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Identify two Medieval Indian coins

Identify two Medieval Indian coins

Can someone help me identifying these two old coins found in India? They are made of copper. They are very thick and weigh around 10 grams.

Both the coins have a diameter of 1.5cm and thickness of 0.5cm. They aren't perfectly round as you can see in the images. These are 2 of around 300 coins found in Aravali hills in Haryana, India. Mining was being done in mountains and they were found in a pot inside the mountain at a large distance from surface of mountain. They were found when 50 trolleys of rocks had been removed from mountain.


It has Arabesque inscriptions so it is minted by one of the Muslim Kingdoms or Empires. They are similar in style to Suri/Mughal coinage

Your first coin is upside down. By setting it right we get the result:

The encircled words are the only ones readable in the inscription. They read Sultan Ibrahim. (السلطان ابراھیم).

There's only one monarch by that name who ruled from the nearby Delhi. That is Sultan Ibrahim Khan Lodhi of Delhi Sultanate who was deposed by Babur in 1526. Wikipedia's only image for his coinage is decisively different but that could be difference between two mints or two different coins. Interestingly Ibrahim's grandfather, Sultan Bahlul Lodhi's and his father Sikandar Khan Lodhi's coins were minted in a similar fashion. Pictured below, The coins from the respective Sultan's eras (Notice in particular Sultan Bahlul's coin, it follows the same pattern with Title Below, Name above and bits of the name cropping out):

The second image you shared is not readable at least by me, due to words cropping. I did some crude reconstuction based on some words readable (Which is mere conjecture). It gives the name of Alau-Din-Khilji, Sultan of Delhi who ruled 2 centuries before Ibrahim:

Third and fourth (Although it does look similar to the Wiki's photo for Ibrahim Lodhi's quarter Tanka) are even worse. There's a lot of mud on them, if you could perhaps clean them and (Don't clean them, you might end up damaging them - Credits to Peter Taylor for pointing it out) upload the photos again, I'd have a better chance to read them (Make sure your camera's focus is correct and on point). So Ibrahim Lodhi is the best guess for the moment.


Coins from India

India officially gained its independence from British Rule in 1947, and the country later became a Republic in 1950. Even though the British left, areas occupied by the French and Portuguese still existed while the French left in 1954, the Portuguese were forced out in 1961, freeing all of India from European rule. Currently, India has one of the largest economies in the world, and has the second highest population at over 1,354,000,000.
Wikidata: Q668 Read more


Sources of Ancient Indian History

Although there are other methods of classification, the most popular system divides the sources of this period into two categories:

Archaeological Sources:

Archaeological sources refer to the sources which are obtained by the process of archaeological excavations. There are six sections which fall under archaeological sources. These are:

Inscriptions:

Inscriptions can be defined as writings on hard surfaces like stone, metal, on surfaces of structures, etc. The greatest advantage that inscriptions have over other media of writing are that they suffer a much reduced degree of wear and tear and thus survive for a much longer time. The earliest time from which inscriptions can be considered as the earliest evidences of the reading and writing. Inscriptions also help in the study of evolution of scripts and languages, chronology, genealogy of kings (since inscriptions were usually financed by kings, their origins and names were mentioned), determining the boundaries of empires (through distribution of inscriptions) and religious beliefs of the state (the gods were usually honoured at the start of the inscription).

Coins:

The study of coins, or numismatics was one of the most important sources of ancient Indian history. For example, the entire history of Indo-Greek kings has been based on findings from coins. Legends on coins mention the ruler, date of issue, it may also contain the ruler’s regnal period, most coins also have a stamped image of the emperor on them. The oldest coins from ancient India are from the 6th Century BCE. Coins also help to know about the fiscal conditions in an empire. There are two theories regarding this. The first states that if purer gold is used to make coins, it shows a stronger economy and use of impure gold shows a weak economy. The second theory uses the frequency of coins for its analysis, if there are more coins circulating in the economy, it is taken to be proof that money economy has penetrated into society, which is linked with prosperity.

Excavated Material:

Although all archaeological sources are excavated material, when all finds are taken together in terms of the place where they are found, how deep underground they were found, and in terms of broad overview, it helps historians to draw conclusions about how history probably played out. For example, if Gupta and Kushana coins were found, it would help to determine their fiscal statuses and so on, but the information that they were discovered from the same site might suggest trade between them to a historian.

Architectural Remains:

Most surviving architectural remains of the period are religious buildings like Buddhist stupas, temples, man-made caves, etc. Incidentally, Buddhist stupas are the oldest surviving architectural remains in India. Buildings give an idea of technological advancement of the people (by observing building techniques) and also an idea of how powerful kings or emperors were.

Art (Paintings and Sculptures):

Rock paintings of the period have survived in the caves of Buddhist and Jain monks. These were usually depictions of facts observed from their day to day lives (and so can be used to form a view of how life was), however there were many scenes from the life of the Buddha and tales from the Jataka and other such books. Sculptures show the state of artistic technique and it shows gradual refinement through the years.

Literary Sources:

Literary sources are obtained from the various texts that were composed in ancient India. There is a plethora of sources from history, however almost all Indian texts have been heavily interpolated (additions were made to the text over time). Although such interpolation may be seen as negative, since it distorts the original text and makes it difficult to determine the truth, it also adds several layers to a text and allows historians to study the changes in society through time.

Religious Literature:

Most of the literature that can be used as sources of ancient Indian history are Hindu, Buddhist or Jain religious literature. Hindu literature was composed by the Brahmans, who were the ‘highest’ caste in the four-fold caste system of ancient India. Religious literature included the Vedas, the Vedangas, the Puranas, the Upanishads and Buddhist texts like the various Jatakas.

Secular Literature:

Secular literature were texts that did not focus on religion: epics, stories, poems, plays, etc fall under this category. The epics Mahabharat and Ramayan were secular literature. The difference that secular literature had was that it gave a view of society as it was, rather than how a religion wanted it or preferred it to be.

Accounts of Travellers:

Accounts of travellers provide a view of ancient Indian society from the eyes of foreigners. This is very important to understanding society as in many cases indigenous writers might not have mentioned day to day practices they considered trivial however a foreigner would have found even mundane practices interesting or exciting and mentioned them. Xuanzang (came from China to study Buddhism) and Megasthenes (Seleucid ambassador to Chandragupta Maurya) were two famous travellers who wrote accounts of their visit to India.

Conclusion:

Although there are many sources of ancient Indian history, it is often difficult to ascertain what happened because very few sources can be interpreted unanimously, each historian may have a very different view about what may have happened. In this article, I have presented my views and my conclusions about these sources, different people will have different ways of interpreting them, differently than I did. Although this article doesn’t really draw any real conclusions, I would still advise you, the reader, to check out alternate viewpoints, because in the end it’s up to you to make a choice, it would be better if it was an informed choice.


NCERT 7th Class (CBSE) Social Science: The Medieval World

Answer: The word “medieval” comes from the Latin words medius and aevum, which means “middle age”. Therefore, when a period is called medieval it means that period which is in the middle of human history. Indian history is divided into three periods, Ancient period, Medieval period and Modern period. The medieval period in India is further divided into the early medieval period (647-1200 CE) and the later medieval period (1200-1700 CE). The medieval period in India saw far-reaching changes in all fields- political, social,cultural and economic.

The medieval period of Indian history is taken to extend from 647 to 1700 CE, i.e., It started with the death of Harshvardhana’s death in 647 CE and declined when the Mughal Empire started breaking up and the British began establishing their power in India in 1700 CE.

Question: Describe the effect of the physical features of the land on the history of India.

Answer: The effect of the physical features of the land on the history of India:

  1. The Himalayas have posed a barrier for many who have wanted to conquer this land. But the passes, or points along the ranges which are lower than the surrounding peaks, have allowed travellers and invaders to enter India through the north-west.
  2. The Northern Plains, comprising the basins of the rivers Indus and Ganga, was the seat of many great empires. This was also the region that was under constant threat from invaders.
  3. On the contrary, the Southern Peninsula faced fewer threats of invasion. The Vindhya and Satpura mountains ranges acted as a barrier, discouraging the southern movement of the Turks and the Mughals.
  4. The kingdoms in the south, which has long coastlines, like the Cholas and the Pandyas, developed strong navies.

Question: Explain with examples how inscription and coins serve as the history of the medieval India.

Answer: Inscription: Inscriptions are writings engraved on hard surfaces like metal, rock and stone. The study of inscriptions is called epigraphy. Inscriptions are an important source of information about India’s past. Inscriptions were initially made on the faces of cliffs, on stone pillars, inside caves and on rocks. In the course of time, they came to be engraved into metals-such as coins and copper plates.

For example- Tamil inscriptions written on the walls of Brihadeshwara Temple, 11th century CE.

Coins: Coins are pieces of metal that are used as money. They were usually issued by the ruler of a kingdom. The study of coins is called numismatics. The information gathered from coins tells us about the kingdom, confirms dates during which particular kings ruled, their special interests and achievements.

For example- Gold coin, called tanka, issued by Balban, 1266-1287 CE and silver coins issued by Mohammad bin Tughlaq, one of the most powerful rulers of medieval India, 1327 CE.

Question: Explain in detail how monuments and buildings are useful sources of information on medieval India.

Answer: Monuments and buildings often provide information about the period during which they were built. Temples, palaces and mosques can tell us not only of religious practices but also about the political, economic and social conditions of that time.

Mosques like the Jama Masjid in Delhi, forts like those at Delhi, Gwalior, Agra and Mandu and palaces like those in Jaipur, Jodhpur, Deeg and Hyderabad are studied by historians to understand the style of architecture followed at the time.

Question: How do books and other written manuscripts help us understand the history of medieval India? Give examples to support your answer.

Answer: Medieval manuscripts in India were mainly written on Palm leaf, cloth, Bamboo leaf, birch bark and paper. It deals with a wide variety of subjects, such as religion, philosophy, systems of science, arts and literature. They are composed in different Indian languages and scripts. For example- Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan by Colonel Todd, Rajatarangini by Kalhana, Bilhana describes the achievements of King Athirajendra Chola.


The coins of medieval England are far more standardised than many of their early medieval forebears, and give details of the issuing mints and, until the late 13th century, the moneyer of the coins. Over 20,000 medieval coins have now been recorded by the Portable Antiquities Scheme and they have become an extremely important resource to explore the economic and monetary history of this country.

Quite a number of medieval coins have also been found bent and pierced and these coins can tell us about ways in which people used coins in a more symbolic way. For instance, the bending of coins may be related to pilgrimage and promises to the saint. It is vital that we know such information, and shows that all medieval coins, regardless of condition, are important and should be recorded and studied.

This guide has developed over several years and will continue to do so over time. It provides an introduction to the coins of the period, a visual aid to identification of coins commonly found in England and Wales, and will allow for easy searching of the database. You can search on any medieval ruler in England from William the Conqueror to Henry VII (1066-1509) and a number of foreign rulers, including the kings of Scotland. You can also search by the coins themselves, from broader categories of coins, divided into the major groupings of coins, providing information on a wide range of types in a single search to individual coin types or mints.

From the late 13th century, the range of denominations increasing greatly with both gold and small silver fractions (halfpennies and farthings) regularly issued. You can search these by denomination.


Old Coins That Can't Be Identified

Not all of your old coins will be identified using the methods above. In this case, you might have a token, round, or pattern, all of which resemble coins. Try typing the inscriptions you can read into a search engine. As a general rule, if the old coin doesn't have a country name and denomination (saying how much it's worth) on it, it's probably not an official government coin. It can be very hard to learn more about these unofficial coins because very few people collect them, so they're usually not worth very much (if any) money.

Private mints around the world have also minted tokens and fantasy coins. These are not official coins issued by a government, but they still may have value. During the Civil War, a coin shortage led to the production of many tokens by private mints. This allowed stores to make small change in business transactions. There are several books written about these tokens and they are highly collectible.


Essay on Use of Coins as Money

In 4 th -5 th century Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome were having their own banking activities which were becoming more specialized private and public bodies. Temples also started undertaking more financial activities governed by specific rules and regulations. In INDIAN history Manu Samriti provides rules for trading, commerce and money. The Arthshastra by Kautylaya also prescribed extensively the norms of trading, commerce, lending and borrowing money along with taxation.

Although the history of banking goes back much further than the history of coinage but with the invention of coins functioning of banking became more systematic. Invention of coins not only provided means of a standard type of units to measure the value of money, it was widely accepted as medium of exchange or say payment. Coins were durable enough to store for a long time.

The first coin said to have been minted in Lydia(Turkey) was made of Gold and Silver known as Electrum. Each had its own pre decided weight to determine its value. Around 570-550 BC the king of Lydia introduced pure Siler and Gold coins also. Alexander The Great (330-320) BC introduced coins in the entire lands captured by him.

These coins were not only made for money but these depicted many facets of each Civilization, Kings, Rulers etc. In Rome coins depicted imperial families,. Roman emperors used coins even for political purposes, Ghyn Devies writes.

“Coins were by far the best propaganda weapon available for advertising Greek, Roman or any other civilization in the days before mechanical printing was invented”. During middle age (300-340) AD the christen Church had become more forceful than the Empire. During this era coins depicted Christ, The Virgin and various other saints.

Coins in addition to money value has contributed much to the ancient history also. Indian BRAHMI SCRIPT was deciphered on the basis of Indo-Greek bilingual coins. This also establishes the trade and commerce activities between India and Greek. The coins reveal a number of events mentioned in Puranas, Veds and also in New Testament as well.

In ancient India a study of Harrapa and Mohanjodaro (2500-1700BC) reveals the use of coins for trade and commerce activities. Most of these coins were made of silver and were marked stamped or punch marked to differentiate their value. During Kushan Dynasty during 176-156 BC Kushan Kings introduced Gold and silver coins.

In fact Kushan were neomadic people and word is derived from Chines hoistorical writings. Due to dynastic disunion among Palvas the Kushans established their Dynasty in north-west part of India. Their kingom flourished and trade expanded to china, Central Asia, Egypit, Rome etc.

In 4 th -6 th AD Gupta coinage depicting Kings and Deities were made in Brahmi script. Samudragupta, Chandegupta and Kumargupta were icon of coins of their periods. There is long records of coins in India thereafter also. In post Gupta period 6-12 century coin of Harsh were also made. Presence of Byzantine coins in western India shows the signs of trade with Eastern Roman Empire.

Among South India coins belonging to Chalukas, Palva, Chola, Pandya etc. were introduced during 12-15 century. During Mughul & Medieval history of Indian Coins did not depict any image of King, Queen or human being as it was banned in ISLAM.

As such Ayats of Kuran in calligraphy were inscribed on coins In 1300-1400AD under the empire of Khilji and Tughlak coins issued were having value less than the value of metal used to make these coins. These were known as token Money or fiduciary coins.

In India each dynasty or kingdom had there own coins with different values difficult to measure the value of money contained in them. It was during Mughul period that some type of uniformity was brought for consolidation system of coins. It was during the time of Sher Shah Suri 1540-1545 AD that the coins made of silver known as Rupiya which even today is legal tender in Indian currency


Use of Paper

Paper was used to write holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records, and for registers of accounts and taxes. Manuscripts were collected by wealthy people, rulers, monasteries and temples. They were placed in libraries as well as archives. These manuscripts and documents were rich and vital sources of information for the historians. But they were difficult to use.

Copying manuscripts

Since printing press was not available in the ancient times, scribes copied manuscripts by hand. This was a challenging task because there are instances where the handwriting is not very clear and legible. Hence, while copying they were forced to guess what was written. Consequently there are small but significant changes in the original record and the copied record. Over many rounds of copying, these small differences got accumulated and became big enough to bring about a substantial difference in texts. This is a serious matter because we rarely find the original manuscript of the author today. We are therefore dependent on the copies made by later scribes. Hence historians have to read many copies of manuscripts, i.e. different versions of manuscripts before concluding what was originally written.

Revision of Chronicles: Some authors revised their chronicles at different times. The fourteenth century chronicler Ziyauddin Barani wrote his chronicle first in 1356 and wrote another version two years later. Both the versions differ from each other. Historians were not aware of the existence of the earlier version till the 1960s because it remained lost in large library collections.


Identify two Medieval Indian coins - History

Please do not write me offering coins or
asking for information about selling coins.

5-May 2011 update: Added Republic Coins of India to the links page.

7-January 2011 update: Added Surana Art to the links page.


20-July-2010 update: Ravi Shankar Sharma sent photos of two interesting coins. First is a Victoria 1862 A/II 0/6 dot Rupee with an interesting dot pattern (see photo at right). Second is a 1862 A/II 1/10 Dot Rupee with three additional "micro dots". Could this be a 0/13 dot Rupee? See photo below. He also provided a link to his new coin club web site NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF CALCUTTA. I have added a link to this site to the Links to related sites page.


19-April-2010 update: Murali Thantry sent an interesting scan of a Victoria 1862 A/II 1/10 dot Rupee (see photo at right). Like a similar A/II 1/7 Rupee earlier reported by Gev Kias this Rupee has the top dot in the flower. The comments by Murali Thantry: "I recently procured a 1862 A/II 1/10 Dots coin, but the variety is the Top Dot is on the Top Flower (similar to 1/7 Reported by Gev Kias). I'm here with sending you the scan of the same for your perusal and upload the same on to your web pages, if possible." This information has been added to the dot-Rupee page with more detailed photos.

13-April-2010 update: William E. Naquin of New Orleans (USA) recently reported finding 2 annas coins of Edward VII dated 1910 with an apparent Bombay mint mark ("dot" on lotus-bud stem). As stated here and in the literature in general, "The 2 Annas coin was minted only in Calcutta. There are no variants and no mint marks." Yet Mr. Naquin found two copies of the 1910 2 annas with the dot as it appears on the Bombay issue of the Rupee of Edward VII. He further reported:

I have been asking around the internet for coin people who may have encountered a 1910 Two Annas with a dot on the stem. The following reply just reached me: "Yes the 1910 two anna which you mentioned is [k]nown to me and also several other dates with the dot on stem. This dot on stem was typical of Bombay mint but on several occassions mint marks have been interchanged or con[f]used due to lack of proper documentation. Like the 1938 rupee.There's no CALCUTTA mint. Only bombay mint produced them and initially forgot to put the dot. - Vivek"

This third very worn example found by Girish Bhambani in India is shown below at the right. Here is a quote from p.52 of Coins of India, Nineteenth & Twentieth Century by D. Chakravarty (1979) that adds some interesting information about the mint marks of King Edward VII coins:

While the 1/12 anna, 1/2 pice, 2 annas and 1/4 Rupee coins of King Edward VII were struck only at the Calcutta Mint, the one anna-coin was struck at the Bombay Mint, and had a small incuse 'B' in the King's crown on the obverse. The other two coins in the series were struck both at the Bombay and Calcutta Mints. Bombay Mint specimens of the rupee and 1/2 rupee coins had, on the reverse, an incuse 'B' at the base of crown, and a small 'dot' on the stem of the bottom lotus-bud in the right-hand spray. Since the 'dot' itself was found adequate to distinguish the products of the mint, and there was no need to have a conspicuous mint-mark as an incuse 'B', from 1906 onward there was apparently an attempt to erase the 'B', but not very successfully. Since this was done by filing off the raised 'B' in the 'coining dies', the deeper parts of the two hollows of 'B' and sometimes parts of the outline remained and these showed up in the struck coins as a raised pair of indistinct 'dots', with or without a feint outline of 'B'. The Calcutta Mint products had no specific mint-mark.




11-November-2009 update: Photos of two features not formerly documented here have been added to the description of the Rupees of Edward VII. Both the raised "B" mint mark and the rare mistake with the Persian script on the 1903 Rupee are now shown. See Rupee of Edward VII. Thanks to Niraj Agarwal for providing these valuable photographs!

Also, a link to a new web site for the Delhi Coin Society has been added to the Links to related sites page.

25-October-2009 update: A link has been added to the Links to related sites page for the Uttarakhand Worldwide page which provides some commentary on India history along with coin photos. Thanks to BC Joshi of India for sending the link.

17-August-2009 update: A link has been added to the Links to related sites page to Ancient and Midieval Indian Coins. Thanks to Sarah for sending the link.

There are also three new photos of the dot variety of the B/II 3/0 Rupee, which I have added to the 1862 Rupee Dot Varieties page. Thanks to Ravi Shankar Sharma, Secretary of the Numismatic Society of Calcutta, for the first two. The third was sent by Murali Thantry. Note the similarity between the 2nd and 3rd dot patterns.

21-July-2009 update: Ravi Shankar Sharma, Secretary of the Numismatic Society of Calcutta, has sent in photos of an 1862 A/II 0/12 Rupee which I have added to the 1862 Rupee Dot Varieties page. Like. the A/II 0/9 Rupee below, the dots are in two distinctive rows.


1862 Rupee A/II 0/9

20-April-2009 update: Satyajit Pai has discovered an interesting variety of the 1862 A/II 0/9 Rupee. He provided some good quality scans of this interesting coin, which have been added to the 1862 Rupee Dot Varieties page . One expert felt it would be more appropriate to lable this coin as A/II 0/6+3, since the dots are in two distinctive rows instead of the more common single row of dots. The 9th dot is also merged with the whorl design.

14-July-2008: New India Coin Web Site and Forum!

Congratulations to Dr. B Jinadatha on the creation of the excellent india-coins.com web site. The scope is much greater than just the coins of British India and the site covers coins from ancient India right through modern India. Highly recommended!

India Coin Forum: india-coins.com also incorporates a fantastic new resource for collections of the coins of India, namely the India Coins Discussion Forum. If you have comments or questions about the coins of India you now have a place to post. I encourage India coin enthusiasts to register at this forum and visit on a regular basis. Set a bookmark/favorites so you can visit easily and often. There aren't a lot of posts yet but it will surely become one of the most useful resources on the Internet for India coin enthusiasts. Don't wait . register now!

2-February-2008 update: Added photos of Victoria dot Rupee A/II 1/7 (top dot in flower) to Victoria Dot Rupees page courtesy of Gev Kias
7-December-2006 update: Added Cupro-Nickel 1/12 Anna and 1/2 Pice page for King George V
13-October-2004 update: Added Checklist for King Edward VII
14-October-2004 update: Added Checklist Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 for King George V

5-October-2004 update: Thanks to a fellow collector I have added numerous examples of the 1862 dot patterns to the Victoria 1862 Rupee Dot Varieties page. An exciting update to the Victoria Rupee Reverse Types page . a new type IV not identified by the Krause or other catalogs has been added. This type was identified by W.A.T. Aves in print in 1984 and confirmed to me by Bob Johnston recently for rupees date 1879-1882. Whether type II and type IV were both used in 1881-1882 is unknown, but both types are known for 1879-1880. Your input would be welcome. The George VI coins are proving difficult and will take a considerable time to sort out, so the George VI Page will be updated slowly.
-- Franklin Campbell Contact Webmaster.

The purpose of this web site is to describe the beautiful coinage of British India 1862-1947. The attempt has been made to fully document every major variety using high-quality photographs. This should allow collectors to accurately identify their coins, and buyers/sellers can agree on the coins being bought and sold. My hope is that this web site will be useful to all collectors of British India and help popularize this most interesting area of coin collecting. The combination of beautiful design, high quality strikes, interesting varieties and relatively low cost makes for an ideal subject for study and collecting. User input with corrections, additions or other commentary is most welcome. Note that this site will be under construction for some time . I'll be adding features and content as time and enthusiasm allows.


Rare Indian Head Pennies Worth Collecting

So, which are the scarce Indian Head pennies you should be on the lookout for?

  • 1864 Indian Head Penny with “L” on Ribbon: $47 to $500 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1866: $43 to $320 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1867: $42 to $350 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1868: $35 to $325 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1869: $65 to $650 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1870: $40 to $775 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1871 : $55 to $700 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1872: $80 to $1,000 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1873 Doubled Liberty Indian Head Penny: $150 to $12,000 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1877: $700 to $4,000 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1878: $25 to $320 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1888 Over 7 Indian Head Penny: $1,000 to $45,000 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1894 Doubled Date Indian Head Penny: $20 to $500 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1908-S Indian Head Penny: $70 to $325 in Good to Mint-State 63
  • 1909-S Indian Head Penny: $365 to $1,000 in Good to Mint-State 63

As you can see, there are several Indian Head pennies that are indeed worth a “pretty penny.” However, these dates are also among the most scarce in the Indian Head penny series!

For that reason, you should always double-check the date of any Indian Head penny you happen upon — to see if you have one of the rare dates.


Outreach and training

The Money and Medals Network

The nationwide Money and Medals Network is run from the Coins and Medals Department. The Network aims to enhance the knowledge and understanding of coins, medals, tokens and paper money in British collections.

Funded by the British Museum, Arts Council England and The Vivmar Foundation, the Network aims to facilitate dialogue and debate around research methodologies, interpretation, display, storage and learning programmes.

Numismatics Summer School

Each year the Department of Coins and Medals hosts a two-week summer school, which covers Classical numismatics in the first week and Medieval numismatics in the second week.

  • This course is for newcomers to the subject or for those with a basic knowledge.
  • It aims to give students the tools to apply numismatics to their studies.
  • The Summer School is open to all undergraduate and graduate students.
  • We can only host 10 students per week, so places are limited.
  • Each course is free of charge and includes free accommodation and breakfast at a local UCL hall of residence.
  • The next British Museum Numismatics Summer School will take place in the Department of Coins and Medals in July 2020.
  • The application process will open in March/April 2020. Please check this page then for more details.

Course outline

  • The Classical week gives a thorough introduction to Greek and Roman numismatics from the archaic to late Roman periods.
  • The Medieval week covers early Medieval Europe and the successors of the Roman Empire through to the High and later Middle Ages (c. 600–1550).
  • Both weeks offer lectures and practical sessions, a visit to another institution and the chance to see a British Museum special exhibition.
  • Students will get to handle objects and gain insights into how the Museum cares for and displays its collection.

How to apply

Please send the following to [email protected]:

  • Your CV
  • A covering letter explaining why you'd like to attend Summer School and which week you're interested in attending
  • A reference from your tutor

Applicants are responsible for organising their own travel arrangements and documentation (such as visas), but will be entitled to claim a bursary of up to £100 for these expenses.


Watch the video: Warum diese 1 Münzen 500 wert sind (January 2022).