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30 May 1942

30 May 1942


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30 May 1942

Far East

US naval task force departs for Midway in preparation for the expected Japanese attack

Japanese naval task force leaves for the Aleutians

War in the Air

RAF Bomber Command carries out the first 1,000 bomber raid, against Cologne



Second Hospitalization Unit, 30th Field Hospital Unit History

Cover of Booklet with the History of the Second Hospitalization Unit, 30th Field Hospital. This small book dedicated to the Unit was printed in Munich, Bavaria, by Knorr & Hirth, in 1945 and distributed to its members.

Introduction & Activation:

The 30th Field Hospital was activated at Camp Campbell, Hopkinsville, Kentucky (Armored Division Camp: acreage 102,414, troop capacity 2,422 Officers & 45,198 Enlisted Men –ed) on 17 September 1942. A cadre of 1 Officer and 25 Enlisted Men were sent from the Station Hospital, AAFSF, Jackson Army Air Base, Jackson, Mississippi, as the activating unit. Interesting to note is that three Field Hospitals were set up and activated around the same period and at the same place. Moreover, they would also serve in the Aleutian Islands Campaign:

28th Field Hospital > 16 September 1942
29th Field Hospital > 18 September 1942
30th Field Hospital > 17 September 1942

On 1 November 1942, Lt. Colonel Elmo R. Zumwalt, MC, arrived and assumed command from Station Hospital, Fort Lewis, Tacoma, Washington (Army Ground Forces Training Camp –ed). The unit’s strength was based on T/O 8-510 dated 28 February 1942 allowing for 17 Officers – 18 Nurses and 211 Enlisted Men.

A 10-week basic Training Program mainly based on MTP 8-1 (issued 18 February 1942, designated: Medical Department Mobilization Training Program for Medical Department Units at Unit Training Centers and Medical Department Replacements at Enlisted Replacement Centers covering a 13-week program –ed) and MTP 8-10 (issued 29 July 1942, designated Medical Department Mobilization Training Program for the Unit Training of Field Medical Units by the Services of Supply + Change C1 dated 21 October 1942, and C2 dated 13 March 1943 –ed) was begun as soon as possible, with the last program being destined for advanced training of numbered hospital units containing personnel that had already completed their Basic Training either under MTP 8-1 or at a Medical Replacement Training Center. Training equipment began to arrive and the subsequent Training Program stressed tent pitching (mainly heavy such as ward tents), convoy driving under all conditions, including blackout, close order drill and marches and hikes. Bivouacs were also started in February 1943. The focus was placed on sanitary installations and camp sites were selected with the purpose of obtaining all types of terrain with or without natural camouflage. All food was prepared in the bivouac area and the men learned how to live in the field as efficiently as possible. Thereafter bivouacking became a part of the general training schedule, emphasizing medical service and support in the field.

New Year’s Eve & New Year’s Day 1944. 30th Field Hospital staff and personnel celebrated New Year under tentage in Zephyr Valley, overlooking Trout Lagoon, Kiska Island.

Officers were sent away to attend Service Schools in Chemical Warfare, Tropical Medicine, and Camouflage and upon their return to the organization their training was imparted to the entire unit through lectures and field demonstrations.

In April of 1943 a six-day bivouac was arranged at Mammoth Cave Park, Kentucky, approximately 110 miles from Camp Campbell. Its purpose was to harden the personnel physically and also apply the general principles of individual defense against air, mechanized, and chemical attack while in bivouac. A two-way radio system was provided so that constant communication was maintained between the bivouac area and the unit’s Headquarters at Camp Campbell. After arrival at the bivouac site the following security and general measures were to be applied: selection of bivouac site for each section – instruction and posting of sentries on guard immediately on arrival – digging of foxholes – erection of necessary tentage – camouflaging of tentage – erection of sanitary installations – anti-noise measures – gas alarm and gas masks to be made available. While at the bivouac emphasis was placed on setting up the heavy tents. During bivouacking the following tentage was in use: dental clinic tent – laboratory tent – surgery tent – medical tents – and a gas casualty tent, which furthermore included a decontamination tent. Three (3) more bivouacs were to be subsequently held and by this time the staff and personnel of the 30th Field Hospital became acquainted with living and working in the field …

On 15 May 1943 a group consisting of 1 Officer and 26 Enlisted Men, recently transferred from the 29th Field Hospital to form a cadre for the 39th Field Hospital was temporarily attached to the 30th Field Hospital.

Change of Station:

On 8 June 1943 orders were received by telephone that the organization was to make a permanent change of station to Fort Ord, Monterey, California (Landing Vehicle Board and Army Ground Forces Training Area: acreage 28,690, troop capacity 51,253 EM –ed). The 30th Field was to leave their training equipment and organic vehicles at Camp Campbell and only the new medical equipment would be taken with them to Fort Ord.

On 15 June 1943 the entire unit entrained for its new station where it arrived 5 days later (20 June 1943). At Fort Ord, the Officers and Enlisted Men were quartered in barracks and assigned to Amphibian Task Force # 9, Western Defense Command, for extended field service with objective Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands! Following the announcement, the 30th were issued complete Arctic clothing and appropriate equipment, which included parka overcoat with pile liner, Alaskan field jacket, shoepacs with felt insole, rubberized raincoat, waterproof poncho, mittens inserts & shells, heavy wool socks, wool underwear, wool knit toques, and rucksacks (the necessary allowances were established following issue and distribution of clothing and individual equipment for use in a Theater of Operations, Arctic Zone –ed). Moreover EM were issued .30 caliber M-1 semi-automatic rifles, .45 caliber Thompson sub-machineguns went to the NCOs and .45 caliber automatic pistols were distributed to the Officers. All men were duly instructed in the use and proficiency of these weapons on the Fort Ord firing ranges (not standard procedure for medical personnel –ed).

1941 Book with Historical & Pictorial Review of the 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division, activated at Fort Ord, Monterey, California. The 30th Field Hospital not only trained at Fort Ord, it also accompanied ATF # 9 to the Aleutians, and furthermore served together with the 17th Infantry Regiment in the Islands Chain.

Amphibious Training at Ford Ord, California, consisted of the use of landing nets, sea maneuvers on LCAs, LCVPs and LSTs, assault on beaches and the establishment and maintenance of beachheads. The 30th Field Hospital was eventually assigned to the 17th Infantry Regiment / 7th Infantry Division which it was to meet at Adak Island, Alaska (the Regiment arrived at Fort Ord, California, for amphibious training 15 January 1943 and departed San Francisco POE on 24 April 1943 to participate in the invasion of Attu Island on 11 May 1943 –ed).

On 2 July 1943 1st Lieutenant Bert Weinstein joined the Hospital. Several last minute changes were necessary because of physical deficiencies found in men transferred in at the last minute. On 4 July 1943 eighteen (18) Medical and Surgical Technicians were assigned to the 30th Field Hospital in lieu of the 18 ANC Nurses provided for as per T/O. Early July 1943 the unit’s strength stood at 18 Officers and 235 Enlisted Men. Finally on 5 July an advance loading detail was sent to the Port of Embarkation, San Francisco, California. The last high priority medical equipment was transported to the POE by special motor convoy. At 2300 hours, 10 July 1943, the 30th Field Hospital entrained at Fort Ord loaded down under the weight of fully packed rucksacks, firearms, and individual equipment and arrived at SFPOE at 0500 hours 11 July.

After final processing and roll call, the Hospital boarded the USS “Heywood”, APA-6, a US Navy amphibious attack transport (troop accommodation: 1278 men –ed) 11 July 1943 and lifted anchor at 1700 hours, after having been in training almost 10 months in the Zone of Interior. This was to be the unit’s first mission overseas.

Aleutian Islands:

Adak Island
The USS “Heywood” (Cdr: Captain Herbert B. Knowles –ed) attack transport sailed out into the Pacific Ocean on her way to Alaska and the Aleutian Islands with 6 other transports and 4 destroyers that acted as escorts. The personnel were told that the first destination was to be Adak Island in the Aleutians. The trip was uneventful except for a day or two of very heavy seas which induced quite considerable seasickness among the men.

Picture of USS “Heywood”, APA-6, off San Pedro, California, in 1943. The Attack Transport carried both the 30th Field Hospital and the 17th Infantry Regiment to the Aleutian Islands in mid-July 1943.

On 23 July 1943 the convoy reached Adak Island and debarkation was started. Snow was still on the mountains nearby. The harbor was filled with ships of all descriptions. Battleships, cruisers, destroyers, LCTs, LSMs, LCIs, and LSTs were present in great numbers in addition to many transports. It was evident that a large Invasion Force was gathering as Adak was a beehive of activity. After debarkation and assembly, the 30th proceeded to its designated site located on top of a hill in the 17th Infantry Regimental area in order to set up enough tentage to quarter personnel, a kitchen, a supply tent, a dispensary, several latrines, and the unit’s headquarters. The stay on Adak Island would later be remembered mainly for the constant rain, fog, humidity, and the strong gusty winds which blew from several directions at the same time. Most of the time on the island was spent in getting familiar with the various Beach Combat Teams which each Hospital Platoon was scheduled to support, in checking supplies and equipment needed for the operation, and in general getting oriented to the climate, terrain and weather which was typical of all islands in the Aleutian chain.

Great Sitkin Island
On 1 August 1943, 7 Officers and 51 Enlisted Men representing all 3 Hospitalization Units (or Platoons) of the 30th Field Hospital left Adak on the SS “George Flavel”, XAP-78, for maneuvers on the island of Great Sitkin, twenty miles distant. The personnel landed in a mock amphibious assault and proceeded to the beach with individual equipment and enough medical supplies to set up a temporary Aid Station and do emergency surgery. The terrain on Great Sitkin was supposed to be similar to the beach and inland area on Kiska Island on which the 30th Field was to subsequently make its landing! After spending 6 days on the water and only a single day on the island everyone returned to Adak to start the final staging for the invasion of Kiska Island.

On 12 August 1943 Headquarters 30th Field Hospital + First Hospitalization Unit under command of Major James M. Marvil embarked on the SS “George Flavel”, a Liberty Ship, with the 1st Battalion of the 17th Infantry Regiment (the vessels “George Flavel” and “Heywood” carried 258 Officers, 9 Warrant Officers, and 5,661 Enlisted Men of the 1st Battalion to Kiska Island, and landed on Scarlet Beach # 10, 15 August 1943 –ed). Lt. Colonel Elmo R. Zumwalt and 1st Lieutenant Brehm were assigned to the USS “Heywood” together with Headquarters 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Major Leonard Winter and the Second Hospitalization Unit were assigned to the 2d Battalion of the 17th Infantry Regiment and boarded the USS “President Fillmore”, while Captain Gerald W. Hamilton and the Third Hospitalization Unit were assigned to the 3d Battalion of the 17th Infantry Regiment which embarked on the USS “Tjisadane”.

15 August 1943. USS “Heywood”, APA-6, lowers some its landing craft during the Kiska Island invasion.

First and Third Hospitalization Units (or Platoons) were to land on “Scarlet Beach”, a southern beachhead, while the Second Hospitalization Unit was part of the large TF which was slated to make a feint at Gertrude Cove while the initial landings were taking place on the opposite side of Kiska Island!

Kiska Island
The trip to Kiska Island was uneventful. The First Hospitalization Unit dropped anchor at about 0200 hours on 15 August 1943 off the southwest corner of the island and waited until approximately 0900 hours when the first troops were taken off the ship. About that time a minor fire broke out in the ship’s hold no. 3 after a jeep’s engine backfired, igniting spilled gasoline and setting fire to sleeping bags. This caused considerable anxiety making the troops to unload in a rather hasty manner. A destroyer sent a fire-fighting detail to help extinguish the blaze before serious damage was done and also took aboard the soldiers evacuating the ship. They landed on Scarlet Beach # 9 near Quisling Cove where due to the low tide they had to transfer to rubber boats in order to make the last hundred yards over the rocky shore.
The day was beautiful and there seemingly was no evidence of a Japanese presence. Due to the rocky nature of the treacherous shoreline, it was possible to land only one landing craft at a time. Luckily there was no enemy waiting to fire on the landing party.

Infantry troops land on “Scarlet Beach”, Kiska Island …

Headquarters 30th Field Hospital and First Hospitalization Unit were the very first to be ashore and a spot was selected by the Combat Team Surgeon near a line of drift, about some fifty yards inland. Two (2) pyramidal tents and the equipment brought ashore on the backs of the men in rucksacks were set up and immediately, though limited, hospital care was made available. Casualties came in and were treated that same afternoon and the following night. Additional medical supplies and hospital equipment were secured from the ship (SS George Flavel –ed) by a detail of EM led by Major J. M. Marvil.
The Third Hospitalization Unit of the 30th and Third Platoon, 28th Field Hospital landed in the afternoon of 16 August 1943. This gave the unit a rather heterogeneous Field Hospital complex of 18 Officers and 235 Enlisted Men. By night the Hospital had admitted 40 bed patients. Continuous emergency medical service was provided to all troops on Scarlet Beach for approximately one whole month by the First Hospitalization Unit and Headquarters as the other two Platoons were dispatched on the opposite side of Kiska the fourth day after landing. From 15 August 1943 to 31 August 1943 inclusive, the Hospital maintained near Scarlet Beach treated 190 cases. Evacuation in all cases was to the ships waiting offshore. During this period there were no mortalities. In the early stages the longest period of hospitalization for any patient was 48 hours, depending on the availability of landing crafts and ships. The longest period of time for hospitalization was 15 days (patient treated for an appendectomy –ed).
The Second Hospitalization Unit engaged in the Gertrude Cove feint, was never landed, and returned to Adak Island where it bivouacked until 31 August 1943. On that day they were ordered back to Kiska.

A total of four Field Hospitals served on the island. They were: the 6th Field Hospital – 28th Field Hospital – 29th Field Hospital and the 30th Field Hospital.
On 7 September 1943, ALL units assigned to the Hospital joined at Trout Lagoon, a site occupied by the Hospital until the date of departure from the island on 12 February 1944. For its participation in the assault landing on Kiska Island a Commendation was received by the 30th Field Hospital from the Task Force # 9 Surgeon. Also a miniature bronze star was authorized to be worn later by each man in the unit for his part in the Battle of the Aleutians by authority of General Order # 75, War Department, 1943. In addition to the above the 30th Field was entitled to battle honors with the prescribed Battle Streamer by authority of General Order # 83, Headquarters, Alaskan Department, dated 22 April 1944.

Aerial view. Headquarters 30th Field Hospital and supply ships concentrate at Gertrude Cove, Kiska Island.

New Year’s day – 1 January 1944, found the 30th Field Hospital celebrating in Zephyr Valley overlooking Trout Lagoon. A fine turkey dinner with all the trimmings was enjoyed by all. Personnel used ski equipment to good advantage on this day, as on other days, with plenty of snow. This equipment was given to the unit through compliments of the Special Service Officer.
Although the occupation of Kiska Island was achieved without enemy opposition, it nevertheless was conducted under combat conditions until the landing was well underway. The lack of contact with enemy forces was unexpected, but it was not wholly surprising. Intelligence had suggested that the Japanese might withdraw to prepared positions on the high ground back of the beaches as they had done at Attu. Consequently, the landings scheduled for the next morning were not canceled or altered. Aerial reconnaissance, which might have revealed the true state of affairs, was hampered by adverse weather. The anticlimactic character of the invasion of Kiska, while disappointing because American/Canadian Forces, well-prepared, were prevented from coming to grips with the enemy, was compensated by lives saved and lessons learned under severe conditions which were nearly those of combat.

Stay in the Aleutian Islands – 30th Field Hospital
23 July 1943 > 11 February 1944

Return to Zone of Interior:

On 12 February 1944 the organization departed Kiska Island for the Zone of Interior, arriving in Seattle, Washington, on 20 February. Apart for very rough seas and high winds the first two days the trip was really uneventful. This time the 30th Field traveled on board the USS “Grant” (Cdr: Captain Charles L. Hutton –ed).

Top: Group picture illustrating staff and personnel of the 30th Field Hospital.
Bottom: Small group of female personnel of the 30th Field Hospital, such as Miss Katherine H. Murdoch, ARC (standing), Second Lieutenants Ada Timmer, Mary C. Beggs, Dorothy E. Beavers, Julia A. Davis (back row), and Moore, Smith, Taberner (front row), all ANC Officers.

After spending five days at Fort Lawton, Seattle, Washington (Army Post spread over 1,100 acres, the second largest Port of Embarkation for troops and supplies destined for the Pacific Theater during World War Two –ed), the unit entrained for another station, namely Camp Bowie, Brownwood, Texas (Armored division Camp: acreage: 116,264, troop capacity 2,237 Officers & 43,247 Enlisted Men –ed) where it arrived 29 February 1944. Commencing 6 March a full twenty-day furlough was issued to the bulk of the staff and personnel, including Officers and Enlisted Men. After furloughs and leaves were completed the 30th settled down to another Training Program as per the Medical Training Office, Camp Bowie, Texas.
New orders had meanwhile been received on 1 March 1944 instructing the organization to prepare for movement (POM) to a Port of Embarkation for subsequent shipment to a new overseas destination. Consequently the unit entrained for Camp Kilmer, Stelton, New Jersey (Staging Area for New York Port of Embarkation: acreage 1,815, troop capacity 2,074 Officers & 35,386 Enlisted Men –ed), with about 15% new Enlisted Men, 50% new Officers and with excellent morale.

Commanding Officers – Second Hospitalization Unit, 30th Field Hospital
Major Leonard Winters > February 1943
Major Francis G. Pipkin
Captain Walter H. Watson > 1 September 1944
Major Stephen W. Ondash > 23 September 1944

Random illustrations showing some of the different sections, organic subunits of the 30th Field Hospital, such as the kitchen, surgery, x-ray, supply, laboratory, pharmacy, and the dental department.

Preparation for Overseas Movement:

On 30 April 1944, the 30th Field Hospital was alerted and on 2 May 1944 the entire unit boarded the USS “General William Mitchell”, APA-114, lifting anchor the next day.
The overseas voyage as a whole was calm, pleasant, and uneventful, with the foreseen routine drills and exercises on board. On 14 May 1944, the ship arrived at Greenock, Scotland, where the troops were happy to debark. After assembly and roll call, the entire organization made for the pier’s railhead where they started their journey for Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England (Nuneaton situated some 9 miles north of Coventry held a number of munitions plants which suffered heavily from German bombings during the war –ed).

United Kingdom:

Effective 15 May 1944 the organization was assigned to the Third United States Army (TUSA) per United States Army Troop Assignment Order # 64, ETOUSA, dated 12 May 1944. The entire unit was billeted in private homes and the local Home Guard Drill Field turned over to the unit to set up a camp. Recreational facilities consisted of local theaters, public houses, and an inter-hospitalization unit athletic league played on the former large drill field. A colorful baseball game was played by members of the 30th for benefit of a local charity organization thereby attracting a large civilian audience. This game was sponsored by the local Home Guard unit and was the first American baseball game witnessed by the large crowd of English spectators. It proved a huge success and was enjoyed immensely both by the crowd and the participants. A large dance hall adjacent to the drill field afforded many a pleasant evening to those attending. Periodically, groups of Enlisted Men made tours of the English countryside to visit historic spots and other places of interest. Among the various places were trips to Stratford-on-Avon, Kennilworth Castle, Astley Castle, and Coventry.

Top: May 1944. Queens Road, Nuneaton, England. One of the stations where the 30th Field Hospital stayed and trained from 15 May to 6 July 1944.
Bottom: July 1944, group of personnel of the 30th Field Hospital at Nuneaton railway station waiting to entrain for the Concentration Area at Tisbury.

On 6 July 1944 the organization received movement orders transferring it to a Concentration Area in Tisbury, Wiltshire (first US troops arrived in the area in August of 1942, at one time 15 American Divisions and other units were stationed in towns and villages across Wiltshire until January 1945 –ed). The troops usually underwent training on Salisbury Plain before leaving for the Continent to take part in the D-Day Invasion and further battles.
On 12 July 1944 the first 7 Nurses were assigned to the 30th Field (the unit had in fact never received any ANC personnel since being activated –ed) all coming from the 67th General Hospital. The stay at Fonthill-Gifford Camp (a Parish of Tisbury), situated on a lovely green English hillside was a very pleasant one and seemed to put everyone in the proper state of mind in preparation for a forthcoming move to the Continent … The Hospital entrained for the Marshalling Area with the remaining 17 ANC Officers arriving to put the organization at its authorized strength. Two (2) American Red Cross workers were also assigned.
On 22 July 1944 the unit embarked on an old British vessel, named SS “Longford”, and spent the whole night in the English Channel.

Stay in the United Kingdom – 30th Field Hospital
14 May 1944 > 21 July 1944

France:

After spending the night of 22 July 1944 at anchor in the English Channel, the “Longford” proceeded the following day in convoy to debark on the shores of France.
The SS “Longford” with the 30th Field Hospital on board reached Utah Beach on the afternoon of 23 July 1944 debarking its passengers on the shores. After securing some motor transportation, the following 2 days were spent in setting up a bivouac area in a hedged-in cow pasture, about 1 mile north of Les Moitiers-d’Allonne, Basse-Normandie, in a liveable condition. Being in a recently-liberated combat area, everyone was rather preoccupied with watching the endless waves of Allied bombers flying directly overhead on their way to support ground troops breaking out of the Normandy Beachhead in summer. The Battle of Normandy was almost over the Battle of Northern France was on.

Top: May-June 1944. Scenes illustrating ongoing surgical activities in the operating room of the 30th Field Hospital. From L to R: Major Stephen W. Ondash, Captain Bernice J. Moore.
Bottom: From L to R: Major Wilfred C. Moore, and Major Stone.

The 30th Field remained in bivouac in Les Moitiers-d’Allonne and later in Louvigné-de-Bais, Brittany, until 14 August, when the organization was split.
The First Hospitalization Unit was separated from its parent organization in order to support the 8th Infantry Division the Second Hospitalization Unit became operational on 17 August 1944 and went to support the 7th Armored Division, attached to XX Corps, at Chartres. The second Hospitalization Unit (or Platoon) arrived at approximately 1300 hours on the outskirts of the city, 13 miles ahead of the Clearing Station, while the 7th Armored Division was engaged in cleaning out the remnants of a stubborn enemy force. At 1630 eight enemy 88-mm shells landed merely two hundred yards from the area and were getting closer with each shell. The area was therefore ordered evacuated until the situation would become secure. At this point the unit became acquainted with the 4th Auxiliary Surgical Group, 3 Teams of which were attached to relieve the unit surgeons who had been working steadily for 40 hours without a single break!

4th Auxiliary Surgical Group Attachments – 30th Field Hospital
Team No. 8 > Captain Yudiky, Captain Elson, Captain Moore, Captain Young, 1st Lieutenant Rundle, Sergeant Martin, Corporal Bauman
Team No. 20 > Major Stone, Major Moore, Captain Futch, 1st Lieutenant Goldstein, Corporal Matis, Corporal Heucheroth
Team No. 123 > Captain Weigler, 1st Lieutenant Wocky, 1st Lieutenant Riley, Corporal Doire, Corporal Cappello

From Chartres the Second Hospitalization Unit moved forward once again in support of the 7th Armored Division, this time just west of Verdun, at Rampont, in Lorraine, where it remained to provide medical support to the division from 3 September to 27 September 1944, on which date it changed its support to the 90th Infantry Division. Due to the rapid changes in the tactical situation, the organization changed locations no less than five times between 13 and 27 September, four of these moves being accomplished in a period of only six days and the complete 100-bed Hospital being set up three of these times overnight.
On 22 September 1944, Major Stephen W. Ondash took over command from Captain Walter H. Watson.

Top: August 1944. Bivouac at Barneville, Normandy. The stage in front of one of the ward tents was set up for the “Baron Elliott Orchestra” (35th Special Services Company) which brought the show ‘Broadway in Khaki” while touring the ETO.
Bottom: November 1944. Rombas, Lorraine. One of the buildings temporarily occupied by the 30th Field Hospital, on its way to Germany.

The Second Hospitalization Unit continued to support the 90th Infantry Division at Jarny (27 September to 25 October 1944), Giraumont (26 October to 6 November 1944), both in the Lorraine region. At this time the 95th Infantry Division relieved the “Tough Ombres”. The unit remained in position but changed its support to the newly-arrived 95th Infantry Division. On 17 November a change in location took place whereby the Second Hospitalization Unit left Giraumont and moved further on to Rombas, and then to Bouzonville on 12 December 1944. On the night of 13-14 December, Second Platoon now joined by Headquarters 30th Field Hospital came under heavy enemy shelling for the second time since becoming operational. The artillery barrage commenced at 2200 hours, 13 December, and continued onto the following day. Shells fell in or about the hospital building, causing considerable damage to the third floor and caving in this section of the building including the first floor. One (1) man belonging to an Ordnance unit was killed outright and 8 other men were buried in the debris receiving relatively minor injuries. During the shelling an operation was in progress in the surgery section and even though the part of the building destroyed was located not more than fifteen yards from the OR, the work went on uninterrupted. The remainder of the Hospital staff and personnel remained in an air raid shelter during the bombardment. Four (4) “Purple Hearts” were awarded to members of the Second Hospitalization Unit. The following day the position and damaged building were evacuated and the unit established in the field at Freistroff, Lorraine region, where it was to remain until 23 December 1944. The same day another change of station occurred which sent the unit to Veckring, still in the Lorraine region of France. At this point the Platoon was supporting the 90th Infantry Division again.

Stay in France – 30th Field Hospital
23 July 1944 > 25 February 1945

1945 – the start of the New Year found the 30th Field Hospital still at Veckring and supporting the same Division. At the time the “Tough Ombres” were holding the southern salient during the siege of Bastogne. On 8 January 1945, while still stationed at Veckring, the 90th Infantry Division was replaced in this area by the 94th Infantry Division.

18 March 1945. Some 30th Field Hospital Nurses walk through the “Black Gate” (Roman Porta Nigra monument) while visiting Trier, Germany.

Germany:

On 26 February 1945 a portion of the Hospital departed for Saarburg, in the Rhineland-Palatinate region, Germany, to set up in a civilian hospital. At this point, the 30th experienced its heaviest casualty traffic in its history. On 19 March the unit moved to Baumholder, and from there it went on to Carlsberg, which it reached on 23 March 1945. The next move would take the Hospital to Langensalza, after which it crossed the Rhine River. At this point enemy activity was brisk and bombing and strafing of the hospital area frequent. The Germans were now defending their homeland, being attacked both from the West and the East. From Langensalza the unit’s next destination was Zeitz. However before entering the city proper it was necessary to remain on the outskirts until the infantry and armor had cleared the remaining enemy from it. From Zeitz the organization moved further to Rochlitz on 16 April 1945, also located in Saxony, Germany, now following in the tracks of the 6th Armored Division. At the time the latter division represented the deepest Allied advance into Germany! Only staying for a short while in Rochlitz, the 30th then traveled to Schniegling, in Bavaria (near Nürnberg –ed) where it arrived 23 April. While at Schniegling and in bivouac, there was plenty of opportunity to visit the Sportplatz and Stadion where Adolf Hitler held many of his speeches to the Nazi Party during the many rallies.

Stay in Germany – 30th Field Hospital
26 February 1945 > 7 May 1945

8-10 May 1945. 30th Field Hospital personnel set up their temporary hospital at KZ-Ebensee, shortly following the Concentration Camp’s liberation.

Austria:

29 April 1945 found the Second Hospitalization Unit supporting the 80th Infantry Division in Pfaffenberg, still in Bavaria, Germany. Although 7 May 1945 marked the end of the war in Europe (V-E Day > 8 May 1945 –ed) there was, ironically enough, not sufficient time to celebrate as 2½-ton trucks arrived to carry the personnel to KZ-Ebensee, Austria (liberated by elements of the 3d Cavalry Group around noon 6 May 1945 –ed) where they were to join the other elements of the 30th Field Hospital charged with camp sanitation of recently-liberated Displaced Persons and Political Prisoners near that town and treatment of thousands of people ravaged with disease and malnutrition (approximately 16,000 starving inmates were discovered after liberation –ed). The unit rolled through the town of Ebensee on 10 May to discover the horror of the Concentration Camp. The place was a death camp for KZ-Mauthausen, the largest concentration Camp in Austria where prisoners came in to work excavating in the mountains. Most of the inmates were worked to death and resembled walking skeletons, and although the medical staff were more or less accustomed to illness, suffering, and even death, they were not only shocked but physically sick after their first view of the camp survivors. Most of the ex-inmates, emaciated survivors of the camp’s inhuman regime, were still crammed in disease-ridden overcrowded barracks. Reports were to describe the establishment of three hospitalization units at the site of KZ-Ebensee the setup of a Typhus Diagnosis Center in Traun and the treatment of the former camp inmates up to 23 June 1945, after which all remaining cases were transferred to an Austrian civilian hospital in Bad Ischl, Austria.

Stay in Austria – 30th Field Hospital
10 May 1945 > 28 June 1945

Ex-inmates of KZ-Ebensee relax in the open near one of the tents set up by the 30th Field Hospital. The survivors were first deloused and showered, after which followed triage and initial medical treatment.

The Second Hospitalization Unit of the 30th Field Hospital made its late move on 28 June 1945 departing Ebensee, Austria, for Bad Wörishofen, slightly east of Mindelheim, Germany, to support the 80th Infantry Division once more. As usual, living quarters proved excellent (buildings), with many conveniences added to make living conditions very comfortable.

Finale:

On 1 July 1945 word came from Headquarters that all Enlisted Men with 85 or more points would be immediately transferred out of the 30th Field Hospital. Based on the latest Readjustment and Redeployment Regulations the news was more than welcome to all concerned in as much as it would start the men on their way home. However, the first 18 EM scheduled to leave were far from happy because this would mean parting with many good friends and combat buddies made while serving with the Hospital. The lowest score (based on the ASR Points system –ed) in the Second Hospitalization Unit was 74, consequently it wouldn’t be long before an entirely NEW 30th Field Hospital was organized with replacements. With the prospects of a much lower critical score being established in the near future (it was indeed gradually lowered –ed), many of the unit’s personnel would become eligible for discharge!

10 May 1945. KZ-Ebensee survivors gather together near one of the camp’s installations after having enjoyed a shower (portable shower unit) installed by some engineers at the liberated camp’s site.

Units Receiving Medical Support from the 30th Field Hospital
Kiska Task Force
5th Infantry Division
7th Infantry Division
8th Infantry Division
26th Infantry Division
80th Infantry Division
90th Infantry Division
94th Infantry Division
95th Infantry Division
6th Armored Division
7th Armored Division
10th Armored Division
XX Corps
Third United States Army

Roster (incomplete):

Officers
Colonel Herbert H. Kerr (Second CO, 30th Fld Hosp) Captain Friedman
Lt. Colonel George S. Bozalis (Third CO, 30th Fld Hosp) Captain Glendening
Lt. Colonel Francis R. Sandford (Fourth CO, 30th Fld Hosp) Captain William V. McDermott
Lt. Colonel Elmo R. Zumwalt (First CO, 30th Fld Hosp) Captain Bernice J. Moore
Major Edgar Fonde Captain Nystrum
Major Hamilton Captain John B. Porter
Major James E. Marvil Captain Walter H. Watson (Third CO, 2d Hosp Unit)
Major Wilfred C. Moore 1st Lieutenant Brehm
Major Stephen W. Ondash (Fourth CO, 2d Hosp Unit) 1st Lieutenant Jacquet
Major Francis G. Pipkin (Second CO, 2d Hosp Unit) 1st Lieutenant Shaver
Major Stone 1st Lieutenant Waye
Major Leonard Winter (First CO, 2d Hosp Unit) 1st Lieutenant Bert Weinstein
Captain Bolkens Chaplain O’Hern
Captain Russell J. Catalano
ANC Officers
Dorothy E. Beavers Lucille H. Smith
Mary Catherine Beggs Taberner
Julia A. Davis Ada Timmer
Moore

12 May 1945. KZ-Ebensee survivors are evacuated to the 139th Evacuation Hospital for further medical care.

ARC Staff Worker
Miss Katherine H. Murdoch
Enlisted Men
Albertine (Pvt) Lingley (Pfc)
Deward J. Allen Maynard F. Lombard
James L. Baker William J. Lowry
Forest L. Balderson, Jr. Joseph J. Lulf
Kenneth M. Banks Lynch (Pvt)
Francis P. Barber (Pfc) Chester Maleski
Francis O. Barts Gordon T. McAllister
Leland G. Bolton McCormick (Pfc)
John M. Bourgault (Pfc) McKiethan (Cpl)
Robert M. Bowers Theodore H. Meler
Charles R. Brandfass (Tec 3) Robert H. Mimiaga
William P. Campbell Moore (Cpl)
Frank Castino John J. Mullen
DeWayne L. Charfe John R. Nielsen
James D. Clark John Ofer
Leo M. Cloward (Pfc) Padula (Pvt)
James L. Davis William P. Paukovits
George DeJong Oral A. Rice
Divona (Pvt) Ronald E. Riemer
Arthur Fensky Cecil A. Robbins
Lester P. Finnegan Hebert Rosenthal
Louis Ganz George Sadlon
Hackworth Harvey W. Schroeder
Haywood R. Hancock Nathan Shapiro
Russell M. Heldbrink Thompson (Cpl)
Herring (Pvt) Clarence Trower
Paul D. Hill Trudel (Pfc)
Dan R. Hornbeck George G. Vassar
Robert L. Hunter Vilmer (Pfc)
Joe Janosik John, E. Watson
Ralph A. Johnson Robert E. Weaver
Harry D. Jones Robert C. Welsh, Jr.
Charlie R. Joyner Bernard A. Widen
Rubin Kremberg Wilhite (Cpl)
Labachotte (Pfc) William J. Wright
John F. Lazor Zito (Pfc)

Campaign Awards – 30th Field Hospital
Aleutian Islands
Northern France
Ardennes-Alsace
Central Europe

Technician 3d Grade Charles R. Brandfass, Second Hospitalization Unit, 30th Field Hospital. Courtesy Robert Brandfass.

Our sincere thanks must go to Robert Brandfass, son of Tec 3 Charles R. Brandfass (ASN:15324088) who served with the Second Hospitalization Unit, 30th Field Hospital from 1942 to 1945. Robert generously offered us a copy of a booklet distributed to the unit’s personnel at the end of the war. Without his help the authors would not have been able to edit this concise Unit History. The MRC Staff are still looking for a complete Personnel Roster of the unit and its date of return from the European Theater to the Zone of Interior. All information welcome!


May 7th, 1942 is a Thursday. It is the 127th day of the year, and in the 19th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 2nd quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1942 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 5/7/1942, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 7/5/1942.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


OT: This Day In History . May 30th.1942

May 30th./ 31st.1942 : The First 1,000 Bomber Raid

On this date of 1942. a thousand plane raid on the German city of Cologne
was launched by the RAF Bomber Command. Almost 1,500 tons of bombs rain down in 90 minutes,
delivering a devastating blow to the Germans' medieval city as well as it's morale.
Air Marshal A.T. (later Sir Arthur) Harris, commander in chief of the Bomber Command,
planned Operation Millennium. It was his goal to prevent significant losses of Royal Air Force bombers
by concentrating air attacks in massive bomber raids, overwhelming the enemy by numbers
and delivering decisive, crippling blows. Harris would need to beef up the relatively small number
of 416 "first line" aircraft needed, though to those he had to add second-line
and training squadron bombers, thus creating an aircraft force of 1,046.

On the night of May 30th, Cologne was besieged: 600 acres of the city sustained heavy damage,
45,000 Germans were left homeless and 469 were killed. The chemical and machine tool industries,
the main targets of the raid, were rendered useless.
The cost to the British bomber force was 40 bombers
or less than 4 percent of the total that participated.


Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by Peter89 » 23 Jan 2020, 22:42

What stands out the most is the appalling state of the German infantry: Army Group South had 50 percent of its original infantry strength Army Groups Center and North each 35 percent. And this was despite having received 1.1 million replacements since June 22 1941.

I couldn't find specific casualty information in this book, but Glantz in When Titans Clashed lists German casualties as 522,833 by September 28, 1941. Stahel puts total German 1941 casualties at 830,903, of which 302,595 were killed. Stahel also lists 262,524 casualties for November 26, 1941, to February 28, 1942. Retreat from Moscow (p. 138).

Looking at the dreadful state of the German army in May 1942, with the United States entering the war, and the Soviets continuing to field a massive army, and the Eastern Front more or less stabilized, it seems the war was already lost for Germany. The OstHeer was too weak to do anything offensively in more than one sector, and that would never be enough to knock out the Soviet Union. Germany's severe manpower shortage meant that it couldn't replace casualties or ever hope to get back to its June 1941 strength, and German industrial output could never match that of the Allies.

With the benefit of hindsight, it also shows the folly of Operation Barbarossa. Throwing away over half of your entire country's infantry strength in the bottomless pit of Russia was never a good idea.

Just because it didn't work, it doesn't mean it couldn't have worked.

Also not being in a position to win, doesn't mean that you're in a position to lose.

There were plenty of alternatives for Barbarossa, we've been through this. I am not even sure that unconditional surrender was Britain's term for peace as early as May 1941.

Thomas' arguments were about the futility of the invasion of the SU. What he said was: if we invade the SU, we will have nothing. What you say is: if you invade the SU, you will lose everything. I agree with both

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by ljadw » 24 Jan 2020, 12:14

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by Sid Guttridge » 24 Jan 2020, 15:04

I would suggest that the problems started much earlier.

When Germany invaded the USSR, General Fromm of the Ersatzheer thought he had five months of replacements available for the Feldheer. This would have been OK if (1) the Red Army had not fought as hard as it did and (2) the war had been won by the end of the year.

However, casualties were much higher than anticipated and the five months of reserves were expended to replace casualties in just July and August 1941. And, of course, the men lost were of higher standard and longer experience than the replacements, so quality, as well as quantity, declined from the start.

The Eastern Campaign had to be effectively won in 1941 or not at all. After that, only monumental failures by the USSR could give Germany hope of a positive outcome. Stalin did his best to oblige with his "Not a Step Back" order in mid 1942, but the Red Army largely ignored him and successfully traded territory for time in the face of Army Group South's summer offensive.

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by HistoryGeek2019 » 24 Jan 2020, 17:10

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by ljadw » 24 Jan 2020, 20:02

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by HistoryGeek2019 » 24 Jan 2020, 20:24

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by TheMarcksPlan » 24 Jan 2020, 21:50

Sid Guttridge wrote: When Germany invaded the USSR, General Fromm of the Ersatzheer thought he had five months of replacements available for the Feldheer. This would have been OK if (1) the Red Army had not fought as hard as it did and (2) the war had been won by the end of the year.

However, casualties were much higher than anticipated and the five months of reserves were expended to replace casualties in just July and August 1941. And, of course, the men lost were of higher standard and longer experience than the replacements, so quality, as well as quantity, declined from the start.

170,000 by the end of November, permanently wounded were about the same, MIA was

35K. See Askey, Operation Barbarossa v.IIB page 177.

If you just look at replacements versus ALL casualties (i.e. including temporarily sick/unfit and lightly wounded) then you can get the impression that the Heer ran out of replacements in August or so. That gives a wrong impression, however, as the Heer received 509,000 "recuperated replacements" - i.e. returning wounded/sick/unfit - during 1941.

Now it's true that not all available replacements reached the front during the relevant times, especially during Taifun. That was due to failure to plan railroad upgrades adequately, not due to lack of replacements.

Casualties significantly exceeded the replacement pool only during winter. There was an easy fix to that issue: call up the class of 1922 ("JG22"). OKW did not plan to call up that class until November 1941, however, meaning that virtually none of them had time to train and participate in Barbarossa.

The land lost to Germany during Blau nearly caused mass starvation in the SU. During 1943 the country saw widespread death from malnutrition-related diseases like TB and in the Urals the factories were required to release many workers to "re-feeding" facilities because, due to restricted food supply, they were literally working themselves to death. See Hunger and War. The Soviet economy reached its wartime nadir in 1942, producing about as much steel as did Japan in 43 (8mil tons vs. 7.8mil). Stalin's order was an appropriate communication of the economic stakes of losing land and labor in Southern Russia.

The Ostheer was about half a million men stronger in 1943 than in 42, with better equipment as well. Had Hitler/OKH planned for a two-year campaign in the East and fielded a stronger 42 Ostheer, Germany would have had a good shot at knocking out or crippling the SU during 1942.

Germany extracted most of its manganese ore from Ukraine and relied on Ukrainian iron ore at Nikopol and Krivoy Rog (thus the frantic efforts by AGS to hold those areas into early 1944). Manganese extraction exceeded Soviet deliveries under the Pact. For further details: viewtopic.php?f=55&t=243100.

In addition, the Ostheer largely fed itself from the occupied SU. Had the Ostheer won and redeployed/demobilized, those food resources would have been available to Germany.

One of the accounting errors of analyzing what Germany got from the SU is to look only at imports to the Reich (Tooze and many other historians make this mistake). Given that most of Germany's war effort was in the East, however, that doesn't make sense. Why import from the SU, only to export to Ostheer? Aside from food, my above link details production in Ukraine used by the Ostheer in Ukraine. Again, Ostheer victory would have freed those resources for redeployment.

Btw: Georg Thomas presided over a world-historically inefficient procurement system. I don't know anything about his generalship but his competence on economic matters is highly questionable. There's no reason to accept his analysis as authoritative.

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by Yuri » 25 Jan 2020, 00:42

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by Yuri » 25 Jan 2020, 00:49

Re: The State of the OstHeer - May 1942

Post by Yuri » 25 Jan 2020, 00:58

German prisoner of war Feldwebel of the 2nd company of the 305th construction battalion Teich Friedrich, captured 15.10.42 in the village of Vladimirovka /up to 55 km South-East of Budennovsk/
Field mail 26110.
Arrived in the Intelligence Department of the Northern group headquarters on 17.10.1942.
Interviewed 18-20. 10. 42.

Personal data.
He was born in 1897 in Mulheim (Ruhr region), with higher medical education, a doctor for gastrointestinal diseases, but did not practice medicine, and led an exemplary agriculture, inherited from his father, up to 30 hectares. at this time, the farm employs 2-3 French prisoners of war and 2-3 German workers in the busy season. He served in the Kaiser's army during the first imperialist war and participated in the war on the Western and Balkan fronts. At the same time, he was promoted to Feldwebel. Under the Hitler regime, he was persecuted because of his brother, a lawyer who acted as a defender in trials against the Communists and who fled to Tetuan /Morocco/ in 1934 . He was drafted into the army in 1940 and sent to the 221st sapper battalion. Participated in the war against France and Belgium. Shortly before the war against the USSR, the 221st battalion was moved to the Przemysl region. On the Eastern front, the prisoner of war was held continuously until the moment of capture. While in the ranks of the Hitler's army, he was also persecuted. On 30.9.1941, he was sentenced to 6 months in prison, serving a sentence at the end of the war, for condemning cruel methods of treatment of the population of the occupied Soviet regions. After the trial, the prisoner of war was transferred to the 305th sapper battalion, where he commanded the 2nd company's baggage train and served as a paramedic. In view of the political distrust of the prisoner of war on the part of the Hitler's regime, he, as a doctor, was not promoted to the highest rank.


2.Route of the 221st and 305th construction battalions.
Since the beginning of the war against the USSR, the 221st battalion moved along the route: Lviv, Tarnopol, Kirovograd, Krivoy Rog, Dneprodzerzhinsk, Poltava, and Krasnograd. Here the prisoner of war was transferred as punishment to the 305th sapper battalion and with it moved back to Poltava-Staritskovka-Krasnograd-Lozovaya- Artemovsk. Here, 12 km from the city, the battalion spent the winter and in the spring was transferred to Konstantinovka, and from there to Mariupol, Kirpichev, where it built a road to Taganrog for about three months. In the summer of 1942, the 305th battalion was moved again by rail to Lozovaya, and from there on foot to Shakhty, Peschanokopskoe, Orlovka, Pravokumskoe, and Vladimirovka. In the area of Orlovka, the battalion was divided into separate units. Only the 2nd company arrived in Vladimirovka. Other companies of the battalion remained: the 1st company in Orlovka, and the 3rd company does not know where. 4th company in the Budennovsk area.

3.Combat mission and circumstances of capture.
The 2nd company was assigned the task of equipping positions in the Vladimirovka area for a bridgehead to provide a crossing of the Kuma river. The position was equipped for parts of the Afrika Korps, which were to arrive at Pravokumskoe by 14.10.1942. In Vladimirovka, the 2nd company of the 305th sapper battalion arrived on 10.10.1942 and worked for 5 days. The work was performed by company soldiers and 60 women who were forcibly mobilized from the population of Vladimirovka. There were no troops here.
The 2nd company was located in Pravokumskoye and came to Vladimirovka daily for work, and by the evening returned back to Pravokumskoye.
15.10.1942 about 6 o'clock in the morning, 55 people from the second company on 3 cars arrived in Vladimirovka and barely had time to unload, as they were fired at by machine-gun fire. A prisoner of war with 12 other German soldiers hid in one of the houses, where he was captured.

4. Location of units and subordination.
The prisoner of war knows that in the area of the road Budennovsk - Vladimirovka in all localities are located units of the division of the African corps, which came from Africa through Germany. The prisoner of war personally spoke with the quartermasters of one company of the specified division in Pravokumskoye. Quartermasters reported that one company of the new division and the battalion headquarters should arrive in Pravokumskoye on 15.10.1942. Only 270 people. 14.10.1942 the prisoner of war personally saw one young General who came to inspect the work done by the 2nd company of the sapper battalion. The prisoner of war believes that this General commands a newly arrived division, or is part of the headquarters of this division. Soldiers of the African corps wear khaki uniforms with a brown tinge and a mountain Rifleman's cap with a visor. Budennovsk was home to the 134th construction battalion and the 4th company of the 305th construction battalion. In addition, there were units of the signal troops. In levokumskoe there is a district agricultural Fuhrer appointed recently instead of the Fuhrer who was allegedly killed recently by the population. Several construction battalions are located in localities along the Peschanokopskoe - Mineralnye Vody - Budennovsk road.
The 305th construction battalion is subordinate to the 45th construction headquarters /45 oberbaustab/ 1st Tank army.

5.Plans and intentions of the German command.
From conversations in the company with various soldiers returning from Germany to the Eastern front, the prisoner of war knows that in the area between the don river and the Volga river, about 150 km from the Volga Bank, a chain of fortifications, Pillboxes, etc.is currently being built. For this purpose, many vehicles with cement, concrete mixers and other construction machines are being sent from Germany to this area. The German army, according to these conversations, will not advance further on the Volga river. In the North Caucasus, the German army also does not intend to move further until the spring of next year, but will consolidate its current positions and move to winter quarters. The prisoner of war knows that in all major settlements of the North Caucasus, winter apartments are being prepared for the German army. The 305th construction battalion planned to settle in winter quarters in the Budennovsk area, and the 2nd company of the battalion in the Pravokumskoye area.

6.Construction battalions in the North Caucasus.
In the North Caucasus, there are 6 construction battalions: the 305th, 221st, 134th, 521st, 551st and the number of the sixth battalion does not know, but believes that the 563rd. All these battalions are led by the 45th oberbaustab. The task of these battalions is to improve roads and build bridges. The prisoner of war believes that the 563rd battalion is building bridges. The personnel of these battalions are non-combatant soldiers of older ages from 40 to 45 years old and a small part of the youth recognized as unfit for combat operations. The 221st and 305th construction battalions include many Ukrainians recruited from the Red army pow camps and civilians. Each company of these battalions has at least 50 Ukrainian men. Recently, an order was allegedly issued that all participants in the 1st imperialist war should be demobilized. In exchange for these soldiers, the 221st and 305th construction battalions were to be replenished with Ukrainians of 150 men for each company. Other battalions were to receive reinforcements from the Germans.

7.Organization, strength and armament of the 305th construction battalion.
The 305th construction battalion consists of 4 companies, a staff company, and a motor transport column consisting of 16 captured vehicles. In each company from 200 to 250 people, 50 of them are Ukrainian volunteers. In total, the battalion has 850 people. The company consists of 3 platoons and a wagon train. The wagon train company has 10-12 captured vehicles and 30 military wagons plus a kitchen, with a total of 64 horses. Weapons: all soldiers and non-commissioned officers have rifles. Each platoon has a captured light machine gun, which usually does not work, since the soldiers are poorly trained militarily. Many do not know how to shoot a rifle, yet each soldier has 60 rounds, but they carry only 15 rounds. The soldiers did not previously have German rifles, but were armed with captured Soviet rifles. Three months ago, the soldiers were given old German rifles, and captured ones were handed over, allegedly, for arming Ukrainian units formed by the German command. Ukrainian soldiers of the 305th construction battalion are not armed and wear a badge sewn on their sleeves (an ellipse is drawn divided by a vertical line - Yuri): blue on the left, yellow on the right. Their cap is without a cockade and without an eagle.

8. The political and moral condition.
Soldiers of the construction battalion are extremely burdened with military service.
Very frequent cases of violation of discipline, failure of the orders of unter-officers, unauthorized absences /tardiness to practice, violating the rules of guard duty /sleep on duty, negligent performance of duties sentinel, etc./.
In the 221st construction battalion, a soldier of the 2nd company Miller, went on vacation, did not return to the unit and went into hiding. In consequence, he was sentenced to 1.5 years in prison. Soldiers are unhappy that they don't get home leave. From the company go on vacation no more than 5 people a month. Food has deteriorated recently, but still the soldiers are not starving. Bread is given out 750 grams per day. Ukrainian soldiers receive the same food as the Germans, with the exception of a bar of chocolate once a month and sugar, which are issued only to the Germans. Ukrainian soldiers are sworn to be loyal to Hitler. In Peschanokopskoe, on the eve of the Ukrainian oath, one doctor and three Ukrainian soldiers escaped from the company. In Orlovka, two Ukrainian soldiers who took the oath got a civilian dress and tried to escape. They were detained by the rural civil police /from the Russians/, handed over to the battalion and sent to Budennovsk for trial at the 45th headquarters of the construction troops.
The mood of the German population in areas subject to British air raids is extremely depressed. The population considers Hitler to be the culprit of their misfortunes. Even the population of Bavaria is hostile to Hitler. The prisoner of war was on leave in Germany at the end of August and visited Nuremberg 1.9.42 after a British air RAID on 30.8.42. the prisoner of War saw great destruction in the city. Factories Siemens /electric motor/, motor - building Nuremberg-Ausburg, post office buildings, railway station and many houses in the city center were severely damaged. There were several hundred victims. It was said that 20,000 people were left homeless. The prisoner of war heard from soldiers from Breslau and Konigsberg about the great destruction caused to these cities by Soviet air raids. No one believes that the war will end soon. The soldiers do not see a way out of the impasse in which Germany is located.

9.Officers.
Commander of the 2nd company of the 305th construction battalion, Oberleutnant Kleimais, Junior officer of the company Mulgens. Battalion commanded by captain Dr. Feierabend, his assistant captain Pressman.
The chief of the 45th staff of the construction forces, Lieutenant Colonel Hammitsch-Professor at the Dresden Institute of mechanical engineering-is Hitler's son-in-law, married to the Fuhrer's sister. Commander of the 221st construction battalion, major Razina, company commanders of that battalion:
1st company-captain Arngatz, 2nd company-captain Kling, 3rd company-captain Weber, 4th company-captain Dr. Bus.

10.Various
The prisoner of war knows that the German command is looting the occupied Soviet areas. So from the levokumskoye area 140 cars of grain were recently taken out.
Soldiers can send home parcels, in General, no more than 3 kilograms per month.
Soldiers send home sunflower oil and white flour.
There were several cases of typhus and malaria among the company's soldiers. In the 2nd company, 6 soldiers are ill with these diseases. In other companies, several people are also ill with malaria and typhoid.
One of the soldiers of the SS special team No.10 in Mariupol in the soldiers ' club at the table in the spring of 1942 told a group of German soldiers, including the prisoner of war, that all Jews were ordered to Mariupol under the pretext of sending them to the rear with the most valuable things. When they arrived with their children among several thousand people, they were robbed and shot to death, the SS team No.10 carried out the execution. The same teams are available in other occupied cities.
The commander of the 2nd company of the 305th construction battalion, Oberleutnant Kleimans, when sending the company to Vladimirovka, told the soldiers that they should not be afraid of partisans, since there are three regiments of Cossacks in front, formed by the German command, approximately 1000 people per regiment. The prisoner of war personally saw several Cossacks in Cossack uniforms in Pravokumskoe.

The survey was conducted by: Intendant of the 2nd rank Skomorovsky's signature-Yuri /Skomorovsky/

Head of the 3rd division of the intelligence Department of the headquarters of the Northern group of the Transcaucasian front
Major Barsukov’s signature -Yuri /Barsukov/


Re: Operation Barbarossa Launched In May 1942

Post by JAG13 » 19 Apr 2014, 01:18

Couldnt find it, oh well, quickie:

Jan 17 - Molotov declared to the german ambassador that that Bulgaria was in Russia’s security zone and that it would be a violation of this zone if it were occupied by German troops.

February - The Iraqis request military assistance from Germany.

Mar 1 - The Germans inform Molotov that the Bulgarians have joined the axis and that German troops would enter the country the next day. The Russian limit themselves to declare that they could not support the Bulgarian government in the application of its present policy.

Mar 12 - On hearing about L&L and pushed by the KM and LW Hitler decides to KO Britain out of the war by whatever means before dealing with Russia, displacement of a sizable part of the Wehrmacht would still take place in order to disuade the soviets from any hostile move.

Hitler orders plans prepared to assist Iraq with and without Turkish cooperation.

Mar 19 - In conversations with the Italians the Germans condition further assistance on Albania and NA to their control of the NA theather, the command would be joint but the Germans would have the last word. The Italians would provide naval support, the Germans all air and 4 armoured units. The Italians accept reluctantly.

Mar 24 - LW units start to replace RA units in NA, they are "needed" in Albania, only the Italian stukas and a couple Gruppi of C.200 stay. The NA ports are to receive radar stations and nightfighters, 12 KM S-Boote are sent as well.

Mar 25 - Yugoeslavia signs its entry into the axis. The Russians declare that if Turkey was attacked she could count on the complete understanding and neutrality of the USSR.

Mar 26 - HMS York damaged by Italian torpedo craft and beached in Crete.

Mar 27 - Coup d'etat in Belgrade. Hitler orders the invasion of Yugoeslavia.

Mar 31 - First units of 15th Panzer land in Tripoli.

Apr 1 - Coup d'etat in Iraq, their troops secure the oilfields.

Apr 5 - The USSR signs a treaty of friendship with Yugoeslavia.

Apr 9 - 3 Greek divisions on the Metaxas line surrender.

Apr 10 - Hitler orders 2 panzer and 2 motorized divisions from the unused Marita reserv to be sent to Bulgaria and readied for crossing into Asia. The Germans request the Iraqis to secure their transportation and oil infrstructure.

Von Papen meets with the Turkish President and offers them East Thrace, a number of Greek islands, their good offices to obtain the Dodecanese islands and assistance to recover Cyprus.

The Germans start talks with the French regarding cooperation against the British, specifically in Syria.

Apr 11 - After routing the British in NA, Rommel surrounds Tobruk.

Apr 13 - Inonu requests Iraq and Syria be recognized as within Turkey's sphere.

Apr 16 - The first units of the Asia Armee arrive to the Turkish-Bulgarian frontier, von Manstein is appointed as its commander.

Apr 17 - Yugoeslavia surrenders. The Iraqis again request military assistance from Germany.

Apr 18 - After several meetings von Papen adds Crete to the original offers plus French weapons and a deal on Iraqi oil, he also tells Inonu that is their final offer and if its not enough the Germans would have to acept Russia's alliance request that involves them getting east Turkey and the straits.

The first elements of the Indian 10th Infantry division start to arrive to Basra.

Apr 19 - The Turks accept and grant the Germans passage, bases in Turkey and the garrisoning of the railroad. The already mobilized Turkish army patrols the Kurdish areas in anticipation of British instigated unrest, a precutionary move triggered by the interception of a British launch carrying explosives earlier in the month.

Apr 20 - The first German units enter Turkey to secure their railroad infrastructure, 4 divisions to follow. The Germans request Italian assistance to build terminals and provide the train ferrys to expedite cargo transhipment over the bosphorus.

Apr 21 - The Greeks surrender. LW units arrive to Konya, Diyarbakir and other Turkish air bases. The French agree to allow the passage of weapons and aircraft to Iraq and to cede some weapons to them.

Italian and German torpedo boats patrol off Tobruk and mine the harbour.

Apr 24 - The British evacuate Greece for Crete abandoning most of their heavy equipment. An infantry and a flak batallion are flown to Mosul and on 30 SM.81s to secure the oilfields and Mosul AFB.

The RAF attempts to bomb railroad bridges in Syria and Turkey.

Apr 25 - 24 Bf-109s, 12 Bf-110s and 36 Ju-88s arrive to Mosul AFB.

In response to Rommel reinforcement requests, 24 Char B modified as flamethrower tanks are sent to NA, along with eight 17cm guns and a StuG batallion.

The Russians suddenly accepted Germany’s plan for the delimitation of the frontier between the Igorka river and the Baltic, they also increase the flow of goods to Germany.

Apr 26 - The RAF bombs Mosul AFB.

Apr 27 - The first German units start to arrive in Mosul. The LW bombs RAF Habbaniya. The RAF sends 2 Hurricane squadrons to RAF Shaibah.

Apr 28 - A German recce battallion detrains in Samarra and heads for Baghdad before moving to attack RAF Habbadiyah with Iraqi and LW support.

Apr 29 - RAF Habbaniyah is taken by the axis. The 20th Brigade of the 10th Indian Div. lands in Basra and joins the fighting against the Iraqis in the city.

May 1 - German troops move to secure the oilpipe to Tripoli and act as a blocking force against British troops from Palestine. LW units move into Habbaniyah AFB.

May 3 - A German armoured division starts to arrive near Basra in support of Iraqi troops. LW attacks RAF Shaibah and Basra.

May 5 - The Shah of Iran occupies the Iranian oilfields and the Abbadan refinery at night, thus nationalizing the Iranian oil industry. British workers sabotage the facilities with varying degrees of success.

May 7 - Tiger convoy sighted, first attacks by SM.79s.

May 8 - The Tiger convoy is attacked by 48 Ju-87s scorted by 12 Bf-109s and 12 Bf-110s, HMS Ark Royal is crippled by 4x500kg bombs and then sunk by SM.79s.

Of the 5 Tiger cargo ships 1 is sunk by mines and 2 more by Italian and German torpedo craft.

May 12 - The remaining 2 cargo ships from Tiger arrive in Alexandria.

May 14 - The remnants of the 10th Indian InfDiv surrenders in Basra and Iraq is free of British troops.

May 20 - Merkur begins. The Iranians sign a cooperation agreement with Germany.

May 22 - The destroyers Greyhound, Kashmir and Kelly, and the cruisers Fiji and Gloucester are sunk by the LW. BB Valiant and Warspite are damaged.

May 24 - Bismark sinks HMS Hood. Bismark is hit by a torpedo launched from a HMS Victorious' Swordfish.

May 27 - Bismark arrives in Brest for repairs. The British start to evacuate Crete. Istanbul's new ferry terminals are completed and start to operate with 3 ferrys of 25 wagon capacity each.

May 28 - The RAF bombs Brest. The 15th Pz and the special units requested by Rommel arrive to the Tobruk perimeter.

May 31 - The evacuation of Crete ends, the RN losses in total 4 cruisers and 6 destroyers sunk, 2 BBs, 1 CV, 2 CLs and 2 DDs damaged.

Re: Operation Barbarossa Launched In May 1942

Post by BDV » 19 Apr 2014, 04:47

Re: Operation Barbarossa Launched In May 1942

Post by JAG13 » 19 Apr 2014, 06:58

Re: Operation Barbarossa Launched In May 1942

Post by BDV » 20 Apr 2014, 15:20

JAG13 wrote: "BDV":methinks zombie ulianov and zombie Kemal a slightly more likely occurrence than the chain of events you outlined above.

Well, who would dare argue against such an eloquent structured and solidly argument.

Re: Operation Barbarossa Launched In May 1942

Post by JAG13 » 20 Apr 2014, 16:32

JAG13 wrote: "BDV":methinks zombie ulianov and zombie Kemal a slightly more likely occurrence than the chain of events you outlined above.

Well, who would dare argue against such an eloquent structured and solidly argument.

Lol, thats what you wish to believe because it contradicts your prejudices. Lets see:

France was by then signing the Paris Protocols but Hitler had little interest on those since B1941 was ad portas, if focused on the Med then ratification of the agreement would be very likely, and that would almost guarantee a de facto French entry into the war since it is unlikely the Brits would have liked German bases in French colonies.

Musso had no choice, he was begging the Germans to intevene, send arms, DO SOMETHING. He actually expected very harsh conditions from the Germans when he went to them hat in hand, specially after his earlier refuffs, ITTL, he got it and swallowed it just as he had expected would have to.

Russia was delighted by the Belgrade coup, they even signed a friendship treaty to support them and entice them into opposing the Germans, they were then terrified when noticed the Germans were moving east and the Serbians collapsed in a week instead of entangling the Germans for a long time as they had expected. So Josif threw his arms around the German military attache in Moscow, in public, saying "we are going to be BFFs forever, right?", he also quickly yielded on frontier demarcation issues after stonewalling for months and sped up raw material shipments while offering even more, damn the treaties, we will just give you what you want.

The Turks didnt say no, they haggled about price, they wanted Iraq or at least its oil, the Germans about to gain it from Russia quickly lost interest and intended to reopen negotiations later, pistol on the table if need be. ITTL, the pistol would eventually be there and the Turks were not stupid, they would not oppose the Germans if it came to that.

The Brits were hardly in a position to doing something different, they were in the middle of a major screwup and had no further troops available in theather, at least not armed ones. As it was, Churchill even had to overule his commander to even send a few ragtag troops from Palestine.

Would they be sending more? You bet! But that is for later on, convoys from Britain took a month with the exception of suicidal ones like Tiger, with the LW in the Med, they would just fulfill the Admiralty's expectations.

Ark Royal was the target of a stuka strike during Tiger, but the Fulmars dispersed it. In the context of a full commitment to the Med you can expect both a heavier raid and a proper escort with similar results to the other occasions Stukas visited RN flight decks, and sicne AR has no armoured deck then it would be more susceptible to damage.


Allied Powers

The chief Allied Powers were Great Britain, France, and the United States. At the start of World War II in 1939, the Allies were France, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Days later, the independent Great Britain dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa joined. As the war continued, several other countries began joining the Allies. The Allied Powers generally included all 26 original signatories of the Declaration of the United Nations, signed on January 1, 1942.

The countries that were recognized as being Allied Powers in World War II include:

  • Australia
  • Canada
  • New Zealand
  • South Africa
  • The Soviet Union
  • The United Kingdom
  • The United States of America

Many countries showed their unwavering support for the Allied Powers. These countries were:


Brits bombard Cologne in Operation Millennium - May 30, 1942 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

On this day in 1942, a thousand-plane raid on the German city of Cologne is launched by Great Britain. Almost 1,500 tons of bombs rain down in 90 minutes, delivering a devastating blow to the Germans’ medieval city as well as its morale.

Air Marshal A.T. (later Sir Arthur) Harris, commander in chief of the Bomber Command, planned Operation Millennium. It was his goal to prevent significant losses of Royal Air Force bombers by concentrating air attacks in massive bomber raids, overwhelming the enemy by numbers and delivering decisive, crippling blows. Harris would need to beef up the relatively small number of 416 “first line” aircraft needed, though to those he had to add second-line and training squadron bombers, thus creating an aircraft force of 1,046.

On the night of May 30, Cologne was besieged: 600 acres of the city sustained heavy damage, 45,000 Germans were left homeless and 469 were killed. The chemical and machine tool industries, the main targets of the raid, were rendered useless. The cost to the British: 40 bombers, or less than 4 percent of the total that participated.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who approved the raid, telegraphed President Franklin Roosevelt the next day: “I hope you were pleased with our mass air attack… there is plenty more to come.”


No Operation Blau May/June 1942

Following the victory at 2nd Kharkov Hitler/Halder decide to cancel Operation Blau (no advance into the Caucasus or to Stalingrad even though that means no oil from the Caucasus.

The Wehrmacht could still undertake local offensives such as the Blau I/Blau II plans but will otherwise husband resources and maintain strategic reserves.

To all intents and purposes this is a decision to fight for a draw/win a defensive victory. Discounting the Manhattan Project (the Atom Bomb is still an unknown quantity three years into the future is a defensive German strategy on the Eastern Front available given the resources available. Can Germany fight for a draw or a defensive victory if the decision to do so is taken in May/June 1942 or are they doomed to ultimate defeat at this point having bitten off more than they can chew in invading the Soviet Union and failing to win?

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Though I don't think this would be politically possible especially given the view in OKW that the Soviets were one shove away from collapse and that seizing the oil was necessary to surviving the Wallied onslaught, if they went this route then the Leningrad offensive gets the resources it needs to be launched.

Blau I/II won't happen, because they are pointless without moving on the Caucasus due to how badly they'd overstretch logistics and their already tight manpower situation to just gain useless ground. That's against the entire premise of OP's strategy. Instead the only logical move would be to focus on taking Leningrad, doing all the planned minor operations around Demyansk and Rzhev to clean up the front and pocket Soviet forces and then try to reconnect the Demyansk-Rzhev salient to eliminate the Soviet Front in the Toropets bulge (forget the name offhand, think it was Northwest Front). Then with the situation stabilized there they could go after Murmansk and cleaning up the entire region to the North and cut off L-L from that route.

Lucaswillen05

Lucaswillen05

Though I don't think this would be politically possible especially given the view in OKW that the Soviets were one shove away from collapse and that seizing the oil was necessary to surviving the Wallied onslaught, if they went this route then the Leningrad offensive gets the resources it needs to be launched.

Blau I/II won't happen, because they are pointless without moving on the Caucasus due to how badly they'd overstretch logistics and their already tight manpower situation to just gain useless ground. That's against the entire premise of OP's strategy. Instead the only logical move would be to focus on taking Leningrad, doing all the planned minor operations around Demyansk and Rzhev to clean up the front and pocket Soviet forces and then try to reconnect the Demyansk-Rzhev salient to eliminate the Soviet Front in the Toropets bulge (forget the name offhand, think it was Northwest Front). Then with the situation stabilized there they could go after Murmansk and cleaning up the entire region to the North and cut off L-L from that route.

If a decision is made mot to go for the Caucasus Blau I and II can still happen but their purpose is now very different. To destroy significant Red Army forces and make some operationally useful territorial gains while avoiding the risks of going after the Caucasus Stalingrad or, alternatively Moscow. This way the Wehrmacht is operating within its# means. Agreed taking Leningrad abd the other operations you mention are all possible options along with or instead of Blau I/II which I gave as one example of the possible options.

Regarding the Western Allies, in 1942 they were simply not ready for large scale operations and certainly not in Europe/ The US in particular were woefully inexperienced and it showed in Operation Torch. The Germans survived for a long tine without the Caucasus oil and can do the same in this scenario. They will also not lose 6th Army at Stalingrad and will not have to defend the huge bulge that developed by November 1942, With carefully husbanded resources and skill they can last at least as long as they did and possibly longer.

Can they win the war? Probably no. Can they achieve a stalemate? Possible but unlikely. Getting the remorseless Stalin to agree to a separate peace will br an uphill struggle to say the least. IF however that happens it is doubtful that a landing in Western Europe will be feasible. With the success of the Manhatten Project as yet unknown the choice is between an endless blockade strategic bombing or cutting a deal with Hitler. Most likely however the Soviets will continue the war which now takes another year or more. Or until the Atom /Bomb is dropped - and it might well take more than two before Nazi Germany surrenders.

A "no Operation Blau" timeline might well be an interesting one to explore in full.


Here's a brief intro to the life of Dr. Yuan Longping who passed away on. May 22, 2021. It was covered quite extensively last week in the Chinese and international press as well as in all the China newsletters. But just in case you missed reading about him I wanted to post this short intro to his life.

We're going to finish off this survey of Henan from Neolithic times to the 20th century. In this episode, you'll get a closer look at Zhengzhou and a few other noteworthy slivers of Henan history. We'll close off with the hard times that hit Henan in 1887, 1938, 1942, 1959, and 1975. If you never appreciated Henan's.

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