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Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco
The Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco, Mexico City, is the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas  and the first major school of interpreters and translators in the New World.  It was established by the Franciscans on January 6, 1536  with the intention, as is generally accepted, of preparing Native American boys for eventual ordination to the Catholic priesthood.   Students trained in the Colegio were important contributors to the work of Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún in the creation of his monumental twelve-volume General History of the Things of New Spain, often referred to as the Florentine Codex. The failure of the Colegio had long-lasting consequences, with scholar Robert Ricard saying that "[h]ad the College of Tlatelolco given the country even one [native] bishop, the history of the Mexican Church might have been profoundly changed." 
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Orchestra, instrumental ensemble of varying size and composition. Although applied to various ensembles found in Western and non-Western music, orchestra in an unqualified sense usually refers to the typical Western music ensemble of bowed stringed instruments complemented by wind and percussion instruments that, in the string section at least, has more than one player per part. The word stems from the Greek orchēstra, the circular part of the ancient Greek theatre in front of the proscenium in which the dancers and instrumentalists performed.
Antecedents of the modern symphony orchestra appeared about 1600, the most notable early example being the ensemble required in the Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi’s opera Orfeo. In the late 17th century, the French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully directed for the royal court an orchestra dominated by stringed instruments but including woodwinds, such as oboes and bassoons, and sometimes also flutes and horns. In the 18th century in Germany, Johann Stamitz and other composers in what is known as the Mannheim school established the basic composition of the modern symphony orchestra: four sections, consisting of woodwinds (flutes, oboes, and bassoons), brass (horns and trumpets), percussion (two timpani), and strings (first and second violins, violas, cellos, and double basses). Clarinets were adopted into the orchestra during this period, while earlier mainstays, such as the harpsichord, lute, and theorbo (a bass lute), were gradually phased out.
The 19th century was a fertile period for the orchestra. Woodwinds were increased from two to typically three or four of each instrument, and the brass section was augmented by a third trumpet, third and fourth horns, and the inclusion of trombones. Composers such as Hector Berlioz, Richard Wagner, Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, and—into the 20th century—Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, and Igor Stravinsky postulated, and in many instances created, orchestras of unprecedented size and tonal resources. The large orchestra typical of the late 19th through the mid-20th century incorporated an average of 100 performers and might include a wide variety of instruments and devices required in specific works. In the 1920s, however, many composers began to turn toward smaller, chamber-size ensembles, sometimes maintaining and sometimes discarding the traditional instrumental complements.
Until the mid-1900s, Yucatán’s only contact with the outside world was by sea. As a result, Yucatán’s trade with the United States, Europe and Caribbean islands was far more lucrative than that of all other Mexican states. Yucatán was linked to the rest of Mexico by railway in the 1950s and by highway a decade later. Today, Yucatán’s culture remains unique from that of other Mexican states.
In the 1960s, the first commercial jet airplanes arrived in Mérida. International airports were built in Cozumel and Cancún in the 1980s, bringing significant tourist income to the region. The Yucatán peninsula, which supports one of the largest indigenous populations in Mexico, also accomodates the state’s largest tourist volume.
For centuries, gubernatorial elections were based primarily on the purity of the candidates’ Hispanic ancestry. However, this led to corruption and the oppression of Yucatán’s majority population — those of indigenous ancestry. The first governor of Yucatán born of pure Mayan descent, Francisco Luna Kan, was elected in 1976. His victory represented a political break from tradition.
Musicians Institute offers a wide variety of areas of concentration in the field of contemporary music. Study music with some of the best working musicians in the world.
Musicians Institute’s Music Artist Programs are a unique combination of contemporary music performance and rigorous education in traditional music disciplines. Performance programs in our music college include five major instruments of study:
Musicians Institutes Production Programs of our music school prepare graduates for careers in today’s music industry by providing in-depth training in essential techniques here in our music college, as well as hands-on experience in state of the art facilities. As one of the best music schools, our production programs include:
Musicians Institutes Industry Programs of our music school prepare graduates for a career in two fields Guitar Craft (Luthier Program) and Music Business. Students graduate from our music college with real world experience and connections to make them successful in the Industry that they love.
The Musicians Institute Academy is a performance-based music education program designed to guide and inspire young people (and beyond) as they find their voices as musicians. The Saturday Academy classes were created to allow students to practice their passion at their own pace, where they will receive private lessons, open counseling, lessons in video techniques, branding, and more.
PRO TOOLS CERTIFICATION
The Avid Pro Tools® certification courses are non-accredited courses designed for those who wish to acquire their Avid User and/or Operator Certification through weekend classes at Musicians Institute in Hollywood, CA.
GUITAR CRAFT NASHVILLE
Musicians Institute’s Guitar Craft Academy Nashville is dedicated to inspiring excellence in the art of guitar building and design, while preparing students for careers in the music industry.
MI Online is the online content provider of Musicians Institute. Through live lectures and virtual classrooms, MI Online provides real-world, artist-driven, and authentic learning opportunities available to anyone — from anywhere.
What Subjects Do Students in Mexico Study?
Mexican primary schools begin at grade one and finish after grade six. Learning a second language for Mexican students in mandatory. Most students choose to study English, but other languages are also offered. In the interest of increasing fluency and making students more available for work in other countries, most Mexican school days are divided, with half the lessons being taught in Spanish, and the other half in the second language that the student is learning. Some students study native Mexican languages like Tzoltzil or Tzeltzal.
Once students reach middle school, their subjects become more focused and less general, as they have covered most of the basics. Middle school or "Secundaria" as it is known is where students go more in-depth in their study of Mexican history, world history, science, mathematics and literature. Remote online courses called "Telesecunderia" are offered for the student population in Mexico who live in extremely rural areas and who have limited access to education in their district.
After Secundaria students move on to high school or "prepatoria." As the name indicates, the high school in Mexico is intended for students who are preparing to enter university either in Mexico or abroad. The high school has very recently become a mandatory requirement for all students. All students are expected to complete their education up through the 12th grade.
Government. Mexico is a federal republic—hence its official name Estados Unidos Mexicanos —operating under a centralized government. Governmental powers at the federal level are divided between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, but in political practice the executive, that is, the presidency, has had strong control over the legislative branch. Only in recent years has the legislative branch seen its power increase because of the strengthening of the multiparty system. The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year period and is both the chief of state and head of government. The president appoints cabinet members. The legislative branch is a bicameral National Congress consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Chamber of Deputies has five hundred members, elected for three-year terms the Senate has 128 members, elected for six-year terms. In the judicial branch the Supreme Court of Justice is the highest tribunal.
The federation is made up of thirty-one states and the Federal District (the capital). Each state has a governor, who serves a six-year term, and a unicameral legislature. Both are elected by popular vote. Before 1997, the chief of the Federal District was appointed by the president, but has since been elected directly by popular vote. The Federal District also has an Assembly of Representatives. The local administrative level is the municipality, which is governed by a popularly elected mayor and a municipal council for three-year terms. Suffrage is universal and mandatory (but not enforced) for those over the age of eighteen.
Leadership and Political Officials. The modern presidency stands in a long tradition of pre-Columbian rulers ( tlatoani ), Spanish colonial viceroys, and nineteenth century and revolutionary caudillos . The president holds great discretionary powers. Power and leadership are attained through the management of personal relations, which are ruled by principles of loyalty, trust, and reciprocity. These informal networks are interconnected in a pyramidal way and form the real centers of decision making. Vertical patron-client relations can be found in all segments of society. Interactions between politicians, union leaders, top bureaucrats, and ordinary people also take place through these networks. In recent years, academic credentials and technocratic knowledge have become more important than political and electoral experience.
Besides being chief of state and head of government, the president has traditionally been the leader of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which held power from 1929 to 2000. During much of the twentieth century, Mexico was a one-party democracy. The PRI emerged from the revolution and incorporated mass organizations of workers, peasants, and urban middle classes. Because of its particular origins, its longevity in power, and the influence of diverse interest groups, the PRI is difficult to classify ideologically. There are two other significant parties in Mexico. The conservative National Action Party (PAN) began enjoying electoral success at the state level in 1985. The social-democratic Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) emerged as a breakaway movement from the PRI in 1987 and began governing Mexico City in 1997. Both the PAN and the PRD aim at democratization, but the PRD also proposes a more equal distribution of wealth. The dominance of the PRI in federal elections was finally broken on 2 July 2000, when the candidate of the PAN won a stunning victory with 43 percent of the vote.
Social Problems and Control. Both petty and organized crime increased in the 1990s. Muggings and burglaries, increasingly violent, became widespread. Drug-related violence constituted another serious cause of concern. Public security has thus become a key issue for ordinary citizens and the authorities. At the same time, the police and the judiciary system are widely believed to be ineffective and lack public credibility, partially due to unresolved high-profile political assassinations and corruption. This has led to incidents of people taking the law into their own hands. Paid neighborhood watches are common wherever people can afford them. Private security guards no longer patrol only at banks and government buildings but also at medium-sized offices and shops. In response, the government founded an additional police force in 1999, the National Preventive Police.
Military Activity. Mexico has had civilian presidents since 1946 and has not been involved in international disputes in recent decades. The primary role of the military is the maintenance of internal order. The Ministry of National Defense (the army and air force) and the marines together comprised an armed force consisting of almost 240,000 members in 1998. Military expenditures have increased substantially in recent years and amounted to $2.5 billion (U.S.) in 1996, accounting for almost 1 percent of the GDP. In recent years the military has been involved in two serious problems: the armed uprising in the state of Chiapas and the struggle against drugs. Mexico is a major supplier of marijuana and heroin to the U.S. market and is the primary transshipment country for cocaine from South America. In 1998 the government spent $147 million (U.S.) to combat drug trafficking, an amount that has increased spectacularly in recent years.
São Paulo benefited greatly from the industrialization initiatives developed during the administration of Juscelino Kubitschek (1956–1961). During his time, the automotive industry grew, and it was centered in São Paulo. One of the workers in the factories in the 1960s and 1970s was none other than Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who would go on to become president. São Paulo continued to grow, both in terms of population and influence. São Paulo also became the most important city for business and commerce in Brazil.
It's difficult to talk about tejano music without mentioning the genre's most well-known tejano singer: Selena Quintanilla-Perez. Growing up in Texas, a fan of pop music, Selena and her brother Abraham started playing at local restaurants and festivals. Working modern techno-pop accents into the traditional cumbia style of music, Selena recorded three albums, the third of which went platinum.
Selena was the winner of the 1987 Tejano Music Awards as Best Female Vocalist and Best Singer of the year. She was 24 years old and working on a breakthrough album Dreaming of You when she was gunned down by the president of her fan club in 1995.
CMU is positioned like never before to meet the challenges of the 21st century. In the coming years, the university will see the largest expansion to the Pittsburgh campus since 1900.
At the intersection of technology and humanity, CMU research, innovation and creativity will continue to guide our future as a world-class university.
As outlined in the Strategic Plan 2025, the university will focus on advancing the individual student experience, the broader Carnegie Mellon community experience, and the social impact of Carnegie Mellon throughout the world.
Carnegie Mellon University challenges the curious and passionate to deliver work that matters.