History Podcasts

Where can I find digitised versions of Japanese war documents in original Japanese?

Where can I find digitised versions of Japanese war documents in original Japanese?

I was wondering where can I find digitised versions of Japanese war documents in original Japanese?

I can read Japanese but I cannot seem to find any primary sources that relate to the Japanese army in ww2

Any help much appreciated

Don't know how helpful this is, but I think the real question you want to ask is whether or not there are documents publicly available concerning the Japanese military from World War II. Many such documents, especially official records concerning various crimes against humanity, (i.e. The Nanjing incident, Bataan Death March or the Bangka Island Massacre in Indonesia read at your own risk) were likely destroyed or hidden at the end of the war.

It is difficult to tell whether surviving military records could be accessible. My bet is that this type of research is best conducted on site. In other words by visiting Japan.

Your first port of call is the public archives of the victors, particularly the records of military trials:

http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/SearchUI/Details?uri=C11603634 http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/SearchUI/Details?uri=C3040467 http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/SearchUI/Details?uri=C4408406 http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/SearchUI/browse/C14441

And of course, the archives of the inheritor state: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Archives_of_Japan

You may wish to contact professional historians, or if the archives supply direct copying services, the archives. This may get very expensive.

There may also be "sourcebooks" of historical documents printed in Japanese on war events. I would suggest that due to the politicisation of Japanese military actions in WWII in Japan (the chief reading public for Japanese), that such sourcebooks would be primarily produced by the side of politics that reviles Japan's war past and seeks to more firmly cement a discussion of this past in national life. Sadly, not being a Japanese speaker or historian, I lack the interlingual googlefu to find such works at amazon.co.jp or in the national library of Japan.

The Diet Libary seems to have some holdings: http://iss.ndl.go.jp/books?any=%E6%A5%B5%E6%9D%B1%E8%BB%8D%E4%BA%8B%E8%A3%81%E5%88%A4 http://iss.ndl.go.jp/books?any=%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E3%81%AE%E6%88%A6%E4%BA%89%E8%B2%AC%E4%BB%BB%E8%B3%87%E6%96%99%E3%82%BB%E3%83%B3%E3%82%BF%E3%83%BC

Perhaps the best online collection of Japanese wartime documents, in Japanese, is found at JACAR, or Japan Center for Asian Historical Records.


This contains a large body of documents from the national archives, the foreign ministry, the archives of the ministry of defense, and some other materials.

Given the mission and founding of the project, the collection is particularly strong in World War II materials. You will find that many of the documents can be short, and difficult to understand out of context, so be sure to read up on the collections and perhaps some Japanese secondary sources on the structure of the military etc. to help you orient yourself in the collection.

The Tale of Genji

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The Tale of Genji, Japanese Genji monogatari, masterpiece of Japanese literature by Murasaki Shikibu. Written at the start of the 11th century, it is generally considered the world’s first novel.

Murasaki Shikibu composed The Tale of Genji while a lady in attendance at the Japanese court, likely completing it about 1010. Because Chinese was the court’s scholarly language, works written in Japanese (the literary language used by women, often in personal accounts of life at court) were not taken very seriously so too, prose was not considered the equal of poetry. The Tale of Genji, however, differed in being informed by a comprehensive knowledge of Chinese and Japanese poetry and in being a graceful work of imaginative fiction. It incorporates some 800 waka, courtly poems purported to be the writing of the main character, and its supple narrative sustains the story through 54 chapters of one character and his legacy.

At its most basic, The Tale of Genji is an absorbing introduction to the culture of the aristocracy in early Heian Japan—its forms of entertainment, its manner of dress, its daily life, and its moral code. The era is exquisitely re-created through the story of Genji, the handsome, sensitive, gifted courtier, an excellent lover and a worthy friend. Most of the story concerns the loves of Genji, and each of the women in his life is vividly delineated. The work shows supreme sensitivity to human emotions and the beauties of nature, but as it proceeds its darkening tone reflects the Buddhist conviction of this world’s transience.

Arthur Waley was the first to translate The Tale of Genji into English (6 vol., 1925–33). Waley’s translation is beautiful and inspiring but also very free. Edward Seidensticker’s translation (1976) is true to the original in both content and tone, but its notes and reader aids are sparse, in contrast to the translation published by Royall Tyler in 2001.

How to search for records

Before you begin a search you should see if there is a guide to the records you are looking for – this guide is designed to help you to do that. Each guide listed below contains the links and advice you will need to search a specific set of records.

Each guide will indicate whether records have been made available online (charges usually apply). The online copies are accessed either directly from our website or from the websites of our licensed partners, including Ancestry and Findmypast.

Some records have no online version and to see these you will need to consult them at our building in Kew or pay for copies to be made and sent to you. The search for records held at Kew begins by using keywords and dates to search our online catalogue. The catalogue contains short descriptions of the records and a document reference for each – you will need the document reference to see the record itself or to request copies.

For more guidance on searching or browsing our catalogue, visit our Discovery help pages.

Large-scale repositories

These are big collections of texts, big enough to act as small library-like collections in their own right. The threshold for inclusion here may rise over time. Listed alphabetically.

  • Google Book Search (page images of 2,000,000+ fully readable public domain books, plus many more copyrighted books available via excerpts and snippets)
    • Advanced Book Search (may be easier to find specific free titles via this page)
    • Via Web site at gutenberg.org
    • Via FTP at Ibiblio (direct access to Gutenberg files, may be messy)

    Significant indexes and search aids

    The sites below primarily provide search engines, indexes or useful link lists for finding online books.

    • ATHENA (multilingual text index in Switzerland)
    • Digital Book Index (free and for-pay books online registration-based)
    • E-Books on the Web (multi-index search engine from Buffalo)
    • The Online Books Page (the site that includes this directory)
    • Voice of the Shuttle and its English Literature section

    Significant smaller-scale archives

    Everything else we see worth listing that doesn't fit in more specialized categories.

    How We Retain the Memory of Japan’s Atomic Bombings: Books

    Literature is a refuge we turn to when we are forced to confront contradictions that lie beyond reason, writes the Japanese novelist Yoko Ogawa.

    In the latest article from “Beyond the World War II We Know,” a series by The Times that documents lesser-known stories from the war, we asked Yoko Ogawa, an award-winning Japanese author, to reflect on the literature unleashed by the atomic bombings. This article was translated by Stephen Snyder.

    The atomic bombing of Hiroshima occurred on Aug. 6. The bombing of Nagasaki on Aug. 9. The announcement of surrender came on the 15th. In Japan, August is the time when we remember the dead.

    This year, the 75th anniversary of the atomic bombings would have been observed during the Tokyo Olympics. But the Games were postponed because of the spread of the novel coronavirus, and we will be left instead to offer our prayers for the dead in an atmosphere of unexpected calm.

    The final torch bearer at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics was a relatively unknown, 19-year-old, track and field competitor named Yoshinori Sakai, a young man who was born in Hiroshima on the day the bomb was dropped. There was something extraordinary about the sight of him, clad simply in white shirt and shorts, running up the long stairway that led to the caldron he was meant to light. He embodied purity, a sense of balance and an overwhelming youthfulness. Those who saw him must have been amazed to realize that the world had gathered in Japan to celebrate this festival of sport a mere 19 years after the end of the war. Yet there he was, a young man born of unprecedented, total destruction, a human being cradling a flame, advancing step by step. No doubt there were political motivations behind the selection of the final runner, but there was no questioning the hopeful life force personified by this young man from Hiroshima.

    Sadly, in the intervening years, we have failed to realize the dream of a nuclear-free world. Even in Japan, the memories fade. According to a 2015 survey conducted by NHK, Japan’s public broadcasting organization, only 69 percent of the residents of Hiroshima and 50 percent of the residents of Nagasaki could correctly name the month, day and year when the Hiroshima bomb was dropped. At the national level, the rate fell to 30 percent. The cloud of oblivion rises, and the time is coming soon when it will no longer be possible to hear directly from witnesses about their experiences.

    So, what can those who have not seen with their own eyes do to preserve the memories of those who have? How do we ensure that witnesses continue to be heard? In the wake of unimaginable horrors — endless wars, the Holocaust, Chernobyl, Fukushima … not to mention Hiroshima and Nagasaki — humankind has constantly confronted the problem of the continuity of memory. How do we inscribe within us things that happened long ago and far away that have no apparent connection to our lives, not simply as learned knowledge but exactly as though we had experienced them ourselves? How do we build a fragile bark to carry these memories safely to the far shore, to the minds of the next generation? One thing is certain: It is a task for which political and academic thinking and institutions are poorly suited, quite simply because the act of sharing the memories of another human being is fundamentally an irrational one.

    So we appeal to the power of literature, a refuge we turn to when forced to confront contradictions that lie beyond reason or theory. Through the language of literature, we can finally come to empathize with the suffering of nameless and unknown others. Or, at very least, we can force ourselves to stare without flinching at the stupidity of those who have committed unforgivable errors and ask ourselves whether the shadow of this same folly lurks within us as well.

    I myself have listened intently to the voices of those who lived during the era of Nazi Germany, by reading and rereading Anne Frank’s “Diary of a Young Girl,” Victor Frankl’s “Man’s Search for Meaning,” and Primo Levi’s “If This Is a Man.” From Frank, for example, I learned the invaluable truth that a human being can still grow and develop even when living in hiding. From Frankl’s observation that “the best of us did not return” from the concentration camps, I learned to feel the boundless suffering of those who survived and were forced to live on. And when, through these books, the connection was made between my existence here and now and that earlier time when I was not yet alive, I could feel my horizons expanding, a new field of vision opening.

    Likewise, Japanese literature continues to tell the story of the atomic bombs. Bomb literature occupies a special place in every genre — fiction, poetry, drama, nonfiction. For example, anyone born in 1962, as I was, would be familiar with Miyoko Matsutani’s “Two Little Girls Called Iida,” the story of a magical talking chair that unites two girls across time in a house where the calendar is forever frozen on Aug. 6. Or, with one of the indispensable works of modern Japanese literature, Masuji Ibuse’s “Black Rain,” with its excruciating account of the aftermath of the bomb. Kenzaburo Oe, still in his 20s and barely embarked on his literary career, visited Hiroshima and gave us “Hiroshima Notes,” his report on the extraordinary human dignity of the bomb victims enduring the harsh reality of survivors. There is no end to similar examples.

    But there is one novel so admired and avidly read, even today, that it is regularly included in school textbooks: Tamiki Hara’s “Summer Flowers.” A work by a bomb victim himself, it records the period and experience in precise detail.

    Born in Hiroshima in 1905, Hara had been living in Tokyo, contributing fiction and poetry to literary magazines, when his wife died suddenly in 1944. In February 1945, he returned to his birthplace, exactly as though he’d “had a rendezvous with the tragedy that was coming to Hiroshima,” as he later wrote. On the morning of Aug. 6, he was at home in his windowless bathroom — a fact that possibly saved his life. Fortunate to have escaped serious injury, Hara spent the following days wandering the burning city and recording his experiences in his notebook, a record that later became “Summer Flowers.”

    The novel begins two days before the bombing, as the protagonist pays a visit to his wife’s grave. He washes the stone and places summer flowers on it, finding the sight cool and refreshing. But this opening passage is haunted by sadness, a horrible premonition of the impossibility of accounting for the loss of his beloved wife and the innumerable corpses he will see a short time later.

    The author’s description of the protagonist as he flees to the river for refuge is detailed and almost cold in tone. The language is concise, and words that might express sentiment are nowhere to be found. Horrors of the sort no human being had ever witnessed unfold one after the other before the narrator’s eyes, and he finds himself unable to express anything as vague as mere emotion.

    Faces so swollen that it was impossible to tell whether they were men or women. Heads charred over with lumps like black beans. Voices crying out again and again for water. Children clutching hands together as they whispered faintly, “Mother … Father.” People prying fingernails from corpses or stripping off belts as keepsakes of the dead. The narrator describes a city filled with the stench of death: “In the vast, silvery emptiness, there were roads and rivers and bridges, and scattered here and there, raw and swollen corpses. A new hell, made real through some elaborate technology.”

    When the atomic bomb snatched away all things human, it might have incinerated words themselves at the same time. Yet, led perhaps by the hand of providence, he tucked a notebook and a pencil in with his food and medicine. And what he wrote down in his notebook was not mere words. He created a symbol for something he had heard from the dead and dying that simply could not be expressed in words. Vestiges, scraps of evidence that these human beings who had slipped mutely away had, indeed, existed.

    Having lost his wife to illness and then, in his solitude, encountered the atomic bomb, Hara’s creative work was constantly rooted in the silence of the dead. He was a writer, a poet, who stood in the public square, not to call out to his fellow man but to mutely endure the contradiction of putting into words the voiceless voices of those whose words had been taken from them.

    Hara is the author of a short poem titled “This Is a Human Being,” a work that transcends bitterness and anger, seeking to gently capture the failing voice of someone who no longer appears human:

    This is a human being.

    See how the atom bomb has changed it.

    The flesh is terribly bloated,

    men and women all taking the same shape.

    Ah! “Help me!” The quiet words of the voice that escapes

    the swollen lips in the festering face.

    This is a human being.

    This is a human face.

    Reading it, we can’t help being reminded of “If This Is a Man,” by Primo Levi, chemist and concentration camp survivor. Right at the outset, Levi poses the question:

    Consider if this is a man

    Who works in the mud

    Who does not know peace

    Who fights for a scrap of bread

    Who dies because of a yes or a no

    I have no idea whether Levi and Hara were acquainted, but we can hear the resonance between their words. One asks whether this is a human being the other answers that it is. In their work, we find the meeting of one man who struggles to preserve the quality of humanity and another who is determined not to lose sight of that same quality — a meeting of the minds that continues to reverberate into the future. In the world of literature, the most important truth can be portrayed in a simple, meaningless coincidence. With the help of literature, the words of the dead may be gathered and placed carefully aboard their small boat, to flow on to join the stream of reality.

    A further coincidence: perhaps with the sense that they had accomplished their duty as survivors, or perhaps because the burden of living with the horrors of their pasts was too great, the two men took their own lives, Hara in 1951 and Levi in 1987 (some dispute that Levi’s death was a suicide).

    As I write, I have in front of me Hiromi Tsuchida’s collection of photographs of bomb artifacts offered by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. I am struck by a picture of a lunchbox and canteen that belonged to a middle school student named Shigeru Orimen. His class had been mobilized for the war effort and was working in the city on the morning of Aug. 6. Shigeru was 500 meters from ground zero when the bomb fell. His mother discovered his body among the corpses piled on the river bank and recovered the lunchbox and canteen from his bag. She remembered he had left that morning saying how much he was looking forward to lunch, since she had made roasted soybean rice. The lunchbox was twisted out of shape, the lid cracked open, and the contents were no more than a lump of charcoal.

    But, in fact, this tiny box contained something more important: the innocence of a young boy who had been full of anticipation for his simple lunch, and his mother’s love. Even when the last victim of the atomic bomb has passed away and this lunchbox is no more than a petrified relic, as long as there is still someone to hear the voice concealed within it, this memory will survive. The voices of the dead are eternal, because human beings possess the small boat — the language of literature — to carry them to the future.

    Yoko Ogawa is the author of numerous books, including “The Memory Police,” a 2019 National Book Award finalist. Stephen Snyder is the Dean of Language Schools and Kawashima Professor of Japanese Studies at Middlebury College in Vermont.

    The History of Total Quality in America

    The birth of total quality in the United States was in direct response to a quality revolution in Japan following World War II, as major Japanese manufacturers converted from producing military goods for internal use to producing civilian goods for trade.

    At first, Japan had a widely held reputation for shoddy exports, and their goods were shunned by international markets. This led Japanese organizations to explore new ways of thinking about quality.

    Deming, Juran, and Japan

    The Japanese welcomed input from foreign companies and lecturers, including two American quality experts:

      , who had become frustrated with American managers when most programs for statistical quality control were terminated once the war and government contracts came to and end. , who predicted the quality of Japanese goods would overtake the quality of goods produced in the United States by the mid-1970s because of Japan&rsquos revolutionary rate of quality improvement.

    Japan&rsquos strategies represented the new "total quality" approach. Rather than relying purely on product inspection, Japanese manufacturers focused on improving all organizational processes through the people who used them. As a result, Japan was able to produce higher-quality exports at lower prices, benefiting consumers throughout the world.

    The American Total Quality Management Response

    At first, U.S. manufacturers held onto to their assumption that Japanese success was price-related, and thus responded to Japanese competition with strategies aimed at reducing domestic production costs and restricting imports. This, of course, did nothing to improve American competitiveness in quality.

    As years passed, price competition declined while quality competition continued to increase. The chief executive officers of major U.S. corporations stepped forward to provide personal leadership in the quality movement. The U.S. response, emphasizing not only statistics but approaches that embraced the entire organization, became known as Total Quality Management (TQM).

    Several other quality initiatives followed. The ISO 9000 series of quality-management standards, for example, were published in 1987. The Baldrige National Quality Program and Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award were established by the U.S. Congress the same year. American companies were at first slow to adopt the standards but eventually came on board.


    Important historic documents from the U.S. National Archives are now making their way online due to an agreement with Footnote.com. Digitized copies of documents such as Revolutionary War pension records and Civil War service records can be viewed and even annotated through what is possibly the best image viewer I've seen on the Web. You can also create free personal story pages to track your research or share your documents and photos. Search results are also free, although you'll have to subscribe to view, print and save most of the actual document images. In my opinion, Footnote.com is a bargain for the money.

    • One of the best image viewers I've seen for accessing images online
    • Offers access to millions of historic documents previously unavailable online
    • The ability to annotate and/or add comments to any individual document page
    • 7-day free trial available
    • Requires the lastest version of Flash. In some cases, the site won't even load without it.
    • No soundex search. Some advanced search features are available, but not obvious.
    • No FAQ or easy answers to support questions such as the Flash issue.
    • Many document series are still "in progress"


    • Over 5 million images of historical American documents and photos from the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.
    • Records include: Revolutionary & Civil War pension & service records, state naturalization records and case files of the FBI.
    • Annotate, comment, print and save digital document images.
    • Story pages allow you to create a simple Web page with point and click editing.
    • Upload and post your own historical documents for free.
    • Under the nonexclusive agreement, Footnote's images will be available on the National Archives' Web site after five years.

    Guide Review - Footnote.com

    Footnote.com allows you to search and view over 5 million digitized documents and photos from American history. Members can view, save and print the documents they find. A nifty feature allows you to highlight a name, place or date and add an annotation. Comments can also be added to post corrections or add additional information for anyone else who views the same image. The image viewer works as quickly and seamlessly as any I've seen, and the jpeg images are of very high quality. Since many of the titles are "in progress," I recommend that you use the "Browse by Title" feature to view the full description of the each document series, as it includes a nice completion status feature. Titles and documents are being added quickly and regularly, however.

    If you have a problem with the site loading slowly, be sure you have downloaded the latest version of Flash player for your browser. This usually fixes many such problems.

    Simple search is just that - simple. You enter search terms and then choose whether to search across all documents, or within a specific document set, such as PA Western Naturalizations. There is presently no soundex search, but you can narrow the search by document type, such as across all naturalization records, or within a particular title (first browse to the document subset you wish to search, and then enter your search terms). Advanced search hints can be accessed by clicking on the ? next to search.

    Official Sources of Law

    Hierarchy and Source of Law

    • Constitution
    • Treaties and International Agreements
    • Codes and Laws/well-established customs
    • Cabinet Orders
    • Ministry Ordinances
    • Ministry Notifications

    Judicial decisions being regarded as important, are compiled and codified. The judgments of the Supreme Court are considered to be binding on lower courts. The decisions of the high courts are very influential in the lower courts.

    Official Source of Law: Kanpō [official gazette]

    Laws must be promulgated after they are passed by the Diet. The emperor promulgates it by publishing them via Kanpō. There is no official version of codified laws.

    The Neutrality Acts, 1930s

    In the 1930s, the United States Government enacted a series of laws designed to prevent the United States from being embroiled in a foreign war by clearly stating the terms of U.S. neutrality. Although many Americans had rallied to join President Woodrow Wilson ’s crusade to make the world “safe for democracy” in 1917, by the 1930s critics argued that U.S. involvement in the First World War had been driven by bankers and munitions traders with business interests in Europe. These findings fueled a growing “isolationist” movement that argued the United States should steer clear of future wars and remain neutral by avoiding financial deals with countries at war.

    By the mid-1930s, events in Europe and Asia indicated that a new world war might soon erupt and the U.S. Congress took action to enforce U.S. neutrality. On August 31, 1935, Congress passed the first Neutrality Act prohibiting the export of “arms, ammunition, and implements of war” from the United States to foreign nations at war and requiring arms manufacturers in the United States to apply for an export license. American citizens traveling in war zones were also advised that they did so at their own risk. President Franklin D. Roosevelt originally opposed the legislation, but relented in the face of strong Congressional and public opinion. On February 29, 1936, Congress renewed the Act until May of 1937 and prohibited Americans from extending any loans to belligerent nations.

    The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and the rising tide of fascism in Europe increased support for extending and expanding the Neutrality Act of 1937. Under this law, U.S.citizens were forbidden from traveling on belligerent ships, and American merchant ships were prevented from transporting arms to belligerents even if those arms were produced outside of the United States. The Act gave the President the authority to bar all belligerent ships from U.S. waters, and to extend the export embargo to any additional “articles or materials.” Finally, civil wars would also fall under the terms of the Act.

    The Neutrality Act of 1937 did contain one important concession to Roosevelt: belligerent nations were allowed, at the discretion of the President, to acquire any items except arms from the United States, so long as they immediately paid for such items and carried them on non-American ships—the so-called “cash-and-carry” provision. Since vital raw materials such as oil were not considered “implements of war,” the “cash-and-carry” clause would be quite valuable to whatever nation could make use of it. Roosevelt had engineered its inclusion as a deliberate way to assist Great Britain and France in any war against the Axis Powers, since he realized that they were the only countries that had both the hard currency and ships to make use of “cash-and-carry.” Unlike the rest of the Act, which was permanent, this provision was set to expire after two years.

    Following Germany’s occupation of Czechoslovakia in March of 1939, Roosevelt suffered a humiliating defeat when Congress rebuffed his attempt to renew “cash-and-carry” and expand it to include arms sales. President Roosevelt persisted and as war spread in Europe, his chances of expanding “cash-and-carry” increased. After a fierce debate in Congress, in November of 1939, a final Neutrality Act passed. This Act lifted the arms embargo and put all trade with belligerent nations under the terms of “cash-and-carry.” The ban on loans remained in effect, and American ships were barred from transporting goods to belligerent ports.

    In October of 1941, after the United States had committed itself to aiding the Allies through Lend-Lease, Roosevelt gradually sought to repeal certain portions of the Act. On October 17, 1941, the House of Representatives revoked section VI, which forbade the arming of U.S. merchant ships, by a wide margin. Following a series of deadly U-boat attacks against U.S. Navy and merchant ships, the Senate passed another bill in November that also repealed legislation banning American ships from entering belligerent ports or “combat zones.”

    Overall, the Neutrality Acts represented a compromise whereby the United States Government accommodated the isolationist sentiment of the American public, but still retained some ability to interact with the world. In the end, the terms of the Neutrality Acts became irrelevant once the United States joined the Allies in the fight against Nazi Germany and Japan in December 1941.

    Where can I find digitised versions of Japanese war documents in original Japanese? - History

    There is no way of avoiding the fact that China is the central culture of Eastern Asia. Massively larger than any of her neighbors, China may have developed its cultural forms in relative isolation, but since the advent of Buddhism has both absorbed outside influences and disseminated its own culture. Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese cultures are not comprehensible without taking into account power of Chinese culture in art, literature and religion.

    Chinese culture itself is highly complex, and the other East Asian cultures also reflect local circumstances and traditions. For instance the (later) Chinese ideal of a scholar-gentleman contrasts strongly with Japanese warrior ideals. It is not going to far to suggest that the very different responses of the various East Asian to the Western intrusion of the past two centuries reflect the variety of previous historical developments.

    This page is a subset of texts derived from the three major online Sourcebooks listed below, along with added texts and web site indicators. For more contextual information, for instance about Western imperialism, or the history of a given period, check out these web sites. Since it was created in 1996 many of the primary sources and texts linked to have gone off line. Where possible links to the Internet Archive versions of these documents have been substituted as they should still be of use to teachers and students.

      • General
      • Yellow River Valley Cultures
      • Japan
      • General
      • Chinese Traditional Religion
      • Shinto
      • Daoism
      • Confucianism
      • Buddhism
      • Judaism
      • Christianity
      • Islam
      • General
      • The Zhou
      • The Qin
      • The Han
      • The Sui and Tang
      • The Sung
      • The Mongols [Yüan]
      • The Ming
      • The Qing
      • Chinese Technology
      • Literature
      • Education in Traditional China
      • Chinese Views on Other Cultures
      • Other Cultures Views of China
      • General
      • Government
      • Tokugawa Era
      • Culture
      • General
      • General
      • General
      • European Imperialism
      • British East Asia
      • Other Powers
      • United States Imperialism
      • Missionary Activity
      • General
      • The Forced Opening
      • The Meiji Resoriation
      • The Greater East Asia Prosperity Zone
      • World War II
      • Use of the Atomic Bomb
      • General
      • Rejection of the West
      • Government Efforts to Reform
      • Religion and Rebellion
      • Modernization: The May 4th Movement
      • Nationalism
      • Early Communism
      • The Chinese in America
      • General
      • The Liberation
      • The 1950s
      • The Cultural Revolution
      • Chinese Foreign Relations
      • Hong Kong
      • Taiwan [Republic of China]
      • Dissidents
      • Tiananmen Square, 1989
      • After Tiananmen
      • General
      • Economic Growth
      • Culture
      • General
      • The Korean War
      • Economic Growth
      • Culture
      • General
      • The non-Aligned Movement
      • Addendum: The Vietnam War
      • Addendum: Asian Pacific Immigrants in the US
      • Women: China
      • Women: Japan
      • Homosexuality: General
      • Maps
      • Website

      Yellow River Valley Cultures

      • Image: Hist. Site: "Peking Man" - early human remains
      • Image: Hist. Site: Longshan remains
      • Image: Hist. Site: Yangshao remains
      • Image: Hist. Site: Xia remains 1
      • Image: Hist. Site: Xia Remains 2
      • Image: Art: Shang Oracle Bones 1
      • Image: Art: Shang Oracle Bones 2
      • Image: Art: Two Shang Bronze Ritual Vessals
      • Image: Art: Shang Tomb Guardian
      • Image: Art: Shang Bronze 1
      • Image: Art: Shang Bronze 2
      • 2ND Stephen F. Teiser, "The Spirits of Chinese Religion", from Donald S. Lopez, Jr , Religions of China in Practice, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996)
      • 2ND Chinese Religions
      • Image: Yin-Yang Symbol
      • Image: Custom: Picture of New Year's Dragon

      Chinese Traditional Religion

      • WEB Confucius Page [At Internet Archive, from UKY]
      • WEB Confucius Page [At Internet Archive, from Albany]
      • Selections from the Analects [Lun Yu], complete, topically arranged selections from the Confucian classic
      • Confucius (5th Century BCE?): Analects [Lun Yu] [At WSU]
      • Confucius: The Analects [Lun Yu], selections [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
      • The Analects [Lun Yu], complete
      • The Analects [Lun Yu], complete, translated by Charles Muller 1995 [At TYG]
      • The Great Learning [Da Xue Ta-Hsüeh] (3rd Century BCE): [At WSU]
      • The Great Learning [Da Xue Ta-Hsüeh] (3rd Century BCE) complete
      • Great Learning,[Da Xue Ta-Hsüeh] (3rd Century BCE), complete, translated by Charles Muller 1995 [At GOL]
      • The Doctrine of the Mean [Zhong Yong] complete
      • Doctrine of the Mean [Zhong Yong], complete, translated by Charles Muller 1995 [At GOL]
      • Mencius/Mengzi: Selections from the Mencius
      • Mencius Mengzi: complete, translated by Charles Muller 1995 [At Internet Archive, from GOL]
      • Xunzi/Hsun-tzu: Selections from the Xunzi
      • Legalism
        • Han Fei Tzu (d. 233 BCE): Selections from the Writings of Han Fei. c. 230 BCE
        • Han Fei Tzu (d. 233 BCE): Legalist Views on Good Government [At WSU]
        • Han Fei Tzu (d. 233 BCE): Legalism [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
        • Sima Qian: The Legalist Polices of the Qin
        • WEB Daoism Information Page
        • Laozi/Lao Tzu (5th Century BCE??): Selection from the Dao De Jing
        • Laozi/Lao tzu: Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching, selections [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
        • Laozi/Lao Tzu (5th Century BCE??): Tao Te Ching, excerpts, [At WSU]
        • Laozi/Lao Tzu (5th Century BCE??): The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, version 1, an Interpolation by Peter A. Merel ([email protected]) based upon the translations of: Lin Yutang, Ch'u Ta-Kao, Gia-Fu Feng & Jane English, Richard Wilhelm and Aleister Crowley. complete, taken from internet site
        • Laozi/Lao Tzu (5th Century BCE??): The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, Tao Te Ching, version 2, complete, taken from a version on the internet.
        • Laozi/Lao Tzu (5th Century BCE??): The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, Tao Te Ching, version 3, complete, taken from a version by S. Mitchell.
        • Lao Tzu (5th Century BCE>>): The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, Tao Te Ching, version 5, complete, translated by Charles Muller 1995 [At TYG]
        • Zhuangzi/Chuang tzu: Selected Chapters, translated by Lin Yutang and Lin Yutang's Introduction [At Taoism Information Page]
        • Zhuangzi/Chuang tzu: Story of Three Friends [At Taoism Information Page]
        • Zhuangzi/Chuang tzu: Selections from the Zhuangzi
        • Zhuangzi/Chuang tzu: Selections [At Internet Archive, from CCNY] , 666 CE. [At this Site]
          (Inscribed in the Temple at Lao Zi's Birthplace)
        • The Yin Fu King, or Classic of the Harmony of the Seen and Unseen, c. 800 CE [At this Site] , or Lao Zi's Book of Actions and Their Retribution, c. 1000 CE [At this Site]
        • Image: People: Laozi
        • Image: Divinity: Three Daoist Gods
        • Image: Divinity: The God of Wealth in His Civil Aspect
        • Image: Divinity: Wen-ch'ang, the Daoist God of Literature
        • General
          • 2ND Tricycle Magazine Guide to Basics of Buddhism
          • 2ND R.P. Hayes: The Dharma Tree [At Buddha Sasana]
            Explanation of variety of Buddhist groups and traditions.
          • 2ND Buddhist Scriptures [At Buddhism Depot]
          • WEB Yahoo!: Buddhism
          • WEB Buddhist Studies WWW Virtual Library WEB-nt>WWW Virtual Library: Buddhist Texts
            Texts and Input/Translation Projects. -->
          • WEB DharmaNet - Theravada Buddhism
            Mostly Theravada texts in English translation. [At Internet Archive] WEB Friends of Buddhism
            Multi-denominational, and directed towards modern devotions. -->
          • Prince Siddhartha Encounters Old Age, Sickness and Death ('Digha-nikaya,' XIV ['Mahapadana suttanta']) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Gotama's First Masters [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • 'I am the Holy One in this world, I am the highest teacher. . .' ('Mahavagga,' I, 7-9) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Gotama Buddha Ponders ('Majjhima-nikaya,' XXVI ['Ariya-pariyesana-sutta']) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Gotama Buddha Remembers His Earlier Existences ('Majjhima-nikaya,' IV ['Bhaya-bherava-sutta]) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Buddha: First Sermon (c. 6th Century BCE) [At Brooklyn College]
          • Buddha: The Teaching of Buddha, an early sermon on Nirvana [At Brooklyn College]
          • Buddha: The Four Noble Truths [At BuddhaNet]
          • Buddha: The Basic Teachings [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
          • The Buddha Enters Nirvana (Ashvagosha, 'Buddhacarita,' XXVI, 83-6, 88-106) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • The Tathagata Announces that He has Entered Nirvana ('Saddharmapundarika,' XV, 268-72) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Faxian: Account of the Buddhistic Kingdoms. [At Brooklyn College]
            [At Brooklyn College] extracts, [At WSU]
        • The Dhammapada, trans. by John Richards [At Coombs-papers]
          "An anthology of 423 Buddhist verses embodying ethical and spiritual precepts arranged by subject." ,Wisdom of the Buddha, translated by Harischandra Kaviratna, Full Text [At Theosophical University Press]
        • The Dhammapada, trans John Richards [At Evansville]
          This is a collection of 423 insightful verses from various Buddhist texts, arranged by category.
        • The Buddha Foretells the Gradual Decline of Religion ('Anagatavamsa') [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
        • Gotama Buddha Talks of his Ascetic Practices ('Majjhima-nikaya,'XII ['Maha-sihanada-sutra']) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
        • Gotama Buddha Practiced the most Severe form of Ascetism ('Majjhima-nikaya,' XXXVI ['Maha-saccaka-sutra']) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
        • Sutta Nipata, selections from the Pali text translated by John D. Ireland. [At Purify Mind]
        • Sammaditthi Sutta, translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Nanamoli [At MIT]
        • Mahamangala-ta [At Buddha Community] with the original Pali text. Known in English as the Discourse of the Supreme Blessings.
        • The Four Foundations of Mindfulness [At BuddhaNet]
          Part of the Satipatthana Sutra.
        • Discourse on the Mindfulness of Breathing [At Dharma]
          Selections from the Anapanasati Sutra.
        • Culasunnata Sutta[At well.com]
          A lesson on sunyata.
        • Metta Sutra [At Dharma]
          Sub-titled "The Buddha's Words on Kindness"
        • naapaaramitaa Upadesha), "an immense
          exegesis to the Mahaapraj

          • The Bodhisattva's Infinite Compassion ('Shikshasamuccaya,' 280-2 ['Vajradhvaha-sutra']) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Acts and Rewards of Devotion to the Buddha ('Shikshasamuccaya,' 299-301 ['Avalokana-sutra'] [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • The Buddhist Conception of the Intermediate State ('Saddharma-smrityupasthana Sutra,' from chapter XXXIV, via Chinese version) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Tibetan Book of the Dead: Death and Intermediate States [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • The Prophecy Concerning Maitreya, the Future Buddha ('Maitreyavyakarana') [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Sutra of the Buddha's Teaching On Amitabha [At drba.org] or The Sutra on the Buddha of Eternal Life [At St. Clair]
          • Milerepa Extols His 'Five Comforts' [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
          • Père Gerbillon: A Visit to a Lama, c. 1690
          • The Sutra of Forty-Two Chapters [At the Refuge Library]
            The first Buddhist text taken to China, c. 67 CE.
          • Pure Land
            • The Sutra on Amida Buddha, [At Amida Net]
              Delivered by Shakyamuni Buddha, translated by Hisao Inagaki from (1) From Kumarajiva's Chinese translation and (2) from Huan-tsang's Chinese translation.
            • Extract from the Lotus Sutra: The Nature of the Buddha [At Brooklyn College]
            • Extract from the Lotus Sutra: On Faith [At Brooklyn College]
            • Kûkai's Initiation in the Esoteric Buddhism ('Kobo Daishi Zenshu,' I, 98 ff.) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • 2ND Kuya, 'the Saint of the Streets' [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Honen and the Invocation of Amida [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Shinran: 'The Nembutsu Alone is True' ('Tannisho,' selections) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Nichiren Sees Japan as the Centre of Buddhism's Regeneration [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Nicheren: Adoration to the Lotus of Perfect Truth [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Nicheren Proclaims Himself the 'Bodhisattva of Supreme Action' [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Nicheren's Transfiguration [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Realizing the Solution (Hashida, Shobo genzo shakui, 1, 142-64), [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Sitting and the Koan ( Shobo genzo zuimonki) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • The Importance of Sitting (Shobo getnzo zuimonki) [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • Contempt for Scriptures ( Shuso to shite no Dogen Zenji), [At Eliade Page, now Internet Archive]
            • The Gospel of Buddha [At Brooklyn College]
            • The Word of Buddha [At Brooklyn College]
            • General Buddhist
              • Image: Divinity: Relic of Shakyamuni Buddha's Finger at Famin
              • Image: Divinity: The Ten Most Important Mudras
              • Image: Divinity: Buddha from Gupta Period [India]
              • Image: Divinity: Indian Statute of Maitriya
              • Image: Divinity: Tibetan Wood block Print of of Maitriya
              • Image: Divinity: Large Cult Statute of Buddha at Dongzhang
              • Image: Divinity: Buddha from Wei
              • Image: Divinity: Buddha from Tang Dynasty
              • Image: Divinity: Tang Buddha 2
              • Image: Divinity: Teaching Buddha from Cave of a Thousand Buddhas
              • Image: Divinity: Maitreya as Pu-tai, the laughing Buddha
              • Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin Tang Period
              • Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin 12th C.
              • Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin 13th C
              • Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin 17th C
              • Image: Divinity: Kuan-yin sitting in Royal Ease 12th C
              • Image: Divinity: Kuan Yin 7
              • Image: Divinity: Kuan Yin 8
              • Image: Divinity: Kuan Yin 9
              • Image: Divinity: Bodhidharma, founder of Ch'an Buddhism
              • Image: Divinity: Chan Buddhist Hui-neng tears up the sutras
              • Image: Divinity: A modern Buddhist Temple at Famin
              • Image: Buddha from Thailand (touching ground)
              • Image: Divinity: Cambodian Avalokiteshvara sitting in Royal Ease 11th C
              • Image: Image: Monk doing Zazen
              • Image: Buddha with earth-touching mudra (bhumisparsha mudra)
              • Image: Divinity: Baby Buddha Taking a Bath
              • Image: Divinity: Maitreya 3
              • Mandate of Heaven [At Brooklyn]
              • 2ND Chinese Dynastic History
              • 2ND China - Basic Facts
              • 2ND Chinese Ethnography
              • Image: The Yangzi River
              • Map: China - Linguistic Regions Map
              • 2ND Chinese Language and Pronunciation
              • 2ND Chinese Language and Writing
              • 2ND Pinyin/Wade-Giles Equivalencies
              • 2ND Chinese Logographic Writing
              • Sima Qian: Extracts from Records of the Grand Historian, two biographies.
              • Sunzi Sun Tzu: The Art of War [Other versions: The Art of War. and The Art of War]
              • Suntzu: The Art of War, long selections [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
              • Image: People: Sunzi Sun tzu, author of the Art of War
              • Image: People: The Duke of Zhou
              • Sima Qian: The Legalist Polices of the Qin
              • Image: People: Portrait of First Emperor
              • Image: People: Another Portrait of First Emperor
              • Image: People: Emperor Huangdi
              • Image: Hist. Site: Archeological Excavations at Qin Site
              • Image: Hist. Site: Tomb of First Emperor at Xian, Lines of Soldier Statues
              • Image: Hist. Site: Tomb of First Emperor at Xian, Soldier Statue close up
              • Image: Art: Qin Bronze 1
              • Image: Hist. Site: The Great Wall 1
              • Image: Hist. Site: The Great Wall 2
              • Image: Hist. Site: The Great Wall 3
              • Map: China in the 6th Century CE
              • Image: People: Founder of Sui Dynasty
              • Image: People: Founder of Tang Dynasty
              • Image: People: Second Emperor of Tang Dynasty
              • Map: Changan under the Tang dynasty
              • Image: People: The Empress Wu
              • Image: Art: Tang Camel
              • Image: Art: Tang Lady 1
              • Image: Art: Tang Lady 2
              • Image: Art: Tang Horse
              • Image: Art: Tang Vase 1
              • Image: Hist. Site.: The Grand Canal in the 19th Century CE
              • Image: People: Founder of Song Dynasty
              • Image: Map: China under the Northern Song Dynasty
              • Image: Map: China under Northern Song Dynasty
              • Image: Map: China Under Southern Song Dynasty
              • Image: Art: River in Autumn color
              • Image: Art: Song Poet
              • Image: Art: Song Vase 1
              • Image: Song Painting: Poetry Contest at Orchard Pavilion
              • Image: Song Painting: Bird on Silk by Emperor Hui-tsang 1101-25 CE
              • Map: The Mongol Empire
              • Bar Sauma (c. 1278-1313): The Monk of Kublai Khan, Emperor of China or The History of the Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma, Envoy and Plenipotentiary of the Mongol Khans to the Kings of Europe and Markos who as Yahbh-Allaha III Became Patriarch of the Nestorian Church. Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge, London: The Religious Tract Society, 1928. [At thi Site, was at Traveling to Jerusalem/U Colorado]
              • Image: People: Genghis Khan
              • Image: People: Kublai Khan
              • Image: People: Kublai Khan 2
              • Image: Hist Illus.: Mongol Archers
              • Image: People: Marco Polo
              • Image: Art: Statuette of Actor under Yuan Dynasty
              • Chu Yuan-Chang: Manifesto of Accession as First Ming Emperor, 1372 C.E.
                Sent to the Byzantine Emperor.
              • Map: China - Under Ming Dynasty
              • Image: People: Founder of Ming Dynasty
              • Image: Hist. Illus.: The Ming Tribute System
              • Image: Art: Ming Dynasty Vase
              • Image: Art: Ming Vase 2
              • Image: Art: Mountain Landscape
              • Image: People: The Jesuit Missionary, Matthew Ricci
              • Image: Hist. Site: Peking - Hall of Harmony
              • Image: Hist. Site: Peking - Dragon Throne
              • Image: Hist. Site: Peking - Walls
              • Image: Hist. Site: Kaifeng
              • Matteo Ricci: The Art of Printing
              • Image: Technology: Early Chinese Star Mapping
              • Image: Technology: Making of Silk
              • Image: Technology: Chinese Use of Paper
              • Image: Technology: Early Paper Money
              • Image: Technology: Tang Dynasty Coin
              • Image: Technology: The earliest printed book - 868 CE
              • Image: Technology: Use of Tea
              • Image: Technology: Use of Crossbow
              • Image: Technology: Chinese Canon from 1368
              • Image: People: Zhang he
              • Image: People: Zhang he 2
              • Image: People: Zhang he 3
              • Chinese Poetry: Tu Fu, Li Po, Po Chu-i, Fu Hsuan, Mei Yao Ch'en, Su Tung-p'o [At WSU]
              • Li Po (701 762 CE): Drinking Alone by Moonlight [At WSU]
              • Old Poem, on warfare [At WSU]
              • Liu Hsün's wife (3rd C. CE): The Curtain of the Wedding Bed [At WSU]
                Full text of a play about the threat of the Mongols (Tartars) to the Chinese empire, and the use of a marriage strategy to avoid conflict. [At this Site]
              • Shih-fu Wang (fl. 1295-1307): Romance of the Western Chamber, excerpts, [At Internet Archive, from CCNY] . synoposis, [At WSU]
              • P'u Sung-ling: Painting on the Wall [At WSU]
              • Li Ju-chen (1763-1830): The Land of the Great, 1828 [At WSU]

              Education in Traditional China

              • Ban Zhao Pan Chao: Lessons for A Woman: The Views of A Female Confucian, c. 80 CE
              • Père du Halde: The Chinese Educational System, c. 1575 CE
                A report by a Western observer, with examples of Chinese Civil Service examination question.
              • Yan Phou Lee: When I Went to School in China, 1880
                A late Confucian education.
              • Emperor Kuang Hsu: Abolition of the Examination System, 1898

              Chinese Views on Other Cultures

                , c. 91 B.C.E. - 1643 C.E
            • Faxian: Account of the Buddhistic Kingdoms. [At Brooklyn College] , a Chinese traveler's account of the West in the 18th century [At Brooklyn College]
            • Other Cultures' Views of China

              • Robert Bedrosian: China and the Chinese according to 5-13th Century Classical Armenian Sources, with extended excerpts. [At Bedrosian's website]
              • John of Monte Corvino: Letter to the Minister General of the Friars Minor in Rome, c. 1280
              • John of Monte Corvino: Report on China, 1305.
              • Marco Polo (1254-1324): On the Tartars [i.e. the Mongols]
              • Marco Polo (1254-1324): Description of Kinsay [Hangchow].
              • Will Adams: My Coming to Japan, 1611
              • Hsu Kuang-chi: Memorial to Fra Matteo Ricci, 1617
              • Père du Halde: Teaching Science to the Manchu Emperor, c. 1680
              • Père du Halde: The Manchu Emperor and Chinese Music, c. 1680
              • Père du Halde: Chinese Punishments, c. 1680
              • Père Gerbillon: A Visit to a Lama, c. 1690
                [At WSU]
                The story of the first emperor.
          • Nintoku Tenno: "The Wealth of the Emperor" from the Nihongi [At WSU]
          • Birth and Upbringing of Prince Shotoku [At WSU]
          • Prince Shotoku: The Seventeen Article Constitution from the Nihongi, 604 CE [At WSU]
          • Ancient Japanese Constitution [At WSU]
          • Emperor Kotoku: Taika Reform Edicts, 645 CE [At WSU]
            By which Japan was centralized as one country.
          • Tokugawa Era

            • Tokugawa Iemitsu: Closed Country Edict 1635 [At WFU]
            • Honda Toshiaki: A Secret Plan for Government, excerpts, 1798
            • Tsunetomo Yamamoto: The War of the Samuri, excerpt [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
            • Japanese Poetry: from the Manyoshu and other early collections [At WSU]
              • Anonymous: In the Autumn Fields
              • Mibu no Tadamine: On Kasuga plain
              • Ono no Komachi: The hue of the cherry
              • Sugawara Michizane: The autumn breeze rises
              • Ki no Tsurayuki: The night approaches
              • Prince Otsu: Poem sent by Prince Otsu to Lady Ishikawa
              • Lady Ishikawa: Poem by Lady Ishikawa in response
              • Seami: Kagekiyo,
              • Kwanami Kiyotsugu: Sotoba Komachi
              • Seami (attrib.): Aya No Tsuzumi (The Damask Drum)
              • Seami: Hagoromo
              • Seami: Tsunemasa
              • Zenchiku Ujinobu (1414-1499?) (attrib.): Aoi No Uye (Princess Hollyhock)
              • Zenchiku Ujinobu (1414-1499?) Kumasaka
                [At Virginia]
                An anthology of 1,111 Japanese poems (in the most widely circulated editions) compiled and edited early in the 10th century CE.
            • Ogura Hyakunin Isshu, or, 100 Poems by 100 Poets, [At Virginia]
            • Sarashina: The Diary of Lady Sarashina, 1009-1059 CE [At Hanover College]
            • Kaibara Ekken or Kaibara Token: Greater Learning for Women, 1762 [At WSU]
            • Diaries of the Court Ladies of Old Japan, trans. Annie Sheply Omori and Kochi Doi, full text, [At Internet Archive, from CMU]
              • WEBAncient Korean History [Now Archived but still useful. Was at Shinbiro] [PDF] 2333 BCE [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Wang Kŏn (877‐943): The Ten Injunctions of Wang Kôn (King T'aejo) [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Sôl Kyedu [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Wôlmyông: "Song for a Dead Sister," by Wôlmyông [PDF] 8th Century [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Ch'ungdam: "Song for the Peace of the People" (Anmin'ga), by Ch'ungdam [PDF>] mid 8th Century [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Chông Inji': Postscript to the Hunmin Chôngûm (Correct Sounds to Instruct the People), 1446 [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Ch'oe Malli: Opposition to the Korean Alphabet [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Pak Ch'o: Anti-Buddhist Memorial [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Chông Tojôn: On Land [PDF] Eraly Choson land reform. [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University] [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Yu Hyôngwôn: Excerpts from the Pangye surok: on Abolishing Slavery [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Sô Kôjông: Excerpts from Preface to the Genealogy of the Andong Kwôn, by [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University] , 1437 [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University] , 1447 [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Song Siyôl: Excerpts from Instructions to My Daughter [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Chông Yagyong, 1762-1836: Excerpts from the Yôyudan chônsô: Chông Yagyong on the Roots of Royal Authority [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Yi Hangno, 1792-1868: Excerpts from the Hwasô sônsaeng mujip: Yi Hangno on "Sinifying the Western Barbarians" [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • Ch'oe Cheu, 1824-1864, and the Tonghak Uprising (1894-1895): The Tonghak Religion and Uprising: Ch'oe Cheu on Learning Truth and Twelve Reforms Proclaimed by the Tonghak Overseer's Office [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • The Independent (Tongnip sinmun), 1896-1899: Editorial on "Nation and Civilization": A Periodical for the Korean People [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
              • The Independent (Tongnip sinmun), 1896-1899: Editorial on "Nation and Civilization": Seoul's Water Supply [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]

              Japanese Rule

                [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
                Conquest by Chinese Han Dynasty Revolt of the Tru'ng Sisters ca. 39-43 CE. Chinese control briefly challenged by revolt of the sisters Tru'ng Trac and Tru'ng Nhi
      • Si Vuong (137-226 CE): Si Vuong (Shi Xie) [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
        In the early third century CE, as the Han empire to the north began to crumble, in northern Vietnam the Shi family led by Shi Xie (known to later Vietnamese as Si Vuong or King Si [137-226 CE]) maintained stability and prosperity in the region. 860s [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
        When a Chinese official tried to double the price of salt traded for the valuable mountain goods, the chieftains rebelled and Nanzhao joined them in an invasion of the lowlands in the 860s. China sent an official, Cao Bien (known to later Vietnamese as Cao Vuong [King Cao]), to drive the invaders out and stabilize the Protectorate.
      • Tran king Minh Tong (1300-1357): "A Chant on the Mustard Hut" [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
        The Tran ruler Minh Tong (1300-1357 r. 1314-1329) was a follower of Thien (Zen) Buddhism, and his poetry reflects both the beliefs held and the efforts at consolidating his realm with its orthodoxy.
      • Nguyen Binh Khiem (1491-1585): Excerpt from Nguyen Binh Khiem's Inscription for "Three Belief" Temple [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
      • Lê Thánh-tông (1442-1497): Excerpt from Lê Thánh-tông's Edict to the Ancestral Temple on the Champa War, 1470 [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
        The Lê Dynasty Defends Itself against the Champa
      • Le Quy Don (1726-1784): Selections from Le Quy Don's Descriptions of the South in the 1770s [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
      • Hoang Cao Khai (1850-1933) and Phan Dinh Phung (1847-1896): Late Nineteenth Century Debate: Family vs. Nation, with selections from the letters of Hoang Cao Khai and Phan Dinh Phung [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University] [PDF]
        • Thomas Mun (1571-1641): England's Treasure by Foreign Trade, pub 1664, extracts, [At Then Again] and extracts [At Internet Archive was at Hanover]
        • Adam Smith: From The Wealth of Nations, 1776: Of Colonies, and The Cost of Empire [At The American Revolution Site]
        • Analyses
          • John A. Hobson (1858-1940): Imperialism, 1902, excerpts
          • John A. Hobson (1858-1940): The Economic Parasites of Imperialism [At Marxists.org]
          • Vladimir Illyich Lenin (1870-1924): Imperialism and the Split in Socialism, 1916 [At Marxists.Org][Full Text]
          • Vladimir Illyich Lenin (1870-1924): Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1916 [At Marxists.org][Full Text]
          • Joseph A. Schumpeter: The Sociology of Imperialism, 1918
          • Extent of European Colonialism in Statistical Terms [At Mt. Holyoke]

          British East Asia

          • 2ND Ellen N. La Motte: The Opium Monopoly, 1920 [At Drug Library]
          • C. G. Rawlings: The March to Lhasa, July 1904 [At Internet Archive was at Hillsdale]
          • Image: Hist. Illus.: Chinese View of an 18th Century English Sailor

          Other European Powers in East Asia

          • Prince Ukhtomskii: Russia's Imperial Destiny, 1891 [At this Site]
            Asia as the central focus.
          • Jules Ferry (1832-1893): On French Colonial Expansion, 1884
            Concerned especially with France's move into Indo-China.
          • Kaiser Wilhelm II: German Interests in China, 1900 [At Internet Archive]
          • Pierre Loti: When the Allies Entered Peking, 1900
            In response to the Boxer Rebellion

          United States' Imperialism

          • John Hay to Andrew D. White, First Open Door note on China, Department of State, Washington, September 6, 1899 [At Amdocs]
          • Image: Anti-Chinese Cartoon from 1877 bw
          • WEBDocuments Relating to American Foreign Policy 1898-1914, [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • Josiah Strong: On Anglo-Saxon Predominance, 1891 [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • Albert Beveridge (1862-1927): The March of the Flag, September 16, 1898
          • The Atlantic: The Break-up of China, and Our Interest in It, The Atlantic Monthly, August, 1899 [At The Atlantic Monthly, subscription required]
          • John W. Foster: The Chinese Boycot, The Atlantic Monthly, January 1906 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Criticizes America's discrimination against Chinese immigrants in America as racist. This behavior incited a Chinese boycott of American trade.
          • Rudyard Kipling: The White Man's Burden, 1899
          • James Henry Breasted: The Conquest of Civilization (selections), 1926 [At WHA]
          • WEBAnti-Imperialism in the United States 1898-1935 [At Boondocksnet]
            A very impressive collection of texts and essays. Rather excessive emphasis on the creator's ownership of the material (without alerting readers that all pre-1923 published material is in the US public domain).
          • Jim Zwick: The White Man's Burden and Its Critics [At Boondocksnet]
            A really excellent guide to responses at the time.
          • John of Monte Corvino: Letter to the Minister General of the Friars Minor in Rome, c. 1280
          • John of Monte Corvino: Report on China, 1305.
          • St. Francis Xavier: Letter on the Missions, to St. Ignatius de Loyola, 1549
          • St. Francis Xavier: Letter from Japan, to the Society of Jesus at Goa, 1551
          • St. Francis Xavier: Letter from Japan, to the Society of Jesus in Europe, 1552
          • Hsu Kuang-chi: Memorial to Fra Matteo Ricci, 1617
          • Mendez Pinto: The Woman with the Cross, c. 1630
            A Chinese Christian woman.
          • Documents on the Chinese Rites Controversy, 1692, 1715, 1721, excerpts
            How the Catholic Church "lost" China.
          • Commodore Matthew Perry: When We Landed in Japan, 1854
          • Townsend Harris: The President's Letter
            Harris was the first US ambassador to Japan.
          • Francis Ottiwell Adams: The Schools of Japan
            Description from the mid 19th century
          • WEBMeiji Japan [At Internet Archive, from Sage.Edu]
          • WEBThe Meiji Project [At Internet Archive]
          • Japan: Constitution, 1889 [At Hanover College]
          • Lt. Tadayoshi Sakurai: The Attack upon Port Arthur, 1905
            The Japanese quickly adopted Western Imperialism.
          • Theodore Roosevelt: The Threat of Japan, 1909 [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • Okuma: Fifty Years of New Japan, 1907-08, excerpts
          • WEBTaisei Corporation History of 120 Years [At Internet Archive, from Tasei]
            A Japanese company's illustrated online history of itself.
          • Natsume Soseki (1867-1916): Kokoro, translation by Edwin McClellan. [At ibiblio]
          • Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904): Writings on Japan [At ibiblio]
          • Kume Kunitake: Records of My Visits to America and Europe, 1871-1873
          • Sir Edwin Arnold: A Japanese Dinner Party, 1890
          • Alice M. Bacon: How Japanese Ladies Go Shopping, 1890

          The Greater East Asia Prosperity Zone

          • Pearl Harbour Attack Documents, 1941
          • Franklin D. Roosevelt: Day Which Will Live in Infamy Speech [At Oklahoma] Dec. 8, 1941 [At U Oklahoma] of World War II Sept. 12, 1945 [At U Oklahoma]
          • WEBDocuments Relating to American Foreign Policy--Hiroshima [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • WEBHiroshima Links
          • WEBEnola Gay Perspectives [Internet Archive]
          • WEBDocuments on the Decision to Drop the Bomb [At Truman Library]
          • WEBHiroshima: Was It Necessary
            Links to primary documents and modern discussions.
          • WEBNagasaki Journey: The Photographs of Yosuke Yamahata [At Exploratorium]
          • Albert Einstein: Letter to Roosevelt, Aug 2, 1939 [At Hypertext Book]
          • Carl Maag and Steve Rohrer: U.S. Project Trinity Report [At Project Gutenberg] [Full Text]
          • Hiroshima Survivor's Accounts,[At Inicom]
          • Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers, (New York: Random House, 1987), pp. 3-30 [extended excerpts are online] , a Chinese traveler's account of the West in the 18th century. , The Atlantic Monthly, March 1996 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Coverage by the magazine of China in the 20th century.
          • The Reception of the First English Ambassador to China, 1792
          • Qian Long Ch'ien-lung: Letter to George III or here, 1793
          • Image: People: Qian Long
          • Commissioner Lin Cixu [Lin Tse-hsu]: Letter to Queen Victoria 1839 or Shorter Version [At calyx]
          • Commissioner Lin Cixu [Lin Tse-hsu]: Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839 [Another version]
          • The People of Canton: Against the English, 1842

          Government Efforts to Reform

          • Emperor Kuang Hsu: Attempted Reforms, 1898 [At this Site]
          • Emperor Kuang Hsu: Abolition of the Examination System, 1898 [At this Site]
          • Isaac Taylor Headland, 1859-1942: Court life in China: the capital, its officials and people, (New York, F.H. Revell, c1909), full text [At this Site]
            Contemporary discussion of reform efforts in late imperial China, with a significant discussion of the lives of elite women.
          • Image: People: Cixi Tse hsi The Dowger Empress
          • Image: People: Cixi Tse hsi The Dowger Empress
          • The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864
          • Fei Ch'i-hao: The Boxer Rebellion, 1900
            A long account of anti-Missionary atrocities by a Chinese Christian.
          • Yao Chen-Yuan: My Adventures During the Boxer War, 1900
          • Pierre Loti: When the Allies Entered Peking, 1900
            In response to the Boxer Rebellion
          • John W. Foster: The Chinese Boycott, from The Atlantic Monthly, January 1906 [At this Site]

          Modernization: The May 4th Movement

          • Yan Phou Lee: When I Went to School in China, 1880
            A late Confucian education - and what was attacked by the May 4th Movement. Two Selections from His Writing
          • Luxun Lu Hsun (1881-1936): Selected Stories of Lu Hsun, Translated by
            Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang, full text of 20 stories. [At Cold Bacon]
            A leading May 4th Movement writer.
          • Image: People: The writer Lu Xun
          • Zou Rong (1885-1911): The Revolutionary Army, 1905 [At IUP]
            A radical Anti-Manchu tract, published in Shanghai.
          • Paul S. Reinsch: A Parliament for China, The Atlantic Monthly, December, 1909 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
          • Proclamation of The Abdication of the Manchus, 1912
          • Ching Chun Wang: A Plea for the Recognition of the Chinese Republic, The Atlantic Monthly, January 1913 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
          • Sun Yat-sen: Fundamentals of National Reconstruction, 1923 CE
          • Image: People: Sun Yat Sen
          • Image: People: Chiang Kai-shek

            Mao Zedong (1893-1976): Complete Works [At Marxism.org]

          . Marxism.org has the entire text of Mao's selected works (all 5 volumes) as well as some unofficial later volumes compiled by Indian Maoists.

          • 1926 Mar: Analysis of the classes in Chinese society
          • 1927 Mar: Report of an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan
          • 1928 Oct: Why is it that Red Political Power Can Exist in China?
          • 1929 Dec: On Correcting Mistaken Ideas in the Party
          • 1933 Aug: Pay Attention to Economic Work
          • 1933 Oct: How to Differentiate the Classes in the Rural Areas
          • 1934 Jan: Our Economic Policy
          • 1934 Jan: Be Concerned with the Well-Being of the Masses, Pay Attention to Methods of Work
          • 1935 Dec: On Tactics Against Japanese Imperialism
          • 1936 Dec: Problems of Strategy in China's Revolutionary War
          • 1936 Dec: A Statement on Chiang Kai-shek's Statement
          • 1937 May: The Tasks of the Chinese Communist Party in the Period of Resistance to Japan
          • 1937 May: Win the Masses in Their Millions for the Anti-Japanese National United Front
          • 1937 Jul: On Practice
          • 1937 Aug: On Contradiction
          • 1938 May: On Protracted War
          • 1940 Jan: On New Democracy
          • California: Anti-Coolie Act, 1862 [At Drug Library]
            "An Act to protect free White labor against competition with Chinese collie labor, and to discourse the immigration of the Chinese into the state of California, April 26, 1862"
          • San Francisco Chinatown Opium Den – 1870's [Image][At Drug Library]
          • Chinese Miners in the Gold Fields - 1860 [Image][At Drug Library]
          • Chinatown Declared a Nuisance! [At Drug Library]
            This is the full text of a sixteen-page pamphlet, "Chinatown Declared a Nuisance!" distributed by the Workingmen's Committee of California, it called for the abatement of Chinatown as a health menace.
          • Albert S. Evans: A Cruise on the Barbary Coast, Chapter 12 of A la California. Sketch of Life in the Golden State, c, 1871.
          • Recent American Press Worries about Chinese Power
          • Image: Flag: People's Republic of China
          • Image: Flag: Republic of China/Taiwan
          • WEBInside China Today Current events in China.
          • Peoples Republic of China: Constitution [At People's Daily]
          • The Constitution of the People's Republic of China 1982, - amendments of 1988 and 1993. [At HKHRM] , 1982

          The "Liberation"

          • Mao Zedong (1893-1976): In Commemoration of the 28th Anniversary of the Communist Party of China, June 30, 1949, excerpts
          • Mao Zedong (1893-1976): Quotations of Chairman Mao [At WSU]
          • Mao Zedong (1893-1976): Quotations of Chairman Mao, full text. [At Artbin]
          • American Views on the Situation In China, 1947
            Statement by General Marshall, January 7, 1947
          • Statement of the Central Committee of The Chinese Communist Party, February 1, 1947
          • Dean Acheson: United States Position on China, August 1949
            An acute critique of Nationalist/Koumintang failures.
          • The Common Program of The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, 1949

          The Cultural Revolution

            , 1964
        • Defense Minister Lin Piao: The Nature of People's War, Statement of September 3, 1965
          A standard Maoist view.
        • Editorial of the Liberation Army Daily (Jiefangjun Bao): Mao Tse-Tung's Thought is the Telescope and Microscope of Our Revolutionary Cause, June 7, 1966
        • Chinese Foreign Relations

          • John K. Fairbank: China: Time for a Policy, The Atlantic Monthly, April 1957 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Evaluation of US policy options toward newly Communist mainland China.
          • Chinese Communist Party: The Leaders of the CPSU are the Greatest Splitters of Our Times, February 4, 1964
          • The Romanian Workers' Party: Statement on the Sino-Soviet Dispute, April 22, 1964
          • Pravda: Editorial: The Anti-Soviet Policy of Communist China, February 16,1967
          • James C. Thomson Jr.: Dragon Under Glass: Time for a New China Policy, The Atlantic Monthly, October 1967 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Argued that the time had come for the United States to reconcile itself with Communist China.

          The Four Modernizations

          • 2ND Sun Y Y., The Chinese Reassessment of Socialism, 1976-1992, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995)
          • Image: People: Deng Xiaoping
          • Orville Schell: Once Again, Long Live Chairman Mao, The Atlantic Monthly, December, 1992 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            On the commodifiction of Mao.
          • Xiao-huang Yin: China's Gilded Age, The Atlantic Monthly, April 1994, [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            The changes in China's society wrought by Deng's drive toward a free-market economy
          • Atlantic Report: Hong Kong, The Atlantic Monthly, June 1957 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Hong Kong still in the early stages of its emergence as an economic powerhouse.
          • Maynard Parker: Report on Hong Kong, The Atlantic Monthly, November 1967 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Hong Kong in the face of Mao's Cultural Revolution.
          • Cait Murphy: A Culture of Emigration, The Atlantic Monthly, April, 1991 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            The growing unease among Chinese Hong Kong citizens about the impending Chinese rule.
          • Hong Kong Constitution, 1990 [At ICL]

          Taiwan [Republic of China]

          • Chinese Declaration of Human Rights, 1979 [At ICL]
          • Orville Schell: China's Andrei Sakharov,The Atlantic Monthly, May 1988 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Profile of Fang Lizhi

          Tiananmen Square, 1989

          • Documents on the Gate of Heavenly Peace [all on the PBS Tiananmen web site]
          • Review with Background Information from Newsweek Inc. 1995 [At Internet Archive]
          • Interview with Directors The GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE Press Conference October 12, 1995, excepts by Henri Behar
          • Tiananmen Square Interpretations - The official Government View "The Truth About the Beijing Turmoil", Edited by the Editorial Board of The Truth about the Beijing Turmoil
          • Criticism Chinese Government and Attempts to Stop the Film
            Letter to the Director of the Washington DC International Film Festival from the Press Counsel of the Embassy of the People's Republic of China, and a letter written in response
          • Criticism by Western Writers and Response [and Re-Response]
            The New York Review of Books (May 9, 1996)
          • Criticism by Student Leaders
            Article by Ye Ren, from The 90s, July August 1995
          • The Modern Democracy Movement in Exile and Gate of Heavenly Peace
            Excerpt from "Totalitarian Nostalgia" in Geremie Barmé's In The Red: Contemporary Chinese Culture, New York: Columbia University Press, forthcoming 1997.
          • China, Post-1989 Intellectuals and Foreigners
            "To Screw Foreigners in Patriotic: China's Avant-Garde Nationalist" from Geremie R. Barmé, From The China Journal, No. 34, July 1995.
          • Chronology of Tiananmen Square Events
          • WEBAudio and Video Clips
          • WEBMore Online Reading on Gate of Heavenly Peace
          • Image: Hist. Illus.: The Goddess of Democracy, Tienanmen Square
          • Image: Hist. Illus.: Tienanmen Square: Student Stops Tanks
          • Japan: Constitution, 1946 , November 3, 1946 [At this Site]
          • Japan: Constitution, 1946 [At Solon Law Archive]
          • Japan: Constitution, 1994 [At ICL]
          • WEBJapan [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • WEBAsahi Shimbun [At Ashai]
            Japan's leading newspaper's English language website.

          American Occupation

          Economic Growth

          • WEBDocuments Relating to Global Economic Issues [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • WEBGlobalization [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • WEBTrade [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • WEBMultinational Corporations [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • Akio Morita and Shintaro Ishihara: The Japan that Can Say No [At Monash U.]
          • South Korea Constitution, 1997 [At ICL]
          • Pak Chônghûi (1917-1979): Selections from To Build a Nation (1971) [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University] (Speech, 1955) [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
          • Kim Chiha, b. 1941: "Five Bandits" (1970) [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]

          The Korean War

          • WEBDocuments Relating to American Foreign Policy--the Cold War [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • 2NDKorean War FAQ [At Century China]
          • Andrei A. Gromyko: On American Intervention In Korea, 1950
          • Report of The United Nations Commission on Korea, 1950 (1994) [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
          • Cambodia Constitution, 1993 [At Cambodian Parliament.org]
          • Tibet Constitution 1991 [At ICL]
            This is the constitution of the "government in exile".
          • Mongolia Constitution, 1992 [At ICL]
          • Nepal Constitution, 1990 [At ICL]
          • Singapore Constitution, 1995 [At ICL] , 1963
            Between Malaya, Indonesia and the Philippines,

          The Non-Aligned Movement

          • President Sukarno of Indonesia: Speech at The Opening of The Bandung Conference, April 18 1955
          • Prime Minister Nehru of India: Speech to Bandung Conference Political Committee, 1955
          • Anwar el Sadat: Afro-Asian Solidarity and the World Mission of the Peoples of Africa and Asia, 1957

          Addendum: The Vietnam War

          • WEBVietnam War Documents and Links
          • WEBDocuments Relating to American Foreign Policy--Vietnam [At Mt. Holyoke]
          • Ho Chi Minh (1890-1968): Program for Communist of Indochina, 1930, excerpts
          • Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, 1945 (September 2, 1945) [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University] [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
          • The Lu: "Remembering the Jungle: The Words of the Tiger in the Zoo" [PDF] [At Asia for Educators-Columbia University]
          • The Manifesto of The Laodong Party, February1951
          • The Final Declaration of the Geneva Conference: On Restoring Peace in Indochina, July 21, 1954
          • President Eisenhower: Letter to Ngo Dinh Diem, October 23, 1954
            Beginning US "humanitarian" aid. , 1962
          • Charles de Gaulle: France's Attitude Toward US Policy in Vietnam, 1964
          • The Tonkin Bay Resolution, 1964 , 1964 [At Yale]
          • U.S. State Department: Aggression from the North, February 27, 1965
          • US State Department: North Vietnamese Aggression, 1965
          • Senator Fulbright: Appraisal of US Policy in the Dominican Crisis, September 15, 1965
            A wide-ranging critique of US foreign policy.
          • President Lyndon Johnson and Ho Chi Minh: Letter Exchange, 1967
          • John Kerry, for Vietnam Veterans Against the War: Statement to the Senate Committee of Foreign Relations, 1971

          Addendum: Asian-Pacific Immigrants in the US

          • John W. Foster: The Chinese Boycot, The Atlantic Monthly, January 1906 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Criticizes America's discrimination against Chinese immigrants in America as racist. This behavior incited a Chinese boycott of American trade.
          • Lowell Weiss: Timing is Everything, The Atlantic Monthly, January1994 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            The fate of two groups of Vietnamese immigrants in America.
          • Roy Beck: The Ordeal of Immigration in Wausau, The Atlantic Monthly, April 1994 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
            Effects of Southeast Asian refugees in Wausau.
          • Ban Zhao Pan Chao: Lessons for A Woman: The Views of A Female Confucian, c. 80 CE
          • Ben Zhao Pan Chao (45-115? CE) : The Problem of Woman [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
          • Fu Xuan: Poem on Woman c. 3rd, Century CE
          • Marco Polo: On Chinese Women 13th century [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
          • Chinese Footbinding [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
          • The Tale of Mulan, the Maiden Chief, c. 502-556 CE
          • 2ND Marie Vento: One Thousand Years of Chinese Footbinding: Its Origins, Popularity and Demise
          • Image: Custom: Picture of Woman With Feet Unbound
          • Image: Custom: Picture of Unbound Feet Close Up
            Image: Custom: A bound foot - closeup
          • Image: Custom: Woman with bound feet
          • Women in China: History and the Present
          • Tom Hilditch: A Holocaust of Girls, from the South China Morning Post
          • Women in Asia: Press Reports
          • NY Times Report on Recent UN Women's Conference
          • Modern Marriage in China - Two Texts
          • Sarashina: The Diary of Lady Sarashina, 1009-1059 CE [At Hanover College]
          • Kaibara Ekken or Kaibara Token: Greater Learning for Women, 1762 [At WSU]
          • Diaries of the Court Lades of Old Japan, trans. Annie Sheply Omori and Kochi Doi, full text, [At Internet Archive, from CMU]
          • WEBPeople With a History: Online Guide to LGBT* History
          • The Homosexual Tradition in China: Selections from Chinese Homosexual Literature
          • Four Recent Press Reports on Gay Life in China
          • Manifesto of First Chinese Tongzhi Conference, 1996 [At HKGAY]
            Tongzhi is being used in Chinese for Gay. This manifesto directly asserts a historical basis for modern Chinese homosexuals and the differences of Chinese Tongzhi movements with western gay movements.
          • Mary M. Anderson, Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China , (Buffalo NY: Prometheus, 1990), 15-18, 307-11
          • Image: Custom: A young eunuch exposes effects of castration
          • E-Texts
            • MEGA WWW Virtual Library: Asian Studies
            • WEB Vienna E-Text Archives [At Internet Archive]
            • MEGA Asian News Sources Online [At Kidon]
              An extensive guide to Asian newspapers, radio stations, etc. online.
            • MEGA YAHOO!: Chinese History MEGA Mandarin Chinese Online -->
            • MEGA YAHOO!: Japanese History
            • MEGA Japan via the Web [At UCLA]
            • MEGA Classical Japanese Literature Websites [At Virginia]
              [At WSU]
              A spectacular online text by Richard Hooker. Also contains a very useful links page. [At Virginia]
            • MEGA YAHOO!: North Korean History
            • MEGA YAHOO!: South Korean History
            • Paul Halsall: Chinese Culture Course [Brooklyn College]

            General Reference Documents

            • Chronology of Chinese History
              three separate chronologies based on 1. dynasties, 2. governmental forms, 3. economic life.
            • Extended Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Studies,
            • Bibliography in plaintext form,
            • Basic Facts about Modern China Compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopediaon America Online (August 1995)
            • Chinese Dynastic History Compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online (August 1995)
            • Chinese Religions Compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online (August 1995)
            • Chinese Literature Compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online (August 1995)
            • Chinese Arts Compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online (August 1995)
            • Chinese Ethnic Groups Compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online (August 1995)

            © This text is copyright. The specific electronic form, and any notes and questions are copyright. Permission is granted to copy the text, and to print out copies for personal and educational use. No permission is granted for commercial use.

            If any copyright has been infringed, this was unintentional. The possibility of a site such as this, as with other collections of electronic texts, depends on the large availability of public domain material from texts translated before 1924. [In the US, all texts issued before 1924 are now in the public domain. Texts published before 1964 may be in the public domain if copyright was not renewed after 28 years. This site seeks to abide by US copyright law: the copyright status of texts here outside the US may be different.] Efforts have been made to ascertain the copyright status of all texts here, although, occasionally, this has not been possible where older or non-US publishers seem to have ceased existence. Some of the recently translated texts here are copyright to the translators indicated in each document. These translators have in every case given permission for non-commercial reproduction. No representation is made about the copyright status of texts linked off-site. This site is intended for educational use. Notification of copyright infringement will result in the immediate removal of a text until its status is resolved.

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            The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

            © Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]

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