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Map showing the battlefield of Shiloh, 6-7 April 1862

Map showing the battlefield of Shiloh, 6-7 April 1862


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Map showing the battlefield of Shiloh, 6-7 April 1862

Map showing the battlefield of Shiloh, 6-7 April 1862

Map taken from Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: I: Sumter to Shiloh, p.470

Return to Battle of Shiloh/ Pittsburg Landing



Map showing the battlefield of Shiloh, 6-7 April 1862 - History

The Battle of Shiloh, also referred to as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was fought April 6 to 7, 1862, in the Western theater of southwestern Tennessee. This was considered to be one of the major early battles to be witnessed during the Civil War. It began with the Confederates under the leadership of General Albert S. Johnston launching a surprise attack on the Union troops commanded by General Ulysses S. Grant in southwestern Tennessee. The two-day battle saw the Confederates achieve a considerable victory in the first day, but they were unable to hold their position in the following day, and succumbed to the Union forces. In the end, both troops suffered massive losses with the number of casualties totaling to 23,746.

Before the Battle

In March 1862, General Henry Halleck, leading the U.S troops in the west, took the troops under Major General Grant and General Don Carlos Buell toward the south to split the Southern railroads. General Grant ascended Tennessee River using a steamboat, an camped at Pittsburg Landing, about 22 miles northeast of Corinth. Here, he established his base of operations with his forward camps being posted 2 miles inland at Shiloh Meeting House church. Halleck had advised Grant not to confront the Rebels until he got reinforcement from Buell’s Army of Ohio. On Buell’s arrival, the combined forces would proceed to Corinth and dismantle the western Confederate railroad infrastructure permanently.

On the other end, following the losses of Donelson and Forts Henry in February 1862, General Johnston of the Confederates Army was forced to vacate from Kentucky as well as leave a great deal of central and western Tennessee to the Federals. Johnston assembled his men at Corinth, Mississippi, to prepare them for any future offensive operations. This was a surprise to the Union side, whose Tennessee army would require some time to prepare for its offensive along the Tennessee River. Grant encamped at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the Tennessee river and spent a few days drilling raw recruits and waiting for back up from Major General Don Carlos Buell’s forces of Ohio. Johnston was aware of the location and strength of Grant, as well as the oncoming support from the Yankees therefore, he planned to attack the vulnerable Union position on April 4. However, due to bad weather and other concerns, the attack was delayed until April 6.

April 6: Day One

At the dawn of Sunday, April 6, Johnston’s men launched a surprise attack in the region of Shiloh Church. General Grant and his troop of about 40,000 men ready for the duty were caught off guard by the onslaught. Union troops rallied nevertheless, and a bitter fight broke out on Shiloh Hill. Confederate brigades gained ground gradually throughout the morning. This forced the Federals to give way reluctantly, to fight a series of defensive positions at the Peach Orchard, Shiloh Church, Hornet’s Nest and Water Oaks Pond.

The surprise was achieving good results until later in the day when Johnston’s troops started becoming disorganized as the Federals. The attack lacked coordination as divisions, brigades and corps became entangled. In the mid afternoon, General Johnston decided to go and supervise an assault on the Union left flank. While doing this, a stray bullet shot him in the right leg, leaving him fatally wounded. Johnston died later that day, and General P. G. Beauregard became the commander of the Confederate troop. Later in the afternoon, the battered Federals established a defensive line extending from Pittsburg, anchored by rugged ravines and massed artillery at their flanks and front. Moreover, Buell’s troops had started arriving and the defense was reinforced further. The fighting went on until late in the night, however the Union army held. Beauregard was unaware of the arrival of Buell’s troop of around 40,000 men and planned to destroy Grant in another attack the following day.

April 7: Day Two

By the dawn of April 7, the Union had a total of 45,000 men (after the arrival of Buell’s men), while the Confederates, having suffered 8,500 casualties in the previous day, had less than 20,000 effective men. To the surprise of Beauregard, the Union troops proceeded with a massive counterattack in the daybreak of April 7. The outnumbered rebels were hammered by the reinforced Federals throughout the day. Even though the confederates launched some desperate counterattacks, they became exhausted and could no longer stem the progressively more stronger Federal attack.

The Federal forces continued attacking until they forced the Confederates back to Shiloh Church. General Beauregard proficiently removed his men and went back to Corinth, however, the Federals did not pursue them. With this battle coming to an end, the number of casualties here was more than American had witnessed in previous battles. In the end, the ultimate control of Corinth’s railroad junction still remained in doubt.

The Aftermath

Grant’s career was affected temporarily after the end of this battle, this was after Halleck combined his men and relegated Grant to the position of second-in-command. Under the leadership of Halleck, the Union armies gradually advanced toward Corinth and captured it in early May. After, the capture of Corinth, General Halleck got an extra reinforcement from General John Pope’s forces, and cautiously proceeded southward from Tennessee. Halleck was later promoted to the position of General in Chief of all Union armies, and after his exit towards east, Grant was restored to commander position. Grant would then push on down the Mississippi and siege Vicksburg in July.

On the other hand, Beauregard, received some back up from Major General Earl Dorn and his Trans-Mississippi Army. However, he advanced southward to Tupelo, deserting the most practical east-to-west rail communication in the western Confederacy. All in all, the two-day battle of Shiloh left the Confederate army defeated and 1,728 of its men dead, including their commander, Albert Johnston. Union forces suffered a casualty number of 13,047 men, with 1,754 dying in the battle including a top-ranked official General W. Wallace. Both sides suffered great losses, and none suspected that the war would continue for 3 more years, while eight larger and bloodier battles were yet to be witnessed.


Map General Buell's map of the battle-field of Shiloh. [April 6-7, 1862] Copy 1

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Map showing the battlefield of Shiloh, 6-7 April 1862 - History

The Battle of Shiloh produced (officially) 23,746 casualties out of 109,784 soldiers engaged. The first large scale battle of the war, Shiloh's horrific casualty list took the North and South by surprise. Shiloh would also become the sixth deadliest battle of the Civil War.

The Civil War Battle of Shiloh Battlefield Map

Western Theater of the Civil War in early 1862
Civil War Battle of Shiloh Map

Shiloh Civil War: The Union and Confederate Armies Clash

Battle of Shiloh Map

Western Theater of the Civil War and Battle of Shiloh Map

Recommended Reading : Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War (Simon & Schuster) . From Publishers Weekly: The bloodbath at Shiloh , Tenn. (April 6-7, 1862), brought an end to any remaining innocence in the Civil War. The combined 23,000 casualties that the two armies inflicted on each other in two days shocked North and South alike. Ulysses S. Grant kept his head and managed, with reinforcements, to win a hard-fought victory. Continued below…

Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston was wounded and bled to death, leaving P.G.T. Beauregard to disengage and retreat with a dispirited gray-clad army. Daniel (Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee) has crafted a superbly researched volume that will appeal to both the beginning Civil War reader as well as those already familiar with the course of fighting in the wooded terrain bordering the Tennessee River . His impressive research includes the judicious use of contemporary newspapers and extensive collections of unpublished letters and diaries. He offers a lengthy discussion of the overall strategic situation that preceded the battle, a survey of the generals and their armies and, within the notes, sharp analyses of the many controversies that Shiloh has spawned, including assessments of previous scholarship on the battle. This first new book on Shiloh in a generation concludes with a cogent chapter on the consequences of those two fatal days of conflict.

Recommended Reading : Shiloh --In Hell before Night . Description: James McDonough has written a good, readable and concise history of a battle that the author characterizes as one of the most important of the Civil War, and writes an interesting history of this decisive 1862 confrontation in the West. He blends first person and newspaper accounts to give the book a good balance between the general's view and the soldier's view of the battle. Continued below…

Particularly enlightening is his description of Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, the commander who was killed on the first day of the battle. McDonough makes a pretty convincing argument that Johnston fell far short of the image that many give him in contemporary and historical writings. He is usually portrayed as an experienced and decisive commander of men. This book shows that Johnston was a man of modest war and command experience, and that he rose to prominence shortly before the Civil War. His actions (or inaction) prior to the meeting at Shiloh -- offering to let his subordinate Beauregard take command for example -- reveal a man who had difficulty managing the responsibility fostered on him by his command. The author does a good job of presenting several other historical questions and problems like Johnston 's reputation vs. reality that really add a lot of interest to the pages.

Recommended Reading : Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 . Review: The bloody and decisive two-day battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862) changed the entire course of the American Civil War. The stunning Northern victory thrust Union commander Ulysses S. Grant into the national spotlight, claimed the life of Confederate commander Albert S. Johnston, and forever buried the notion that the Civil War would be a short conflict. The conflagration at Shiloh had its roots in the strong Union advance during the winter of 1861-1862 that resulted in the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee . Continued below…

The offensive collapsed General Albert S. Johnston advanced line in Kentucky and forced him to withdraw all the way to northern Mississippi . Anxious to attack the enemy, Johnston began concentrating Southern forces at Corinth , a major railroad center just below the Tennessee border. His bold plan called for his Army of the Mississippi to march north and destroy General Grant's Army of the Tennessee before it could link up with another Union army on the way to join him. On the morning of April 6, Johnston boasted to his subordinates, "Tonight we will water our horses in the Tennessee !" They nearly did so. Johnston 's sweeping attack hit the unsuspecting Federal camps at Pittsburg Landing and routed the enemy from position after position as they fell back toward the Tennessee River . Johnston 's sudden death in the Peach Orchard, however, coupled with stubborn Federal resistance, widespread confusion, and Grant's dogged determination to hold the field, saved the Union army from destruction. The arrival of General Don C. Buell's reinforcements that night turned the tide of battle. The next day, Grant seized the initiative and attacked the Confederates, driving them from the field. Shiloh was one of the bloodiest battles of the entire war, with nearly 24,000 men killed, wounded, and missing. Edward Cunningham, a young Ph.D. candidate studying under the legendary T. Harry Williams at Louisiana State University , researched and wrote Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 in 1966. Although it remained unpublished, many Shiloh experts and park rangers consider it to be the best overall examination of the battle ever written. Indeed, Shiloh historiography is just now catching up with Cunningham, who was decades ahead of modern scholarship. Western Civil War historians Gary D. Joiner and Timothy B. Smith have resurrected Cunningham's beautifully written and deeply researched manuscript from its undeserved obscurity. Fully edited and richly annotated with updated citations and observations, original maps, and a complete order of battle and table of losses, Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 will be welcomed by everyone who enjoys battle history at its finest. Edward Cunningham, Ph.D., studied under T. Harry Williams at Louisiana State University . He was the author of The Port Hudson Campaign: 1862-1863 (LSU, 1963). Dr. Cunningham died in 1997. Gary D. Joiner, Ph.D. is the author of One Damn Blunder from Beginning to End: The Red River Campaign of 1864, winner of the 2004 Albert Castel Award and the 2005 A. M. Pate, Jr., Award, and Through the Howling Wilderness: The 1864 Red River Campaign and Union Failure in the West. He lives in Shreveport , Louisiana . About the Author: Timothy B. Smith, Ph.D., is author of Champion Hill: Decisive Battle for Vicksburg (winner of the 2004 Mississippi Institute of Arts and Letters Non-fiction Award), The Untold Story of Shiloh: The Battle and the Battlefield, and This Great Battlefield of Shiloh: History, Memory, and the Establishment of a Civil War National Military Park. A former ranger at Shiloh, Tim teaches history at the University of Tennessee .

Recommended Reading : Shiloh : A Novel , by Shelby Foote. Review: In the novel Shiloh, historian and Civil War expert Shelby Foote delivers a spare, unflinching account of the battle of Shiloh , which was fought over the course of two days in April 1862. By mirroring the troops' movements through the woods of Tennessee with the activity of each soldier's mind, Foote offers the reader a broad perspective of the battle and a detailed view of the issues behind it. Continued below…

The battle becomes tangible as Foote interweaves the observations of Union and Confederate officers, simple foot soldiers, brave men, and cowards and describes the roar of the muskets and the haze of the gun smoke. The author's vivid storytelling creates a rich chronicle of a pivotal battle in American history.

Recommended Reading : Seeing the Elephant: RAW RECRUITS AT THE BATTLE OF SHILOH . Description: One of the bloodiest battles in the Civil War, the two-day engagement near Shiloh , Tennessee , in April 1862 left more than 23,000 casualties. Fighting alongside seasoned veterans were more than 160 newly recruited regiments and other soldiers who had yet to encounter serious action. In the phrase of the time, these men came to Shiloh to "see the elephant". Continued below…

Drawing on the letters, diaries, and other reminiscences of these raw recruits on both sides of the conflict, "Seeing the Elephant" gives a vivid and valuable primary account of the terrible struggle. From the wide range of voices included in this volume emerges a nuanced picture of the psychology and motivations of the novice soldiers and the ways in which their attitudes toward the war were affected by their experiences at Shiloh .

Recommended Reading : The Shiloh Campaign (Civil War Campaigns in the Heartland) (Hardcover). Description: Some 100,000 soldiers fought in the April 1862 battle of Shiloh, and nearly 20,000 men were killed or wounded more Americans died on that Tennessee battlefield than had died in all the nation’s previous wars combined. In the first book in his new series, Steven E. Woodworth has brought together a group of superb historians to reassess this significant battle and provide in-depth analyses of key aspects of the campaign and its aftermath. The eight talented contributors dissect the campaign’s fundamental events, many of which have not received adequate attention before now. Continued below…

John R. Lundberg examines the role of Albert Sidney Johnston, the prized Confederate commander who recovered impressively after a less-than-stellar performance at forts Henry and Donelson only to die at Shiloh Alexander Mendoza analyzes the crucial, and perhaps decisive, struggle to defend the Union’s left Timothy B. Smith investigates the persistent legend that the Hornet’s Nest was the spot of the hottest fighting at Shiloh Steven E. Woodworth follows Lew Wallace’s controversial march to the battlefield and shows why Ulysses S. Grant never forgave him Gary D. Joiner provides the deepest analysis available of action by the Union gunboats Grady McWhiney describes P. G. T. Beauregard’s decision to stop the first day’s attack and takes issue with his claim of victory and Charles D. Grear shows the battle’s impact on Confederate soldiers, many of whom did not consider the battle a defeat for their side. In the final chapter, Brooks D. Simpson analyzes how command relationships—specifically the interactions among Grant, Henry Halleck, William T. Sherman, and Abraham Lincoln—affected the campaign and debunks commonly held beliefs about Grant’s reactions to Shiloh’s aftermath. The Shiloh Campaign will enhance readers’ understanding of a pivotal battle that helped unlock the western theater to Union conquest. It is sure to inspire further study of and debate about one of the American Civil War’s momentous campaigns.

Recommended Reading : Guide to the Battle of Shiloh , by Army War College . Description: As Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman prepared their inexperienced troops for a massive offensive by an equally green Confederate army in April 1862, the outcome of the Civil War was still very much in doubt. For two of the most chaotic and ravaging days of the War, the Union forces counterattacked and fended off the Rebels. Losses were great--more than 20,000 casualties out of 100,000 Union and Confederate troops. Continued below…

But out of the struggle, Grant and Sherman forged their own union that would be a major factor in the Union Army's final victory. For the Confederates, Shiloh was a devastating disappointment. By the time the siege was over, they had lost both the battle and one of their ablest commanders, Albert Sidney Johnston. Eyewitness accounts by battle participants make these guides an invaluable resource for travelers and nontravelers who want a greater understanding of five of the most devastating yet influential years in our nation's history. Explicit directions to points of interest and maps--illustrating the action and showing the detail of troop position, roads, rivers, elevations, and tree lines as they were 130 years ago--help bring the battles to life. In the field, these guides can be used to recreate each battle's setting and proportions, giving the reader a sense of the tension and fear each soldier must have felt as he faced his enemy. This book is part of the U.S. Army War College Guides to Civil War Battles series.

Recommended Reading : Shiloh : A Battlefield Guide (This Hallowed Ground: Guides to Civil War), by Mark Grimsley (Author), Steven E. Woodworth (Author). Description: Peabody’s Battle Line, McCuller’s Field, Stuart’s Defense, the Peach Orchard, and Hell’s Hollow—these monuments mark some of the critical moments in the battle of Shiloh but offer the visitor only the most meager sense of what happened on the banks of the Tennessee in April 1862. This battlefield guide breathes life into Civil War history, giving readers a clear picture of the setting at the time of engagement, who was where, and when and how the battle progressed. Continued below…

Designed to lead the user on a one-day tour of one of the most important battlefields of the war, the guide provides precise directions to all the key locations in a manner reflecting how the battle itself unfolded. A wealth of maps, vivid descriptions, and careful but accessible analysis makes plain the sweep of events and the geography of the battlefield, enhancing the experience of Shiloh for the serious student, the casual visitor, and the armchair tourist alike.

About the Authors: Mark Grimsley is a professor of history at Ohio State University . He is the author of And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June, 1864, and the co-editor of Civilians in the Path of War, both published by the University of Nebraska Press . Steven E. Woodworth is a professor of history at Texas Christian University . He is the author of Chickamauga : A Battlefield Guide and Six Armies in Tennessee : The Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns.

Recommended Reading : The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (Hardcover). Description: How can an essential "cornerstone of Shiloh historiography" remain unavailable to the general public for so long? That's what I kept thinking as I was reading this reprint of the 1913 edition of David W. Reed's “The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged.” Reed, a veteran of the Battle of Shiloh and the first historian of the Shiloh National Military Park , was tabbed to write the official history of the battle, and this book was the result. Reed wrote a short, concise history of the fighting and included quite a bit of other valuable information in the pages that followed. The large and impressive maps that accompanied the original text are here converted into digital format and included in a CD located within a flap at the back of the book. Author and former Shiloh Park Ranger Timothy Smith is responsible for bringing this important reference work back from obscurity. His introduction to the book also places it in the proper historical framework. Continued below…

Reed's history of the campaign and battle covers only seventeen pages and is meant to be a brief history of the subject. The detail is revealed in the rest of the book. And what detail there is! Reed's order of battle for Shiloh goes down to the regimental and battery level. He includes the names of the leaders of each organization where known, including whether or not these men were killed, wounded, captured, or suffered some other fate. In a touch not often seen in modern studies, the author also states the original regiment of brigade commanders. In another nice piece of detail following the order of battle, staff officers for each brigade and higher organization are listed. The book's main point and where it truly shines is in the section entitled "Detailed Movements of Organizations". Reed follows each unit in their movements during the battle. Reading this section along with referring to the computerized maps gives one a solid foundation for future study of Shiloh . Forty-five pages cover the brigades of all three armies present at Shiloh .

Wargamers and buffs will love the "Abstract of Field Returns". This section lists Present for Duty, engaged, and casualties for each regiment and battery in an easy to read table format. Grant's entire Army of the Tennessee has Present for Duty strengths. Buell's Army of the Ohio is also counted well. The Confederate Army of the Mississippi is counted less accurately, usually only going down to brigade level and many times relying only on engaged strengths. That said, buy this book if you are looking for a good reference work for help with your order of battle.

In what I believe is an unprecedented move in Civil War literature, the University of Tennessee Press made the somewhat unusual decision to include Reed's detailed maps of the campaign and battle in a CD which is included in a plastic sleeve inside the back cover of the book. The cost of reproducing the large maps and including them as foldouts or in a pocket in the book must have been prohibitive, necessitating this interesting use of a CD. The maps were simple to view and came in a PDF format. All you'll need is Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free program, to view these. It will be interesting to see if other publishers follow suit. Maps are an integral part of military history, and this solution is far better than deciding to include poor maps or no maps at all. The Read Me file that came with the CD relays the following information:

The maps contained on this CD are scans of the original oversized maps printed in the 1913 edition of D. W. Reed's The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged. The original maps, which were in a very large format and folded out of the pages of this edition, are of varying sizes, up to 23 inches by 25 inches. They were originally created in 1901 by the Shiloh National Military Park under the direction of its historian, David W. Reed. They are the most accurate Shiloh battle maps in existence.

The maps on the CD are saved as PDF (Portable Document Format) files and can be read on any operating system (Windows, Macintosh, Linux) by utilizing Adobe Acrobat Reader. Visit http://www.adobe.com to download Acrobat Reader if you do not have it installed on your system.

Map 1. The Field of Operations from Which the Armies Were Concentrated at Shiloh , March and April 1862

Map 2. The Territory between Corinth , Miss. , and Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. , Showing Positions and Route of the Confederate Army in Its Advance to Shiloh , April 3, 4, 5, & 6, 1862

Map 3. Positions on the First Day, April 6, 1862

Map 4. Positions on the Second Day, April 7, 1862

Complete captions appear on the maps.

Timothy Smith has done students of the Civil War an enormous favor by republishing this important early work on Shiloh . Relied on for generations by Park Rangers and other serious students of the battle, The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged has been resurrected for a new generation of Civil War readers. This classic reference work is an essential book for those interested in the Battle of Shiloh. Civil War buffs, wargamers, and those interested in tactical minutiae will also find Reed's work to be a very good buy. Highly recommended.


Shiloh Tennessee Battlefield - Sneden 1862 - 28.13 x 23

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Order of Battle

Whether your topic is directly related to the tactical conduct of the battle or has something to do with a broader aspect, it is very likely you will need to know how the two armies were organized. You will need to have at hand some kind of reference regarding which regiments were part of which brigade, who commanded each division and which brigades composed it, etc.

To gain knowledge of these matters, consult an Order of Battle of the Union and Confederate forces at Shiloh.

Q. What is an Order of Battle?

A. An Order of Battle is a document that explains the organization and composition of a military force at some period of time, whether a specific point in time or over some longer period. The term originates from eras (such as the early modern period) when commanders documented the actual arrangement on the field of particular units in a battle line. &ldquoOrder of Battle&rdquo for military historians, however, has come to mean any document (whether in the form of formatted text, a chart, table, etc.) that makes clear the hierarchical command relationships and organizational structure of a military force. It is usually used to make clear the composition of larger forces, whether the entire military force of one nation or coalition a part thereof, such a field army, etc.

Order of Battle

The armies that fought at Shiloh were rather large, and having at hand a full order of battle of both the Union and Confederate sides will likely be of great help. At the very minimum, know which regiments composed your brigade, and know the division of which your brigade was part. When you start examining the OR, you may wish to look for reports, correspondence, other documents, etc. not just from your brigade but from each of its component regiments, etc. You may also use the Order of Battle for Shiloh in concert with various maps to increase your understanding of which opposing units your brigade faced and which nearby friendly units&rsquo actions might have affected your unit.


Map showing the battlefield of Shiloh, 6-7 April 1862 - History

Battle of Shiloh Battlefield Map

Shiloh Battlefield Map

Battle of Shiloh Map: Union and Confederate Armies

Shiloh Battlefield Map

Battle of Shiloh Map: Confederate Army Advance and Assault

Shiloh Battlefield Map

Battle of Shiloh Map: Union Counter Assault

Recommended Reading : Shiloh : A Battlefield Guide (This Hallowed Ground: Guides to Civil War), by Mark Grimsley (Author), Steven E. Woodworth (Author). Description: Peabody’s Battle Line, McCuller’s Field, Stuart’s Defense, the Peach Orchard, and Hell’s Hollow—these monuments mark some of the critical moments in the battle of Shiloh but offer the visitor only the most meager sense of what happened on the banks of the Tennessee in April 1862. This battlefield guide breathes life into Civil War history, giving readers a clear picture of the setting at the time of engagement, who was where, and when and how the battle progressed. Continued below…

Designed to lead the user on a one-day tour of one of the most important battlefields of the war, the guide provides precise directions to all the key locations in a manner reflecting how the battle itself unfolded. A wealth of maps, vivid descriptions, and careful but accessible analysis makes plain the sweep of events and the geography of the battlefield, enhancing the experience of Shiloh for the serious student, the casual visitor, and the armchair tourist alike.

About the Authors: Mark Grimsley is a professor of history at Ohio State University . He is the author of And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June, 1864, and the co-editor of Civilians in the Path of War, both published by the University of Nebraska Press . Steven E. Woodworth is a professor of history at Texas Christian University . He is the author of Chickamauga : A Battlefield Guide and Six Armies in Tennessee : The Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns.

Recommended Reading : Guide to the Battle of Shiloh , by Army War College . Description: As Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman prepared their inexperienced troops for a massive offensive by an equally green Confederate army in April 1862, the outcome of the Civil War was still very much in doubt. For two of the most chaotic and ravaging days of the War, the Union forces counterattacked and fended off the Rebels. Losses were great--more than 20,000 casualties out of 100,000 Union and Confederate troops. Continued below…

But out of the struggle, Grant and Sherman forged their own union that would be a major factor in the Union Army's final victory. For the Confederates, Shiloh was a devastating disappointment. By the time the siege was over, they had lost both the battle and one of their ablest commanders, Albert Sidney Johnston. Eyewitness accounts by battle participants make these guides an invaluable resource for travelers and nontravelers who want a greater understanding of five of the most devastating yet influential years in our nation's history. Explicit directions to points of interest and maps--illustrating the action and showing the detail of troop position, roads, rivers, elevations, and tree lines as they were 130 years ago--help bring the battles to life. In the field, these guides can be used to recreate each battle's setting and proportions, giving the reader a sense of the tension and fear each soldier must have felt as he faced his enemy. This book is part of the U.S. Army War College Guides to Civil War Battles series.

Recommended Reading : Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War (Simon & Schuster). From Publishers Weekly: The bloodbath at Shiloh , Tenn. (April 6-7, 1862), brought an end to any remaining innocence in the Civil War. The combined 23,000 casualties that the two armies inflicted on each other in two days shocked North and South alike. Ulysses S. Grant kept his head and managed, with reinforcements, to win a hard-fought victory. Continued below…

Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston was wounded and bled to death, leaving P.G.T. Beauregard to disengage and retreat with a dispirited gray-clad army. Daniel (Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee) has crafted a superbly researched volume that will appeal to both the beginning Civil War reader as well as those already familiar with the course of fighting in the wooded terrain bordering the Tennessee River . His impressive research includes the judicious use of contemporary newspapers and extensive collections of unpublished letters and diaries. He offers a lengthy discussion of the overall strategic situation that preceded the battle, a survey of the generals and their armies and, within the notes, sharp analyses of the many controversies that Shiloh has spawned, including assessments of previous scholarship on the battle. This first new book on Shiloh in a generation concludes with a cogent chapter on the consequences of those two fatal days of conflict.

Recommended Reading : Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 . Review: The bloody and decisive two-day battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862) changed the entire course of the American Civil War. The stunning Northern victory thrust Union commander Ulysses S. Grant into the national spotlight, claimed the life of Confederate commander Albert S. Johnston, and forever buried the notion that the Civil War would be a short conflict. The conflagration at Shiloh had its roots in the strong Union advance during the winter of 1861-1862 that resulted in the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee . Continued below…

The offensive collapsed General Albert S. Johnston advanced line in Kentucky and forced him to withdraw all the way to northern Mississippi . Anxious to attack the enemy, Johnston began concentrating Southern forces at Corinth , a major railroad center just below the Tennessee border. His bold plan called for his Army of the Mississippi to march north and destroy General Grant's Army of the Tennessee before it could link up with another Union army on the way to join him. On the morning of April 6, Johnston boasted to his subordinates, "Tonight we will water our horses in the Tennessee !" They nearly did so. Johnston 's sweeping attack hit the unsuspecting Federal camps at Pittsburg Landing and routed the enemy from position after position as they fell back toward the Tennessee River . Johnston 's sudden death in the Peach Orchard, however, coupled with stubborn Federal resistance, widespread confusion, and Grant's dogged determination to hold the field, saved the Union army from destruction. The arrival of General Don C. Buell's reinforcements that night turned the tide of battle. The next day, Grant seized the initiative and attacked the Confederates, driving them from the field. Shiloh was one of the bloodiest battles of the entire war, with nearly 24,000 men killed, wounded, and missing. Edward Cunningham, a young Ph.D. candidate studying under the legendary T. Harry Williams at Louisiana State University , researched and wrote Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 in 1966. Although it remained unpublished, many Shiloh experts and park rangers consider it to be the best overall examination of the battle ever written. Indeed, Shiloh historiography is just now catching up with Cunningham, who was decades ahead of modern scholarship. Western Civil War historians Gary D. Joiner and Timothy B. Smith have resurrected Cunningham's beautifully written and deeply researched manuscript from its undeserved obscurity. Fully edited and richly annotated with updated citations and observations, original maps, and a complete order of battle and table of losses, Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 will be welcomed by everyone who enjoys battle history at its finest. Edward Cunningham, Ph.D., studied under T. Harry Williams at Louisiana State University . He was the author of The Port Hudson Campaign: 1862-1863 (LSU, 1963). Dr. Cunningham died in 1997. Gary D. Joiner, Ph.D. is the author of One Damn Blunder from Beginning to End: The Red River Campaign of 1864, winner of the 2004 Albert Castel Award and the 2005 A. M. Pate, Jr., Award, and Through the Howling Wilderness: The 1864 Red River Campaign and Union Failure in the West. He lives in Shreveport , Louisiana . About the Author: Timothy B. Smith, Ph.D., is author of Champion Hill: Decisive Battle for Vicksburg (winner of the 2004 Mississippi Institute of Arts and Letters Non-fiction Award), The Untold Story of Shiloh: The Battle and the Battlefield, and This Great Battlefield of Shiloh: History, Memory, and the Establishment of a Civil War National Military Park. A former ranger at Shiloh, Tim teaches history at the University of Tennessee .

Recommended Reading : Shiloh --In Hell before Night . Description: James McDonough has written a good, readable and concise history of a battle that the author characterizes as one of the most important of the Civil War, and writes an interesting history of this decisive 1862 confrontation in the West. He blends first person and newspaper accounts to give the book a good balance between the general's view and the soldier's view of the battle. Continued below…

Particularly enlightening is his description of Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, the commander who was killed on the first day of the battle. McDonough makes a pretty convincing argument that Johnston fell far short of the image that many give him in contemporary and historical writings. He is usually portrayed as an experienced and decisive commander of men. This book shows that Johnston was a man of modest war and command experience, and that he rose to prominence shortly before the Civil War. His actions (or inaction) prior to the meeting at Shiloh -- offering to let his subordinate Beauregard take command for example -- reveal a man who had difficulty managing the responsibility fostered on him by his command. The author does a good job of presenting several other historical questions and problems like Johnston 's reputation vs. reality that really add a lot of interest to the pages.

Recommended Reading : The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (Hardcover). Description: How can an essential "cornerstone of Shiloh historiography" remain unavailable to the general public for so long? That's what I kept thinking as I was reading this reprint of the 1913 edition of David W. Reed's “The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged.” Reed, a veteran of the Battle of Shiloh and the first historian of the Shiloh National Military Park , was tabbed to write the official history of the battle, and this book was the result. Reed wrote a short, concise history of the fighting and included quite a bit of other valuable information in the pages that followed. The large and impressive maps that accompanied the original text are here converted into digital format and included in a CD located within a flap at the back of the book. Author and former Shiloh Park Ranger Timothy Smith is responsible for bringing this important reference work back from obscurity. His introduction to the book also places it in the proper historical framework. Continued below…

Reed's history of the campaign and battle covers only seventeen pages and is meant to be a brief history of the subject. The detail is revealed in the rest of the book. And what detail there is! Reed's order of battle for Shiloh goes down to the regimental and battery level. He includes the names of the leaders of each organization where known, including whether or not these men were killed, wounded, captured, or suffered some other fate. In a touch not often seen in modern studies, the author also states the original regiment of brigade commanders. In another nice piece of detail following the order of battle, staff officers for each brigade and higher organization are listed. The book's main point and where it truly shines is in the section entitled "Detailed Movements of Organizations". Reed follows each unit in their movements during the battle. Reading this section along with referring to the computerized maps gives one a solid foundation for future study of Shiloh . Forty-five pages cover the brigades of all three armies present at Shiloh .

Wargamers and buffs will love the "Abstract of Field Returns". This section lists Present for Duty, engaged, and casualties for each regiment and battery in an easy to read table format. Grant's entire Army of the Tennessee has Present for Duty strengths. Buell's Army of the Ohio is also counted well. The Confederate Army of the Mississippi is counted less accurately, usually only going down to brigade level and many times relying only on engaged strengths. That said, buy this book if you are looking for a good reference work for help with your order of battle.

In what I believe is an unprecedented move in Civil War literature, the University of Tennessee Press made the somewhat unusual decision to include Reed's detailed maps of the campaign and battle in a CD which is included in a plastic sleeve inside the back cover of the book. The cost of reproducing the large maps and including them as foldouts or in a pocket in the book must have been prohibitive, necessitating this interesting use of a CD. The maps were simple to view and came in a PDF format. All you'll need is Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free program, to view these. It will be interesting to see if other publishers follow suit. Maps are an integral part of military history, and this solution is far better than deciding to include poor maps or no maps at all. The Read Me file that came with the CD relays the following information:

The maps contained on this CD are scans of the original oversized maps printed in the 1913 edition of D. W. Reed's The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged. The original maps, which were in a very large format and folded out of the pages of this edition, are of varying sizes, up to 23 inches by 25 inches. They were originally created in 1901 by the Shiloh National Military Park under the direction of its historian, David W. Reed. They are the most accurate Shiloh battle maps in existence.

The maps on the CD are saved as PDF (Portable Document Format) files and can be read on any operating system (Windows, Macintosh, Linux) by utilizing Adobe Acrobat Reader. Visit http://www.adobe.com to download Acrobat Reader if you do not have it installed on your system.

Map 1. The Field of Operations from Which the Armies Were Concentrated at Shiloh , March and April 1862

Map 2. The Territory between Corinth , Miss. , and Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. , Showing Positions and Route of the Confederate Army in Its Advance to Shiloh , April 3, 4, 5, & 6, 1862

Map 3. Positions on the First Day, April 6, 1862

Map 4. Positions on the Second Day, April 7, 1862

Complete captions appear on the maps.

Timothy Smith has done students of the Civil War an enormous favor by republishing this important early work on Shiloh . Relied on for generations by Park Rangers and other serious students of the battle, The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged has been resurrected for a new generation of Civil War readers. This classic reference work is an essential book for those interested in the Battle of Shiloh. Civil War buffs, wargamers, and those interested in tactical minutiae will also find Reed's work to be a very good buy. Highly recommended.


Sketch of the Battlefield of Shiloh

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Battle of Shiloh begins

The Civil War explodes in the west as the armies of Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston collide at Shiloh, near Pittsburgh Landing in Tennessee. The Battle of Shiloh became one of the bloodiest engagements of the war, and the level of violence shocked North and South alike.

For six months, Yankee troops had been working their way up the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. Kentucky was firmly in Union hands, and now the Federals controlled much of Tennessee, including the capital at Nashville. Grant scored major victories at Forts Henry and Donelson in February, forcing Johnston to gather the scattered Rebel forces at Corinth in northern Mississippi. Grant brought his army, 42,000 strong, to rendezvous with General Don Carlos Buell and his 20,000 troops. Grant’s objective was Corinth, a vital rail center that if captured would give the Union total control of the region. Twenty miles away, Johnston lurked at Corinth with 45,000 soldiers.

Johnston did not wait for Grant and Buell to combine their forces. He advanced on April 3, delayed by rains and muddy roads that also slowed Buell. In the early dawn of April 6, a Yankee patrol found the Confederates poised for battle just a mile from the main Union army. Johnston attacked, driving the surprised bluecoats back near a small church called Shiloh, meaning “place of peace.” Throughout the day, the Confederates battered the Union army, driving it back towards Pittsburgh Landing and threatening to trap it against the Tennessee River. Many troops on both sides had no experience in battle. The chances for a complete Confederate victory diminished as troops from Buell’s army began arriving, and Grant’s command on the battlefield shored up the sagging Union line. In the middle of the afternoon, Johnston rode forward to direct the Confederate attack and was struck in the leg by a bullet, severing an artery and causing him to quickly bleed to death. The ball severed an artery, and Johnston quickly bled to death. He became the highest ranking general on either side killed during the war. General Pierre G. T. Beauregard assumed control, and he halted the advance at nightfall. The Union army was driven back two miles, but it did not break.


Kentucky Regiments at Battle of Shiloh

(Same text on both front and back):
As a border slave state that remained in the Union, Kentucky was sharply divided in its loyalty during the Civil War. The state provided many troops to both sides at Shiloh approximately 6,500 to the Federal forces approximately 2,000 to the Confederate forces. Confederate Commanding General Albert Sidney Johnston, who was killed in action on April 6 at Shiloh, though a Texan by adoption, was a Kentuckian by birth, and he retained innumerable ties of blood and sentiment with his native state. Confederate Brigadier General John C. Breckenridge, who was a former Vice President of the United States, and who commanded the Confederate reserve corps at Shiloh, was from Kentucky. Two sons of a distinguished United States Senator from Kentucky, Senator John J. Crittenden, were in opposing armies at Shiloh: Brigadier General Thomas L. Crittenden for the Union Brigadier General George B. Crittenden for the Confederacy. Kentucky's "Confederate Governor," George W. Johnson, fought and died in the Southern ranks at Shiloh.

Five Kentucky infantry regiments, plus the Kentucky cavalry squadron of Colonel John Hunt Morgan, the Kentucky cavalry company of Captain Philip Thompson, and the Kentucky artillery battery of Captain Robert Cobb, were in the Confederate forces at Shiloh. The 7th Kentucky Infantry

served in the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Division of Major General Leonidas Polk's 1st Corps it was deployed initially at about 8:30 A.M. of April 6 as a supporting unit on the Confederate right by 10:00 A.M. it was engaged at the Hornet's Nest. The 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 9th Kentucky Infantry regiments and Cobb's artillery served in Colonel Robert P. Trabue's 1st Brigade of Breckenridge's reserve corps. Detached from its parent corps early in the morning of April 6, the 1st Brigade entered the battle at 9:30 A.M. at the Crescent Field. Here the 3rd Kentucky Regiment was separated from the brigade by General Beauregard and ordered to another part of the battlefield. No further record remains of its location or action the first day. During the course of fighting, the brigade was moved by stages across the front until late in the afternoon it rejoined Breckenridge's corps on the extreme Confederate right. At the close of the first day's combat the brigade was at the Indian mounds overlooking the Tennessee River. All of the Kentucky Confederate units experienced hard fighting and suffered heavy casualties during the day.

Only two Kentucky regiments, the 17th and 25th Infantry regiments, were present with the Federal Army (Army of the Tennessee) during the first day of the battle. Attached to the 3rd Brigade of Brigadier General Stephen H. Hurlbut's 4th Division, they were encamped

in the northeast edge of Cloud Field (near the present marker) when the battle opened. Shifted from one hotly contested position to another during the first day of fighting, they had their severest action early in the afternoon at the Peach Orchard. Late in the day they were placed near the Pittsburg Landing road as a part of General Grant's final defensive perimeter.

The Army of the Ohio, which reinforced the Army of the Tennessee during the late afternoon and night of April 6 and the morning of April 7, contained ten regiments of Kentucky troops: the 5th Regiment of the 4th Brigade, 2nd Division the 6th Regiment of the 19th Brigade, and the 1st, 2nd, and 20th Regiments of the 22nd Brigade, 4th Division the 9th and 13th Regiments of the 11th Brigade, and the 11th and 26th Regiments of the 14th Brigade, 5th Division and the 24th Regiment of the 21st Brigade, 6th Division. The initial unit of the Army of the Ohio to arrive at the scene of battle, the 4th Division, was commanded by Brigadier General William Nelson, a Kentuckian.

The Kentucky troops in both armies shared fully in the bitter fighting of April 7 as the strengthened and reanimated Federals pressed forward as the outnumbered, exhausted, and demoralized Confederates gradually yielded the field. Morgan's Kentucky cavalry joined with Forrest's Tennessee cavalry and other detachments on April 8 to repel General

Sherman's pursuit near Mickey's - the closing action of the battle of Shiloh.

Casualties among Kentucky troops at Shiloh: Union 115 killed, 636 wounded, 29 missing Confederate 137 killed, 627 wounded, 45 missing.

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: War, US Civil. In addition, it is included in the Former U.S. Presidents: #18 Ulysses S. Grant series list. A significant historical month for this entry is April 1862.

Location. 35° 8.475′ N, 88° 19.558′ W. Marker is near Shiloh, Tennessee, in Hardin County. Marker is on RIverside Drive (Brown's Ferry Road), on the left when traveling east. Located in the northeast portion of Shiloh National Military Park, just east of Cloud Field. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Shiloh TN 38376, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Sifting the Evidence (about 500 feet away, measured in a direct line) Shiloh Indian Mounds (about 500 feet away) Mississippian Indians (about 500 feet away) Vibrant Community (approx. 0.3 miles away) Richardson's Battery (approx. 0.3 miles away) Clanton's Alabama Cavalry (approx. 0.3 miles away) Welker's Battery (approx. 0.3 miles away) 19th Alabama Monument (approx. 0.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Shiloh.


Watch the video: Battle of Shiloh Part 6, The Last Line. Animated Battle Map (May 2022).