1773 to 1778, quotes Whittumke among the Upper Creek towns speaking the “Stincard tongue,” which in this instance was the Koassáti dialect.

(2) A branch town of Kawita Talahássi, and twelve miles from it, on Witumka Creek, the main fork of Yuchi Creek. The place had a town house, and extended for three miles up the creek. The name signifies “rumbling water” from ú-i, abbrev. from u-íwa “water,” and túmkls “it rumbles, makes noise.”

Witumka Creek, called Owatunka River in the migration legend, is the northern and main branch of Yuchi Creek, which runs into the Chatahuchi River from the north west, and joins it about 32° 18’ Lat. The other branch was Little Yuchi Creek or Hosapo-läíki cf. Note to Hawkins, p. 61.

Wiwúχka, or Wiwóka, Upper Creek town on Wiwóka Creek, an eastern tributary of Coosa River, joining it about ten miles above Witumka. The town was fifteen miles above Odshi-apófa, and in 1799 numbered forty warriors. Called Weeokee in 1791 it means: “water roaring,”: ú-i water, woχkis it is roaring.

Woksoyú’dshi, an Upper Creek town, mentioned in the Census List of 1832 as “Waksoyochees, on Lower Coosa river, below Wetumka.”

Yuchi, a town of foreign extraction belonging to the Lower Creeks has branched out into three other villages. Cf. Yuchi, p. 21.

Yufábibi creek, an eastern tributary of Tallapoosa River, joining it a short distance from Tukabatchi. Nofápi Creek, mentioned in the legend, is now Uaufaba creek, an upper branch of “Ufaupee Creek,” joining it in a southwestern direction.

Yufála, (1) Y. or Yufála Hátchi, Upper Creek town on Yufála creek, fifteen miles above its confluence with Coosa River. Called Upper Ufala in 1791,

(2) Upper Creek town on the west bank of Tallapoosa River, two miles below Okfuski in the air line.

(3) town of the Lower Creeks, fifteen miles below Sawokli, on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi river. In 1799 the natives had spread out down to the forks of the river in several villages, and many had Negro slaves, taken during the Revolutionary war. The Census of 1832 counted 229 heads of families. This name, of unknown signification, is written Eufaula.


Search Hastain's Township Plats of the Creek Nation

Hastain's Township Plats of the Creek Nation was published by E. Hastain in Muskogee, Oklahoma, in 1910. This publication shows the location of allotments given to members of the Creek Nation. This database includes notations taken directly from the printed book, which lists the names of allottees, their roll number, and if the allotment was the location of the homestead. Many individuals received allotments in more than one location. This database is a complement to the Dawes Final Rolls, which lists individuals who were officially recognized as citizens of one of the Five Tribes.

The following abbreviations are used:

  • C. Creek by blood
  • F. Freedman
  • MC. Minor Creek
  • NBC. New Born Creek
  • NBF. New Born Freedman
  • (d) Deceased
  • (h) Homestead


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